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3 1833 01178 1884 

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"3 - 5 

OF THE f it C i k — 


October io, 1894, to April 13, 1896 


New York, June, 1896 


This volume of papers and proceedings of The Huguenot Society of 
America has been printed by order of the Executive Committee under the 
direction of the Publication Committee. 

\V. Wauace Atterbury, Chairman. 




Minutes of Proceedings 7 

Memorial Sketch of the Hon. John Jay. B} r Rev. A. G. 

Vermilye, D.D - 22 

Recovery of Religious Liberty by the Huguenots. By 

Prof. Henry M. Baird, D.D 37 

The Huguenots of Old Boston. By Rev. Matthew C. Julien, 

D.D 52 

Abstract of Report of Mrs. James M. Lawton of her 
visit abroad as the representative of the Society. . 73 

The Huguenot Patentees of New Paltz. By Rev. James 

Le Fevre, D.D 80 

Present Condition of the Huguenots of France. By Rev. 

Robert Favre 92 

The Huguenot Element in Pennsylvania. By James B. 

Laux 96 

Extracts from a Memorial Sketch of Daniel Ravenel, 

Esq. By Hon. W. Ashmead Courtei.ay 117 

The Meeting of theSociete de L'Histoire du Protestant- 
isme Francais at La Rochelle and Saint Martin-en-Re 
June 18, 19, 20, 1895 121 

The First Home of the Huguenots in North America. By 

Rev. John H. Edwards, D.D 125 

The Huguenots of Rhode Island. By R. H. Tilley, Esq. . 144 




Executive Meeting. October 10, 1894, . 7 

Executive Meeting, November 14, 1S94, 8 

Executive Meeting, December 14, 1894, * . . 8 

Society Meeting, December, 14, 1894, . 8 

Executive Meeting, January 24, 1895, 12 

Society Meeting, January 29, 1895, .......... 12 

Executive Meeting, February 21, 1895, 13 

Executive Meeting, March 15, 1895, 14 

Executive Meeting, April 13, 1895, . . .... ... . . 14 

Society Meeting, April 13, 1895, 14 

Society Meeting, April 30, 1895, . . . : •■, . 16 

Executive Meeting, May 28, 1895, .16 

Executive Meeting, October 25, 1895, 17 

Executive Meeting, November 23, 1895, 17 

Society Meeting, November 26, 1895, 18 

Executive Meeting, December 19, 1895, 18 

Executive Meeting, January 23, 1896, 18 

Society Meeting, January 23, 1896, . . 18 

Executive Meeting, February 21, 1896, 19 

Society Meeting, February 27, 1896, 19 

Executive Meeting, March 13, 1896, 19 

Executive Meeting, March 27, 1896, 20 

Society Meeting, March 27, 1896, 20 

Executive Meeting, April 13, 1896, 20 

Society Meeting, April 13, 1896, 20 


At a meeting of the Executive Committee, held October 10, 1894, 
the following deaths of members were announced : 

Mr. Alexander Dominick .... June 9, 1894. 

Sir Henry Austen Layard . . . . July 5, 1894. 

The President of the London Huguenot Society, and honorary 
member of this Society. 

Daniel Ravenel, Esq. .... September 4, 1894. 

Vice-President for South Carolina. 

Mrs. Frances Lamar Rylance . . . September 7, 1894. 

A letter from Mrs. John Jay was read, thanking the Society in her 
own name and that of her family for the resolutions adopted, com- 
memorative of her husband, the late President of the Society. 

The recent death of Sir Henry Austen Layard having been an- 
nounced, on motion it was resolved : 

" That the President be requested to draw up proper resolutions in 
reference to the death of our late honorary member, the Right Hon. 
Sir Henry Austen Layard, G.C.B., President of the Huguenot Society 
of London ; and that a copy of the same be entered in the minutes of 
our Society, and also sent to the family of the deceased." 

A letter of condolence from the Huguenot Society of South Caro- 
lina, on the death of our late President, the Hon. John Jay, was read 
and ordered to be entered in the minutes, as follows : 

. Huguenot Society of South Carolina, 
Charleston, S. C, July 17, 1894. 

At a meeting of the Executive Committee of the Huguenot Society 
of South Carolina, held this day, the following resolution of condo- 
lence was adopted : 

"Resolved: — That the Executive Committee have observed with 
deep regret the announcement in the public prints of the death of 
John Jay, the First President of the Huguenot Society of America. 

"That the President be requested to convey to that Society, on 
behalf of the Huguenot Society of South Carolina, our profound sym- 


pathy for the loss of so distinguished a member and Huguenot, one 
whose activity in the interest of the Huguenot Associations is well 
known, and to whose influence the founding of Huguenot Societies 
in America is largely due. 

" That in his death the entire Huguenot lineage in America has 
met a loss which will be long and keenly felt." 
• On motion the following resolution was adopted : 

"That the Huguenot Society of America, being the oldest, take 
the matter in hand of arranging for an international celebration of 
the 300th anniversary of the Promulgation of the Edict of Nantes (in. 
1598), and that a committee of five be appointed by the President in 
reference thereto. " 

On motion it was resolved : 

"That Mrs. James M. Lawton be empowered to confer as a repre- 
sentative of this Society with the foreign Huguenot Societies in 
regard to the proposed tercentenary celebration." 

The following persons were elected members of the Society : 

Mr. Washington Irving Adams . . . Montclair, N. J. 
Mr. Washington Irving Lincoln Adams . Montclair, N. J. 
Mrs. Morris Patterson Ferris . . . Yonkers, N. Y. 

At a meeting of the Executive Committee, held November 14, 
1894, the President of the London Huguenot Society and the Presi- 
dent of the Berlin Huguenot Society, were unanimously elected 
honorary members of the Huguenot Societ/y of America. 

The following persons were also elected members of the Society : 

Mr. Morris Patterson Ferris . . . Yonkers, N. Y. 

Mrs. Emily Augusta Livingston . . New York City. 

At a meeting of the Executive Committee, held December 14, 1894, 
the following person was elected a member of the Society. 

Mr. Robert Stockwell Hatcher . . . Lafayette, Ind. 

The President appointed the following Committee on Revision of 
the Constitution : Prof. J. K. Rees, Mr. Edw. F. DeLancey, Mr. J. C. 

Assembly Hall, United Charities Building, 

December 14, 1894. 
The Society met, the President Henry G. Marquand in the chair. 
The minutes of the last general meeting, held April 13, 1894, were 


read and approved. The President then read a report on the affairs 
of the Society. The President also presented the following corre- 
spondence : 

New York, August 31, 1894. 
7o the Hon. Secretary of The Huguenot Society of London. 

Dear Sir : The members of the Huguenot Society of America have 
learned with sincere regret of the death of Sir Henry Austen Layard, 
the First President of the Huguenot Society of England. 

His accomplished scholarship in various fields won for him a world- 
wide fame, but it was his acceptance of the Presidency of the 
Huguenot Society of England, and his valuable labors in its organi- 
zation, which brought him so close to the hearts of the members of 
the Huguenot Society of America. 

It will be the pleasure of this Society at a later date to make a 
fuller and more detailed minute of his useful life. 

We tender to your Society the sincere condolence of all our mem- 
bers, and beg you to convey the same to his immediate relatives. 
We remain with great respect, 

Yours sincerely, 

Henry G. Marquand, 


The Huguenot Society of London, 

November 21, 1894. 

Dear Sir ■ 

This Society's meeting, last week, was the first held since my 
receipt of your letter of the 31st of August so kindly expressive of 
the regret of yourself and the Huguenot Society of America at the 
death of our President, Sir Henry Austen Layard, and it was conse- 
quently the earliest opportunity I had of formally bringing that 
letter before this Society. 

I am desired to inform you of the great gratification afforded to 
the meeting by the warm tribute of admiration and respect paid to 
our late President by the American Society, of which he was himself 
an honorary member, and in whose progress he was alwa}'S much 
interested, and to assure you that this kind message of sympathy 
across the ocean is most keenly appreciated by the Huguenots of 

We, in equal sympathy and fellow-feeling, sympathize with the 
Huguenot Society of America in the death of the lamented Hon. 
John Jay, news of which only lately reached us We have lost in 
him one of the first of our own Honorary Fellows, and it is a sad 


thought to us that we can no longer hope, as we did, that we might 
at some time have the great pleasure of seeing him here amongst us. 

Believe me, Yours, very faithfully, 

Reginald S. "Faber, 
Henry G. Marquand. Esq., Hon. Secretary. 

President of the Huguenot Society of America. 

The following letter announcing the election of Henry G. Mar- 
quand as an honorary member of the London Society has been 
received and answered : 

The Huguenot Society of London, 

November 21, 1S94. 

Dear Sir : 

I have the honor to inform you that you were elected an Honorary 
Fellow of this Society at the meeting held on Wednesday last, and I 
am requested by the Council to convey to 3-ou their sincere hope that, 
should you ever visit England, it may be at a time when they can 
have the pleasure of according you a very hearty welcome at one of 
the Society's meetings. 

You will allow me to explain that as an Honorary Fellow, you are 
of course not called upon to pay any subscription, but you will 
nevertheless be entitled to receive the Society's publications as they 
from time to time appear. By to-day's mail I send you the " Number 
of Proceedings " just issued, and the future works shall be regularly 
forwarded to you. 

Yours most faithfully, 

Reginald S. Faber, 

Hon. Secretary. 

Henry G. Marquand, Esq., 

President of the Huguenot Society of America. 

The following minute in reference to the late Hon. Sir Henry 
Austen Layard, formerly President of the London Society, prepared 
by Mr. Marquand, was adopted and ordered to be placed on file : 

•'By the death of Sir Henry Austen Layard, which occurred 
recently, there has passed away a distinguished Huguenot, who was 
also an explorer and diplomatist. 

*• He was born in Paris rather more than seventy-seven years ago. 
He studied law for a time, but a year after he had attained his major- 
ity he set out on an extensive course of travel, which led him to 
northern Europe and through Albania and Roumelia, to Constanti- 
nople. He afterwards improved his acquaintance with the East by 

1 1 

travelling - through various parts of Asia Thus early lie evinced a 
thorough taste for the exploration of ruined cities, but it was not 
until he visited Mosul, near the mound of Nimrod, that his 
researches took definite form. M. Botta, a Frenchman, liberally sup- 
ported by his government, had been before him at Mosul, but a very 
slight examination on Mr. Layard 's part showed him that his rival 
had missed a good deal. He returned to Constantinople, laid his 
views before Lord Stratford de Redcliffe, and in 1845 obtained his 
generous promise of pecuniar}' support. The autumn of the year 
found him again at Mosul, working at a corner of the ruins left un- 
touched by previous explorers, and his discoveries are now among 
the best-known objects in the British Museum, and in the Historical 
Society of New York. 

"Mr. Layard rose immediately into great renown and popularity. 
1 He had laid bare, ' says a writer, ' a city and almost a world of the 
past. ' His published account of his work had all the fascination of 
romance, and as it dealt with Nineveh and its remains, and with 
ancient Assyria, it appealed to all who were able to read their Bibles. 
He was hailed, and justly, as a writer as well as a discoverer, and his 
book was classed with Wilkinson's "Ancient Egyptians, " as the most 
considerable work of archaeology of his time. A second expedition 
resulted in fresh discoveries and in other books, and he described the 
palace of Sennacherib and his exploits as though he had been 
acquainted with them personally. 

"Unfortunately, these writings and investigations, though they 
brought him much fame, did little else to sustain the realities of life, 
and Mr. Layard was therefore obliged to turn to politics and diplo- 
macy. He was appointed attache to the Embassy at Constantinople 
in 1849, an d in 1852 he was for a few weeks Under-Secretary for For- 
eign Affairs in Lord John Russell 's first administration. At a later 
period he went to Constantinople with Lord Stratford de Redcliffe. 
He declined office under Lord Palmerston in 1855, but afterwards 
became Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. On his retire- 
ment from Parliament in 1869, he was appointed Ambassador to 
Madrid, and eight years later he went in the same capacity to Con- 

"Besides his books on Nineveh, he re-wrote Kiigler's ' Handbook, ' 
and edited a translation of Morelli's « Italian Painters, ' and published 
'Adventures in Persia, Babylonia and Lusiana. ' 

"He was the first President of the Huguenot Society of London, 
being elected April 15, 1885, and took a deep interest in its work 
«down to the close of his life. 

" He was elected honorary member of this Society in 1885." 


The President then introduced the speaker of the evening, Prof. 
Henry- M. Baird, D.D., who read a paper on the 44 Recovery of Relig- 
ious Liberty by the Huguenots." On motion of Mr. Du Puy, the 
thanks of the Society were extended to Prof. Baird for his most 
interesting paper. 

The Society then adjourned for an informal reception at which 
supper was served. 

Lea McI. Luquer, 


At a meeting of the Executive Committee, held January 24, 1895,. 
the following person was elected a member of the Society : 

Mr. George Coffing Warner . . Great Barrington, Mass. 

A resolution was adopted acknowledging the courtesy shown to 
Mrs. Lawton as the representative of this Society by the Huguenot 
Society of London and the French Society. 

The Rev. E.J. Du Puy, Pastor of the Reformed Church of France 
(Paris), proposed by Mrs. James M. Lawton, and seconded by Mrs. 
Anson P. Atterbury, was elected a corresponding member of this 

Assembly Hall, United Charities Building, 

January 29, 1895. 

The Societ3 r met. the President Mr. Marquand in the chair. The 
minutes of the last general meeting, held , December 14, 1894, were 
read and approved. 

The following minutes on the death, of the late Hon. Robert C. 
Winthrop, Vice-President for Massachusetts, and of the late Daniel 
Ravenel, Esq., Vice-President for South Carolina, were adopted : 

4 4 In the death of the Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, Vice-President for 
Massachusetts of the Huguenot Society of America, the spirit and 
tradition of the Huguenots has lost one of its most beautiful and 
dignified impersonations. To an unswerving fidelity to principle 
worth}- of his exiled forefathers, Mr. Winthrop united a liberal phil- 
anthropy fully abreast with the loftiest apprehension of present day 
Christianity. Statesman, philanthropist, Christian, he adorned every 

"He has left behind him a memory full of inspiration, and we desire 
to record our thankfulness that the descendants of the Huguenots 
have counted such a man among their number. " 

44 Daniel Ravenel, the Vice-President of this Society for South Caro- 
lina, died in Charleston on the 4th of September last on the eve of 
his sixtieth birthday. 


11 He was a lineal descendant of Rene Ravenel, the Huguenot emi- 
grant from Bretagne, and of Daniel Ravenel, of whom Hugh S. 
Ledgav£ said 4 Ten such men would save a city. ' 

u Mr. Ravenel 's literary tastes enabled him to form a library second 
to none in his State, on Colonial. Revolutionary and Huguenot his- 
tory. During the civil war he was a member of the Washington 
Light Infantry, the Marion Artillery, and served successively under 
Generals Beauregard and Johnston. He was a knight of honor in 
the Masonic Fraternity, and one of Charleston's ablest underwriters. 

"His genial disposition won him many friends who crowded the 
historic church of the Huguenots at his funeral. He was not known 
to have had an enemy. ' ' 

R. Fulton Cutting, 
Wm. Jay Schieffelin, 
Banyer Clarkson, 


The President then introduced the speaker of the evening, Rev. A. 
G. Verniilye, D.D., who read a biographical sketch of the late Hon. 
John Jay, the former President of this Society. 

On motion of Rev. W. W. Atterbury, D.D., a vote of thanks was ex- 
tended to Dr. Verniilye for his most interesting paper, and he was 
requested to furnish a copy for publication. 

After adjournment an informal reception was held. 

Lea Mcl. Luquer, 

Secretary . 

At a meeting of the Executive Committee, held February 21, 1895, 
the Rev. Dr. Atterbury presented to the Society the following publi- 
cations : 

"Histoire du Canada et des Canadiens Francais, par Eug. 
Reveillaud ; ' ' 

"Histoire Chronologique de la Nouvelle France ou Canada, par 

Eug. Reveillaud ; " 
" L'lJtablissement d'une Colonie de Vaudois Francais en Algerie, 
par Eug. Reveillaud. ' ' 
Eor which the thanks of the Executive Committee were extended to 
the donor. 

The following persons were elected members of the Society : 

Mr. Clarence A. Rundall .... Brewster, N. Y. 

Miss Sarah Luquer Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Mrs. A. E. Orr Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Mr. Elmer Ewing Green Trenton, N. J. 


At a meeting of the Executive Committee held March 15, 1895, the 
Secretary read a letter from Robert C. Winthrop, Jr., a son of the 
late Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, acknowledging the receipt of the 
memorial minute sent him by the Society. 

At a meeting of the Executive Committee held April 13, 1895, the 
following persons were elected members of the Society: 

Miss Anne Low Pierrepont .... Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Miss Ellen Low Pierrepont . . . Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Mrs. Geraldine Livingston Hoyt . . Staatsburgh, N. Y. 

The following contributions were made to the Society Library and 
gratefully acknowledged : 

From Mrs. Pierre Van Cortland by bequest, a very old and valu- 
able book: " Kerckelijcke Historie Wande Gerefozmeerde Kercken. 
By Petrum Gillis, 1657." 

Mr. John E. Morris: "Stephen Lincoln of Oakham, Mass., his 
Ancestry and Descendants." 

"Felt Genealogy, " compiled by Mr. Morris. 

Rev. Dr. De Costa, a collection of his verses, entitled : 1 ' The Pil- 
grim of Old France." 

Trustees' Room, United Charities Building, 

April 13, 1895. 

The Society held its annual business meeting on the 297th anniver- 
sary of the Edict of Nantes, the President, Mr. Marquand, in the 

Prof. Rees, acting-Secretary in the absence of the Secretary, read 
the minutes of the last Society meeting, which were approved. 

President Marquand made a brief address in which he referred to 
the deaths during the past year of the President of the Society, the 
Hon. John Jay, and of the Hon. Sir Henry Austen Layard, President 
of the Huguenot Society of London. He alluded to the appropriate- 
ness of Easter falling so closely this year, to the date of the anniver- 
sary of the Edict of Nantes, adding : "We know what Easter Sunday 
means to Christians, and there is a faint type in our Society of the 
resurrection in the dawn of religious liberty. " 

In view of the fact that the proceedings of the Executive Committee 
had been reported at various times throughout the year, no formal 
annual report was presented. 

The Treasurer's annual report was presented and on motion referred 
to the Finance Committee for audit. 

Dr. Atterbury, the Chairman of the Publication Committee, re- 

x 5 

ported that the valuable papers read during the past } T ear would be 
published in the next volume of the Proceedings, and that a paper 
that had been promised by Judge Clearwater, to accompany his gift of 
a set of the Huguenot medals, had been postponed owing to his ill 
health. The medals have been sent to the Society Library where 
they may either be kept on exhibition or reserved until a formal pre- 
sentation is made. 

Dr. Atterbury also read a letter that had been received from M. 
Weiss, the ^Secretary of the Societe de l'histoire du Protestantisme 
Francaise, in which a request is made for some interchange between 
that Society and the Huguenot Society of America. 

On motion the Societe de l'histoire du Protestantisme Francais 
was placed on the exchange list of the Society. 

Prof. Rees announced to the Society a gift proposed by Mrs. James 
M. Lawton to the Society of $1,000 in memory of her late husband's 
interest in the Huguenot Society. 

On motion a resolution of thanks was extended to Mrs. James M. 
Lawton for her interest in the library and for her proposed gift. 

On motion it w- as resolved : 1 ' That the library shall be confined 
strictly to Huguenot subjects, and that the acceptance of contribu- 
tions thereto be left to the decision of the Library Committee. " 

The Executive Committee through Prof. Rees, Chairman of Com- 
mittee on Nominations, recommended the following nominations for 
officers of the Society for the ensuing year : 

President : 
Henry G. Marquand. 

For New York 
For New Rochelle 
For New Paltz 
For Boston . 
For New Oxford 
For Narragansett 
For New Jersey 
For Delaware 
For Pennsylvania 
For Virginia 

Vice-Presidents : 

Frederic J. De Peyster. 
. Henry M. Lester. 

Hon. A. T. Clearwater. 

Hon. Richard Olney. 
William Ely. 

Rev. D. D. Demarest, D.D. 
Hon. Thomas F. Bayard. 
Charles M. Du Puy. 
Col. Richard L. Maury. 

Secretary : 
Lea Mcllvaine Luquer. 

Treasurer : 
Henry M. Lester. 


The offices of Vice-President for Staten Island and South Carolina 
were omitted, the Committee being unable at present to rind names of 
any members who could serve in these two places. 

On motion, the Secretary pro tern cast one ballot for the Society in 
favor of the nominees presented. 

On motion, the meeting adjourned. 

J. K. Rees, 

Secretary pro tern. 

Assembly Hall. United Charities Building. 

April 30, 1S95. 

The Society held its annual public meeting. 

In the absence of both the President and the Vice-President for 
New York, Prof. Rees was called to the chair. The minutes of the 
annual business meeting, held on April 13, 1S95, were read and 

The Secretary presented his annual report for the year 1S94-95, and 
on motion it was ordered on file. 

A letter from Herr Toliin, President of the German Huguenot 
Society, was read, suitably acknowledging his election as an honorary 
member of the Huguenot Society of America. 

On motion the President was empowered to appoint a Committee of 
Fifteen to issue a circular and to make needful preparations for the 
300th centennial of the Edict of Nantes, to take place in this city in 

Mr. Banj-er Clarkson was appointed Corresponding Secretary of 
this Committee. 

The Rev. Matthew C. Julien, then gave a lecture on "The 
Huguenots of Old Boston. " illustrated by stereopticon views. 

On motion of the Rev. Dr. Vermilye, the thanks of the Societ}- 
were extended to the Rev. Mr. Julien for his interesting lecture with 
its valuable contributions to Huguenot history and he was requested 
to furnish a copy of his paper for publication. 
The Society adjourned for an informal reception. 

Lea McI. Luquer, 

At a meeting of the Executive Committee held May 2S, 1S95. the 
Secretary announced that Mr. Marquand had been made an honorary 
member of the German Huguenot Society. 

The report of the Finance Committee auditing the Treasurer's 
accounts for the year 1894-95 was accepted and ordered on file. 



A letter was read from the French Society requesting- a sketch of 
the late Hon. John Jay, and on motion Mr. Schieffelin was appointed 
to prepare such a sketch. 

Mr. Morris Coster presented the Society with a cop}* of ' ' Recueil 
de Documents Relatifs a l'Eglise Francaise de Voorburg 1859." 

At a meeting of the Executive Committee, held October 25, 1895, 
the following persons were elected members of the Society : 

Miss Mary Smith Atterbury .... Trenton, N. J. 
Miss Justina Livingston Atterbury . . Trenton, N. J. 
Major Paul Richard Brown, M.D., U.S.A., Fort Hamilton, N. Y. 
Mr. Edward Clinton Lee ..... Philadelphia. 
Mr. George Lewis Heins . .... New York City. 
Mrs. Virginia Knox Maddox . . San Francisco, Cal. 
Mr. William Hillman .... Mt. Vernon, N. Y. 
Mr. Henry Van Kleeck . . . . Denver, Col. 

A report and resolution of s\ r mpathy was read by the Chairman of 
the Ladies' Committee, announcing the death of Mrs. J. J. Slocum, 
one of its number, and notice was given that the report would be 
sent to Mrs. Slocum 's family. 

The President announced the death of the late Mr. William Gayer 
Dominick, a member of the Executive Committee, and appointed Prof. 
Rees and Dr. Atterbury a committee to draw up a memorial minute. 

At a meeting of the Executive Committee, held November 23, 1895, 
the following persons were elected members of the Society : 

Mrs. Cornelia Jones Chadwick . . Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Samuel Eberly Gross . \ . . . Chicago, 111. 

Mrs. Montgomery Schuyler . . . New York City. 

Mrs. Josephine Boker Garretson . . Morris Plains, N. J. 

Mrs. Frances Nelson Bogert O'Brien . . New York City. 

Mrs. Wm. Hopkins Young . . . . Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

Mrs. Delphine Marie Pumpelly Read . . Paris, France. 

The following minute, prepared by the Committee appointed at 
the last meeting, was read and adopted : 

M The Executive Committee of the Huguenot Society of America 
desire to express their deep sympathy with the wife and family of 
their late associate, William Gayer Dominick. 

"Mr. Dominick was a member of this Committee for the past year 
and during that time endeared himself to each of us by his thought- 
ful sympathy and readj T generosity. His advice and action were 
always given with great profit to our Society. 


"The Committee orders this simple minute to be spread on its 
records, and a copy to be forwarded to the family of our late asso- 
ciate. " 

The following publications were presented to the Society Library 
and gratefully acknowledged : 

From Dr. Gaillard Thomas : "Family Chart. " 

Mr. Charles M. Vail : ' ' Vail and Armstrong Genealogy, with a refer- 
ence to the L'Hommedieu Family." 

Assembly Hall, United Charities Building, 

November 2d, 1895. 
The Society met. Mr. Pumpelly was called to the chair, in the 
absence of the President and the Vice-President for New York. 

The minutes of the last meeting, held April 30, 1895, were read and 

A paper by Mrs. James M. Lawton, giving an account of her late 
visit to England and France, as a representative of the Huguenot 
Society, was read by Mr. Pumpelly. 

On motion the report was accepted and a vote of thanks extended 
to Mrs. Lawton. 

The Society then adjourned^ when an informal reception was held. 

Lea McI. Luouer, 


At a meeting of the Executive Committee, held January 23, 1896, 
the following persons were elected members of the Society : 

Mrs. Mary E. Lee Mann, . . . Washington, D. C. 
Miss Miriam Kenneth Wallis . San Francisco, Cal. 

Assembly Hall, United Charities Building, 

January 23, 1896. 

The Society met, the President, Mr. Marquand, in the chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. 

The President announced the death of the Hon. Martin Brimmer, 
late Vice-President for Boston. 

The Rev. James Le Fevre, D.D., read a paper on " The Huguenot 
Patentees of New Paltz. 

On motion of Dr. Atterbury, a vote of thanks was extended to Mr. 
Le Fevre and a request was made for a copy of his paper for publica- 

The Rev. Robert Favre, Delegate of the Franco-American Commit- 


tee of Paris, was introduced by the President and spoke on the present 
condition of the Huguenots of France. 

A vote of thanks was tendered to Rev. Mr. Favre, and a copy of his 
remarks was requested for publication. 

Prof. Rees, as Chairman of the Committee on Revision of the Con- 
stitution, reported the revised constitution as recommended by the 
Executive Committee to be acted on at a subsequent meeting - . 

The Society then adjourned when an informal reception was held. 



Assembly Hall, United Charities Building, 

February 27, 1896. 

The Society met, Mr. Charles M. Du Puy, Vice-President for Penn- 
sylvania, presiding in the absence of the President. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. 

Mr. James B. Laux read a paper on 44 The Huguenot Element in 
Pennsylvania. " 

Dr. Vermilye moved a vote of thanks to Mr. L,aux for his interest- 
ing paper and requested a copy for publication. 

Dr. Atterbury presented a printed memorial of our late Vice-Presi- 
dent for South Carolina, Daniel Ravenel, Esq., reprinted from the 
New England Historical and Genealogical Register. 

A brief sketch of the late meeting of the Societe de 1'histoire du 
Protestantisme Francais at La Rochelle, translated by Mrs. Eawton 
from the Report of the Society, was read by Dr. Atterbury. 

After adjournment an informal reception was held. 

Lea McI. Euquer, 


At a meeting of the Executive Committee held at Columbia 
College, March 13, 1896, the following persons were elected members 
of the Society : 

Mrs. Ellen Rapelje Peabody (life member) . Paris, France. 

Miss Emma Goble Lathrop Newark, N. J. 

Mr. Wm. Milne Grinnell New York City. 

Miss Harriet N. De Votion .... New York City. 
Miss Elizabeth K. De Votion .... New York City.. 
Mr. Charles Francis Darlington . . . Newark, N. J. 
The Rev. James Henry Darlington, Ph.D., D.D., Brooklyn, N. Y. 


At a meeting of the Executive Committee, held March 27, 1896, 
the following persons were elected members of the Society : 

Mr. Flournoy Rivers Pulaski, Tenn. 

Prof. Theodore Salisbury Woolse}' . . New Haven, Conn. 

Assembly Hall, United Charities Building, 

March 27, 1896. 

The Society met. In the absence of the President and the Vice- 
Presidents, the Rev. W. W. Atterbury, D.D., was called to the chair. 

The revised Constitution, as reported by the Executive Committee, 
was read, and after discussion was adopted. 

The Rev. John H. Edwards, D.D., read a paper on "The First 
Home of the Huguenots in North America. ' ' 

On motion, the hearty thanks of the Society were given to Dr. 
Edwards and a copy of his paper was requested for publication. 

The Society then adjourned when an informal reception was held. 

Lea McI. Luquer, 

At a meeting of the Executive Committee held April 13, 1896, the 
following persons were elected members of the Society : 

Miss Emily Maria de Peyster . . . New York City. 

Mrs. Eliza Livingston de Peyster Clarkson . New York City. 

Miss Julia Gabriella McAllister . . . Trenton, N. J. 

Miss Emma Frances Sahler .... New York City. 

Miss Florence L. Sahler .... New York City. 

Trustees' Room, United Charities Building, 

April 13, 1896, 9 p. m. 

The Society held its annual business meeting on the 298th anniver- 
sary of the Promulgation of the Edict of Nantes. 

In the absence of the President, Mr. Frederick J. de Peyster, Vice- 
President for New York, presided. 

The minutes of the last general meeting, held March 27, 1896, were 
read and approved. 

The annual report of the Secretar\ T was read and accepted. 

In the absence of the Treasurer, the Secretary read a summary of 
the Treasurer's report, as presented and approved at a previous meet- 
ing of the Executive meeting. 

The report from the Library Committee was read by the Secretary 
and accepted. 


Dr. Atterbury, as Chairman of the Publication Committee, made a 
short verbal report. 

On motion of Prof. Rees, a vote of thanks was given to the Chair- 
man of the Publication Committee for his successful services in 
securing the valuable papers which have been read during the past 

Mr. De Peyster. as Chairman of the Committee of General Arrange- 
ments for the celebration in 1898 of the tri-centennial of the Promul- 
gation of the Edict of Nantes, made an informal report of the plans 
of the Committee for that occasion, and stated that it is proposed to 
have a "Huguenot banquet" at Delmonico's, at some time during 
December of the present year. 

A paper on "The Huguenots of Rhode Island," by Mr. R. H. 
Tilley was, in his absence, read by Dr. Atterbury. 

On motion, Mr. Tilley was thanked for his paper and the manu- 
script w T as referred to the Publication Committee. 

The following officers for the ensuing year having been nominated 
by the Executive Committee, were unanimously elected, the Secretary 
on motion having cast the ballot of the Society for them. 

President Henry G. Marquand. 

Vice-President for New York, Frederic J. De Peyster. 
Vice-President for New Rochelle, Henr}' M. Lester. 
Vice-President for New Paltz . Hon. A. T. Clearwater. 
Vice-President for Staten Island, 
Vice-President for Boston, 

Vice-President for New Oxford, Hon. Richard Olney. 
Vice-President for Narragansett, William Ely. 
Vice-President for New Jersey, Rev. David D. Demarest, D.D. 
Vice-President for Delaware . Hon. Thomas F. Bayard. 
Vice-President for Pennsylvania, Charles M. Du Puy. 
Vice-President for Virginia . Col. Richard L. Maury. 
Vice-President for South Carolina, 

Secretary .... Lea Mcllvaine Luquer. 
Treasurer ..... Henry M. Lester. 

On motion, the Executive Committee was authorized to fill at their 
discretion, the vacancies in the list of Vice-Presidents. 
The Society then adjourned. 

Lea McI. Luquer, 

By Rev. A. G. Vermilye, D.D. 

During my Freshman and only year at Columbia College, 
which was at the time down-town and under President Duer, my 
eye frequently rested, at morning prayers, upon a certain senior 
as he passed along to his seat. Older than myself by some years, 
he was yet very young- iooking for his class — slender, handsome, 
fresh-faced, and especially remarkable for a dimple in each cheek. 
It was John Jay. I never knew him personally, nor any of the 
seniors ; for, except in the chapel, our classes nowhere approxi- 
mated. Subsequently, and for fifty years, the drift of circum- 
stances carried us far apart, so that I never for that long period 
saw him. Yet that face, his alone of the three upper classes, I 
always had distinctly in remembrance. As he entered the door 
at the first general Huguenot meeting — after that long inter- 
val — I knew him. There was the same face but slightly altered, 
somewhat older, and nestled in either cheek the dimple — a fresh 
face still ; only, above and around it, the snow that never melts. 
Time had dealt well with and sat well upon him. 

You are aware that the Evangelical Alliance, of which he was 
at one time president, has lately in a public meeting passed its 
own eulogium upon Mr. Jay. Eloquently and appreciatively its 
speakers presented, each in brief review, the characteristics of his 
life as a " reformer," a " man," a " patriot," and a " Christian." 
It has been thought due to his memory, however, and to itself, 
that the Huguenot Society should make, and place in its printed 
annals, some special memorial of its first and (till within the year) 
its only president — himself a representative Huguenot. If he 
belonged to the Alliance as a Christian man whose heart beat 
fully in unison with its objects, he belonged to the Huguenot 
Society by right of a name and a lineage and a character dis- 
tinctly and eminently Huguenot. When the Society was formed 

* Read before the Huguenot Society, January 29, 1895. 



in 1SS3 his name, as president, was deemed almost essential. 
And, indeed, it is well to commemorate him in this way ; to put 
together his life, to see, what otherwise we might not have fully 
known, how truly admirable was that lineal Huguenot life — as it 
were, an heirloom of gold or silver retouched and polished by a 
later hand, till it shone again. We pass or see men even* day, 
quietly moving along among the multitude, of whose qualities we 
remain ignorant, till the occasion arrives which reveals them. It 
is Moses striking the rock. When the railroad engineer holds 
bravely at his post through fire and smoke and general dismay, 
perhaps to his own death, then first we realize and the world 
learns what has always been that man, that plain, unpretentious 
man at the lever. Of the heroic dead in battle, Cicero said that 
" the gods had not taken from them life, but had given them 
death." That made them illustrious, brought to life what they 
were ; was the time of recall, rehearsal and reminiscence of manly 
or victorious deeds, which the passage of years had obscured or 
blotted from memory, but which, then and thus put freshly 
together, became a coronet of glory, in which their heroic death 
was simply the last, the most lustrous, the completing stone. Of 
Mr. Jay's active life, much lay in a past now grown dim ; the 
struggles and scenes in which he then took part he had himself 
long outlived. But it was all, and characteristically, to the com- 
pleting scene, a Huguenot life. This the occasion now invites -us 
to gather together into a brief memorial. 

It is unnecessary, I think, to give any details relating to his 
earlier youth. The apple blossoms of Spring are very beautiful. 
So is bright, unfolding boyhood. But it is later, when the bud 
has rounded into fruit, with tokens of a fine harvest yield ; it is 
then that we watch with most interest its development. It is, 
however, the connection of the fruit with the parent tree that 
gives it special form and flavor and coloring. In Mr. Jay's case 
this influence should not be omitted. Brought up on the family 
estate, " Katonah," at Bedford, Westchester Co., where even the 
trees had, many of them, Huguenot names and associations ; in the 
venerable mansion that had come down from his grandfather, the 
Chief Justice, himself the grandson of the original Huguenot refu- 
gee ; where was the fine old library filled with things ancestral, 
books, documents and papers, public and private, to stimulate his 


tastes and store his mind ; such were his early surroundings. 
Besides these, however, in that attractive home, there was another 
influence giving permanent bent to his character and thoughts — 
his father, the whole family circle. By all accounts it was a 
charming, a model household group. Judge William Jay, whom 
in looks his son so much resembled, whilst leading a retired , 
country life, was widely and especially influential through his pen. 
An able jurist, a cogent thinker and writer, he spent his life, like 
a true Huguenot, battling for the right — for the abolition of slav- 
ery, for a free, unsectarian distribution of the Bible, for peace in 
the world through arbitration. On these and kindred subjects 
his writings were voluminous, strong, wise and effective. An 
early and ardent abolitionist, through whatever obloquy his cour- 
age was immoveable ; and yet always, his spirit, style and temper 
were dignified and without acrimony — the ink he used, if tinctured 
with iron, had in it no gall. The very severity and force of his 
argument made it felt, however unpopular the cause ; but once 
convinced that cause was right, opposition, no matter from whom, 
never deterred him. And the father, undoubtedly, greatly shaped 
the life of his son. The heritage of thought, opinion and char- 
acteristics, was, indeed, closely marked. The portrait of the one 
would almost have suited the other. It was Judge Jay's habit to 
converse freely with his son and any boy visitors he had, to draw 
out their opinions on interesting topics, and by discussion to cor- 
rect crude ideas on errors of fact and principle by his own mature 
and judicial conceptions — a formative process during malleable 
youth of the greatest value. And doubtless we have here the 
reason why John Jay came so early and earnestly into the aboli- 
tion movement — whilst even yet a collegian. He had gathered 
the impetus at home — in talks with his father, the study by his help 
of moral principles and the laws of his country. There was the 
wood laid up and the blaze kindled which made the abolition of 
slavery the burning question of his years down to the civil war — 
his father having died meantime, in 1S58. 

Only a remaining few, I suppose, can recall the scenes of the 
abolition movement in the early thirties. In a sketch of Mr. 
Jay it is necessary to refer to them. They constituted no minor 
episode in the unfolding drama of our history. There never had 
been a time when slavery was not a cause of trouble or fore- 


boding. That movement was not the first organized protest. In 
17S5, Chief Justice jay was president and Alexander Hamilton 
secretary of an anti-slavery society in New York ; Franklin, 
president of one in Pennsylvania, in 1787 ; and in 1791, the 
younger Edwards argued for immediate emancipation before the 
Connecticut society. These movements, however, were simply 
dropping outpost shots in the far advance, of little or no effect. 
Meantime slavery lay, as it were, a languid cloud upon the 
mountains, with its power uncondensed, nor ready to shed its 
lightnings. But in 1793 Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin ; 
simply a machine to clean the cotton of its seeds. It, however, 
stimulated production, doubled the value of slave property ; and, 
like the discovery of gold, created a dream of wealth, through 
new territory open to slave labor. How often the moral senti- 
ment is affected, changed, smothered, by material conditions ! 
How T many years now the battle raged over the extension of 
slavery ! Nor did the question of its abolition come into promi- 
nence till 1S26 ; and then, not in reference to the South, which 
was protected by the Constitution, but the District of Columbia — 
a movement started, owing to a particular case by Judge Jay. 
That movement brought Garrison into the field that same year 
as an advocate of abolition in the District of Columbia. 

Some men move rapidly and are impatient. The}' strike at 
once the blow T 'that precipitates matters, whether for good or evil. 
And so, in 1831, Garrison induced the Xew England Society to 
pass a resolution which shifted discussion from the extension of 
slavery and the question of the District of Columbia, to a radical 
basis ; viz. : that ' ' immediate, unconditional emancipation was 
the right of every slave, which no master could withhold for an 
hour without sin." I refer to it in order to indicate the position 
of Judge Jay and his son. As a platform the}* did not accept it. 
The right of free speech on moral questions. Judge Jay indeed 
held, belonged to every man ; and that they had 4 ' as good and 
perfect a right to exhort slaveholders to liberate their slaves, as 
to practice any virtue or avoid any vice. ' ' But it left out Con- 
stitutional rights, which he and his son always held to be sacred. 
In the mouths of declamatory and defamatory orators he feared 
it would repel their own friends and create misunderstanding 
and undue irritation. And, in fact, it did. In Xew York itself 


there were mobs and riots ; and to be an Abolitionist, was to 
endure ostracism and prejudice as a "fanatic." At one time 
during the riots, John Jay himself, then a student, was in our 
house with other young men, who only saved it from wreck by 
giving public notice that they would use weapons if attacked. I 
will only add that, in 1833, Judge Jay, by his earnest advice, 
succeeded in placing the newly formed American Anti-Slavery 
Society on constitutional principles. He lived to see those prin- 
ciples adopted, in 1854, by the Republican party, which elected 
Lincoln, maintained the Constitution and saved the republic, 
without change except as to slavery. For that, Judge Jay and 
his son deserve recognition and praise, too often given only to 
great speakers and agitators ; praise for the wisdom with which 
they held the driven ship to a constitutional course, and made it 
possible to crystallize public sentiment in one victorious party ; 
and praise for that Huguenot faith and firmness which, as of old, 
endured all " like a beaten anvil." 

John Jay first took prominence in 1846 as a young lawyer of 
tw r enty-nine, in the firm of Jay & Field. The great excitement of 
the time was the fugitive slave law. That law made every citizen a 
slave-catcher, a human hound, under pains and penalties. A foolish 
law, which enlisted in rebellion against it both conscience and 
manhood ! Judge Jay, for one, regarded it with abhorrence. 
That part of the law, also, he considered unconstitutional. Yet 
he was between two fires, two clashing obligations, a good citizen's 
obedience to law and the dictates of humanity. In such case, 
cases of doubt what to do, even the old Romans required that 
judicial interpretations should favor the humane side — 1 'Semper in 
dubies be?iig?iiora praefere?ida sunt. ' ' Noble maxim and example 
of a stern and heathen people ! For himself, Judge Jay would 
not interfere with Southern rights at the South ; but if the slave 
ran away, the master must get him by due process of law, with- 
out his help. As a matter of fact, he sheltered not a few run- 
aways in his house at Bedford ; and in his will left $1,000 to be 
so used. In his son, it required no small courage to take up a 
fugitive slave case, and equal adroitness to make it successful. 
There were not three lawyers in the city willing to assist him, 
since there was no money to be made and certain obloquy await- 
ing him who did so. But the dusky clients came, and it was not 


in John Jay to refuse ; he threw over them the shelter of his legal 
knowledge, as one would an umbrella in a drenching rain, what- 
ever the risk of a wetting to himself. What a blessing, indeed, 
to be so sought and trusted by those fugitives for liberty — poor, 
ill and thinly clad, shivering and afraid ! They were like grass- 
hoppers in a field, jumping here and there, to land Wherever 
accident as the wind might carry them. Fortunate the runaway 
who succeeded in reaching Mr. Jay's door ! I suppose, I have 
no doubt, that he valued their humble gratitude, notwithstanding 
the hard work the case cost him, more than the hard cash of 
wealthier clients. Nor was it to his office alone, but to his house, 
they came ; there to be taken into some quiet room, their story 
heard, advice, food, clothing and money given and themselves, in 
due time, put on the way, in a private car of their own to Bedford, 
the next station of the ' 1 Underground Railroad. ' ' How many 
were thus helped into final liberty by his legal skill or in more 
quiet ways, I do not know. But it made him a marked man ; 
marked, for one thing, by pelting showers of abuse. Mr. Jay 
was not eloquent ; but he understood every point of his case, and 
would sometimes, in a sweet, quiet voice, make a point which, for 
success, was better than oratory. 

Nor was it in public opinion, nor in society alone, that Mr. Jay 
suffered for his devotion to the cause of freedom and right in the 
person of the colored man, but in the councils of his own church. 
For nine successive years he stood up in Diocesan Convention, 
and renewed his motion to admit to their constitutional rights in 
the church, the colored delegates of the church of St. Philip. It 
was opposed, the ordinary hearing of a gentleman denied him ; it 
was smothered in committees and refused a vote. One com- 
mittee even reported that - ' the people in question belonged to a race 
socially degraded, and improper associates for the class of persons 
who attend our conventions ! ' ' Evidently they had not studied 
Peter's vision of the sheet, which settled the Christian principle. 
Nor, perhaps, did the report state w T hether, in case the " same 
class of persons ' ' reached heaven, the same class rule would apply ! 
For nine successive years Mr. Jay continued the struggle ; con- 
tending for a Christianity of character, not of class and color ; 
with good breeding, with unflinching courage, ' ' patient as a 
Huguenot " ; and then succeeded, by a vote of 140 to 13. Fitting 


reward (was it not ?) that when himself denied a place as delegate 
by his own church at Bedford, he was at once elected a delegate 
by and from the colored church of St. Philip ! 

One more conflict he had with the Diocese, during more than 
one year, relating to the slave trade. Does it surprise us to learn 
that, in i860, New York was rated as M the greatest slave-trading 
mart in the world " ; that the trade which, supposedly at least, 
ended in 1808, was " more active and more profitable than at any 
former period ' ' ; that within eighteen months nearly one hundred 
slavers had been fitted out ; and that its management was concen- 
trated under the very shadow of Trinity ? These facts, however t 
with some resolutions, Mr. Jay presented to the Convention. 
With what result? His resolutions called simply for legitimate 
church action ; for a pastoral letter, preaching by the clergy, and 
a recommendation to the laity. Yet when he attempted to speak, 
the bee-hive was again in commotion to suppress an unwelcome 
intruder. It was the old question of the slave, which for so 
many years had made him a kind of electric battery to the Con- 
vention — a firebug, always seeking to create a blaze ; and his 
resolutions were tabled with scarcely a negative. 

With these and such questions, all involving principle, Mr. 
Jay busied his mind and heart, and strong, inflexible and most 
industrious pen, down to the time of the war — which brought the 
long controversy to a head. His reputation had reached its top, 
yet not without danger to himself in those days. In 1863, during 
the draft riots, when they burned the colored orphan asylum and 
hung negroes in the street, for three or four days the city was in the 
hands of the mob. It was a week of terror. The railroad was 
watched for Mr. Jay and Mr. Greeley, if they came down the 
Harlem. His own family were only able to reach Bedford by 
way of the Hudson ; and seven men were constantly on guard at 
the old mansion. No isolated, spasmodic event, those riots ; but 
a part intended to separate the city from the North, of the great 
conspiracy which, like seventeen-year locusts, had been long 
hatching uuderground, before it began its destructive career. 
Mr. Jay was not dismayed ; it was not in his blood. A few 
months before, in 1863, they had formed the Union League Club. 
He was president. And now, with striking boldness, he and they 
resolved to raise a colored regiment. In eight months it was 


ready for the field and marched, preceded to the steamer by Mr. 
Jay and members of the club — the first of three regiments so 
raised. It was a rally of sentiment that never afterwards allowed 
conspiracy a chance to win. 

When Hannibal was in Italy and Rome at the lowest ebb of her 
fortunes, with an army just defeated and the way to her gates 
apparently open, the Senate thanked one of its consuls because he 
would " not despair of the republic." Mr. Jay was, throughout 
the war, just that kind of a citizen — in courage and confidence, 
sturdy as Grant. When it was over, he viewed it as the comple- 
tion of the work of the Fathers in '76 ; as for the first time ren- 
dering practical throughout the Union , the principles of the Declar- 
ation of Independence. But he was not content to sit down there, 
as if for him a life work were done. He foresaw clearly that new 
problems would arise ; that if the work of the soldier was ended, 
that of the statesman and philanthropist was yet before them. 
There was upon his mind a debt to be paid to the colored race, 
blinking and half blinded amid the dazzling rays of their freedom : 
a debt to be paid in school houses and churches, in education of 
all kinds, so that the legally free might know how to use himself, 
and be wholly a man. Slow work — at his death, soil scarcely 
turned over with a hoe ! Thus feeling, however, we find him at 
once, in 1865, the chief . speaker at the inaugural meeting of the 
American Freedman's Aid Union. And it was a good speech — 
one of fine thought, attired in fine diction, and deeply earnest in 
spirit. He told there how, a few days before, when Lincoln's 
body was passing, but when official trucklers to a "foreign ele- 
ment " had excluded the colored people from the procession, ex- 
cept a few admitted at the last moment ; how, as these passed 
with uncovered heads and tearful eyes, the waving of hundreds of 
thousands of handkerchiefs in the air, expressed silently but spon- 
taneously the irrepressible public sentiment. And as he applied 
the incident to his purpose, he was met with cheers and loud and 
long applause. W r hat a change ! What a change for Mr. Jay ; 
whose appeals for the blacks in courts and conventions and other 
places had not been wont to bring down upon him such rosy bou- 
quets of cheers and applause ! It was not Mr. Jay who had 
changed, it was popular sentiment. Mr. Jay, I think, was never 
eloquent ; that is, he did not win by oratory. He had not the ora- 


torical temperament, as it existed in Gough and Beecher, and gave, 
in them, the power of speech to every limb and movement ; filling 
the whole body with vocal chords to express a thought. He was too 
calm and quiet. He could, however, turn an incident to account, 
make a happy illusion, and gracefully bring history to bear upon 
his subject, out of the breadth of his reading and knowledge. He 
could rasp, too, if he chose, be sarcastic and severe ; and on cer- 
tain subjects, when controversial — gentle as he usually was — his 
words were very apt to be files, that not only excoriated, but bit and 
ate deep. Presiding, as he often did, at societies and clubs, his 
addresses there had grace, had dignity, and something more in 
them than the usual commonplace. In short, Mr. Jay was a 
speaker who carefully prepared himself, and had substantial merits 
for an intelligent audience ; perhaps was too well-bred to be 
thoroughly appreciated by any other. His speeches, when pre- 
sented, were a body of admirable thought, gowned (if I may 
say so) in a most attractive style, and enriched with ornaments, 
historic or literary out of his own collection or the family 
jewel-case. How pleased he was, and how prone he was, 
among other things historic, to give place and prominence to 
some bit of old Huguenot allusion ! For instance, in 1S65 
he was in Paris presiding at a Thanksgiving dinner, and took 
occasion, in a very graceful way, to recall how early and how 
wisely the French (Huguenot ) element w T as blended with our 
transatlantic blood, and mentioned as a fact not generally known, 
that two of the five American commissioners who, in 1783, signed 
the Treaty of Paris (which sealed our independence), were Hugue- 
nots. He did not say so, but one was his own grandfather ; the 
other, Henry Laurens, of South Carolina. Xor, of course, did he 
say, as Adams said, that not to himself (Adams) but to Jay (the 
Huguenot), rightfully belonged the title they gave the former, 
M the Washington of the negotiation." It was a pleasant, appro- 
priate allusion. And there, eighty- two years afterwards, they 
were sitting, a distinguished company of Americans, with another 
John Jay at the fore ; sitting, not to negotiate with others a 
nation's right to be, but as joyous celebrants of its august ma- 
turity and power — a nation just emerged from another war, whose 
sweep was like the Atlantic and its portentious, threatening waves ; 
but emerged compact in strength, sound in hull, its machinery in 


full motion, and at the masthead the flag of a victor. How 
strange ! They were sitting there under the shadow of the 
empire, which had deemed our destruction sure, and itself secure in 
place and power ; in fact, one of our residuary legatees. The 
next war, and a brief one, crushes it like"an egg-shell. The next 
treaty of Paris, the result of that war, makes France herself a 
recognized Republic ! 

Mr. Jay was appointed by- President Grant, in 1S69, Minister 
to Austria, where he remained seven years, and handled success- 
fully difficult and delicate diplomatic questions. I suppose one 
could hardly have been found better adapted to impress favorably 
that ancient and stately court. He spoke the language, was 
equipped with the requisite knowledge, and something more but 
quite as important, had the requisite breeding, character and man- 
ner. It was a remark of Lord Clarendon, " that the one special 
art required in diplomacy is to be perfectly honest, truthful and 
straightforward. ' ' Not the usual idea of diplomacy as practised 
by cabinets and statesmen, whose highest achievements have 
most often been based upon ' ' that crooked wisdom which is 
called craft." Not, in the past at least, the usual quality of 
Austrian diplomacy ; certainly not as illustrated by M. de 
Metternich in Napoleon's time, of whom Cambaceres said : " He 
is very nearly a statesman, he is such a beautiful liar." Nor is 
honesty a feature of the word, as used in ordinary, popular 
speech, but rather political, artful management, winning by tricks 
and deals. If that, however, be " the one special art required in 
diplomacy," its highest expression, Mr. Jay had it ; he was 
"honest," he was "truthful," he was " straightforward," he 
could be no otherwise and be Mr. Jay. Yet had that truthful- 
ness been brusque and unmannerly, he might still have failed as 
a diplomatist of high art. On the contrary, Mr. Jay had in per- 
fection that which the British 1 ' spectator ' ' ascribed to the Hugue- 
not refugees in England : ' 1 the courteous grace which could gain 
an entrance by its modest tact everywhere." That " modest 
tact" always put him in touch (as the word tact means) with the 
occasion, and inspired the right thing to do or say ; and a " cour- 
teous grace " it was in him, who was always and everywhere in 
the fullest sense of Shakespeare's words, "a courteous gentle- 
man." Humiliating experience for so punctilious a gentleman to 


see his country debased at the great Vienna exposition of 1871, 
b}' commissioners so incompetent, so greedy and so peculating, 
that President Grant was obliged to remove them, and never 
dared to transmit to Congress the disreputable evidence ! It was 
simply the spoils system ; a branch of that official corruption that 
was at home trickling from high places into dirty pools below. 
I know not if it first interested him in civil service reform, but it 
was a matter that he afterwards laid open with a trenchant and 
unsparing pen. 

Being tired of the position Mr. Jay resigned in 1S76. He 
might then, had he so chosen, have retired and left public affairs 
alone. Certainly he had inducements to do so. He did not need 
office nor care for the glare of public station. Imagine Mr. Jay 
seeking office ! A domestic man, fond of children, and with a 
gay humor at home, his family supplied that side of his nature. 
Or if he wanted the social, his house in town and table were a 
delightful means, where he could gather the choicest and best to 
his taste. Moreover, with his church, with societies and clubs, 
many and various literary, religious and of other kinds, there could 
have been no danger of his mind losing his discipline and growing 
enervate and weak, like Hannibal's army in the luxurious ease of 
Capua. Or for that especial gift and grace of the old Huguenots 
— his love, like his father's, for trees and vines and flowers, there 
was the fine farm at Bedford ; where, in fact, he himself planted 
so many trees. He loved the old place, loved the library and 
made it his literary workshop ; loved everything about it, even 
to the chirp of the cricket in the old, ancestral hearth. But Mr. 
Jay had that in his nature which would not allow him to sit down 
and be quiet in elegant ease when public questions w T ere up 
which he deemed of moment to the community. I believe that 
from youth and through life the bottom thought in his mind was, 
in some form, emancipation ; emancipation from something he 
deemed wrong or a danger or both. For years it was slavery. 
Then he took up political corruption and the emancipation of the 
civil service. He was instantly awake to the attack upon our 
public schools for sectarian purposes, as involving imminent 
danger to our institutions. On these and other such subjects his 
pen was constantly and effectively in motion. Was patriotism the 
presiding motive ? Certainly not alone. As a sentiment it shone 


always in his' life's front ; none could mistake its genuineness or 
purity. He could have said as said Patrick Henry : "I am not a 
Virginian, I am an American." He loved (none better) his 
country, her constitution and her institutions. Yet, after all, it 
was the moral of things, the right or wrong, a deeper principle, 
which dominated his thinking and swayed his actions. For Mr. 
Jay was a Christian. If he had something inherited, he w r as him- 
self also, one who drew and refreshed himself and his principles 
daily from the ancestral well, the old Huguenot Bible. A Union 
Bible Society for the circulation of the Scriptures (as to which 
he opposed distinguished men of his own church), public schools 
untrammeled by priestly dictation, freedom of conscience (the 
rallying cry of Huguenots and Reformers), a man's free owner- 
ship of himself, pure politics and a responsible manhood, with 
religion, the Christian religion, the religion of the Bible, as the 
pervading influence among all nations ; these and such like were 
the subjects that occupied him. Flowing from one steady princi- 
ple of his nature and its expression at times, as they came up, 
they burned within him like an incandescent light, white with in- 
tensity of heat. 

And hence he w T as constantly writing — sometimes for almost 
the night, up in the old library at Bedford. And it shows his 
sense of public duty, his earnestness of purpose, and his rigid 
idea of dignified public form, that, much as he enjoyed the 
humorous and playful at home, there was not a particle of it in 
his w T ri tings — his style never effervesced in anecdote nor even 
twinkled with humor ; it was always sedate with facts and a 
studied purpose. I may refer here especially, I think, to his 
Huguenot addresses, since the formation of this Society in 1883. 
With Huguenot history he was familiar from all sources of in- 
formation. He agreed with a German remark, that " the history 
of the Huguenots was the most beautiful leaf in the history of 
Protestantism. ' ' He could appreciate their qualities, for he had 
them. It was not, however, to the old and thrilling tale of St. 
Bartholomew, the bloody past, their terrible persecution and dis- 
persion under Papal and Jesuit urgency, that he confined himself. 
His view was broader. He wanted to know, as a subject well 
worth the study, to what extent their dispersion, their principles 
and their characteristics, had contributed to elevate social char- 


acter and material prosperity wheresoever they went ; to advance 
the progress of true Christianity, of civil and religious freedom, 
and the happiness of mankind. What had been the effect of so 
much intelligence, industry, virtue, sound political and Bible 
thought, and the charm of refined manners, when, and after, the 
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes had scattered them like pollen 
upon the wind to lodge and fructify among new peoples ? It was 
not to revive the fine old traditions, as a matter of pride ; but for 
this other and broader end, that he so faithfully devoted himself 
to this Society and sought its growth. His last, and as it proved 
his farewell address, was all on this line. In it he hailed the 
formation of societies, wherever they might bring out this pleas- 
ing story. And have we not had, in Mr. Jay himself, something 
of our own to contribute towards the make-up of that question ? 
Mr. Choate declared, before the Evangelical Alliance, that all the 
great principles for which Mr. Jay had so earnestly striven, had 
gone into the new State constitution. Everything that engaged 
his life work as a philanthropist, a patriot and a Christian states- 
man, had really been accomplished. 

In our library room stands a fine bronze statuette of Coligni ; 
Coligni the brave, the wise, the true and good ; Coligni, whom 
his most virulent enemies could but respect, and history praises as 
the noblest of them all — a typical Huguenot. Could it have been 
done in bronze, he should have on the white scarf ; should wear 
the historic emblem, the white marigold, the flower that — it was 
said — turns to the sun ; and it should bear the historic device : 
non inferiora secutus — I seek net inferior things. For us, how- 
ever, the famous old admiral, the typical man of that day, is only 
a presentment in bronze. But in Mr. Jay, our late president, 
have we not had much such a Huguenot — brave, wise and good ; 
' ' without fear and without reproach ' ' ; ' ' patient as a Hugue- 
not," " honest as a Huguenot " ; drawing the inspiration of his 
life and conduct from the highest sources, the Bible and the 
"sun of righteousness" ; one whom no wooing enticements of 
earthly gain or favor could divert from his principles and guides ? 
When one looks down into the fully opened calyx of the night- 
blooming cereus, he sees to the very bottom the purest and most 
exquisite white ; and its fragrance scents the air. So pure, white, 
diffusive of itself, was Mr. Jay's life and soul. 



At the completion of his seventieth year, in 1887, certain 
friends in the Union League gave him a dinner. The speakers 
were Mr. Choate, Mr. George William Curtis, Bishop Potter, 
Mr. Evarts, Mr. Whitehead and Mr. Depew ; men who had 
known him well from the beginning. Of course they were con- 
servative, and conformed to good taste in what they said. Never- 
theless, it was a fitting wreath of honor and praise and affection 
for the veteran whose active life was nearing its close. He de- 
served it. That close came not from natural decay, and its ina- 
bility to be active, though he was seventy-seven. But one even- 
ing, in returning from an Episcopal convention, he met with an 
accident from which he never recovered. It was an injury that, 
in turn, grew vital. And when the end w r as announced to him, 
he seemed only to regret (for his faith and trust was that of a 
Christian), that he could not have died, as he had always hoped 
to do, and like his father and grandfather, in the old library at 

The path of happiness and the place of honor — where are they ? 
An American Statesman once said : "I, too, have climbed the 
steep ascent to fame ; and I have found it too narrow for friend- 
ship, too slippery for repose." Mr. Jay jostled no one in any 
scramble for place or prominence or power ; content alwa\~s to 
tread the plain path of conscientious duty, wherever it might lead 
him. So he had friends by the way, and without place-hunting a 
place of universal esteem. Xor in private and social life did he 
claim anything for himself, any special regard, as one possessing 
the inherited plumage of wealth and a name. He did not pride 
himself upon that, nor content himself with it. To Mr. Jay, I 
think, would admirably apply what was said by the late George 
W. Curtis of Sir Philip Sidney : " ' Sidney was not a gentleman 
because his grandfather was Duke of Northumberland and his 
father Lord Deputy of Ireland, but because he w 7 as himself gener- 
ous, simple, truthful, noble, refined." Because, also, there was 
in him " that happy harmony of mind and temper, of enthusiasm 
and good sense, of accomplishment and capacity ; which is de- 
scribed by that most exquisite but much abused word, gentleman." 
Certainly in these days of place and office hunting with its degra- 
dation of conscience and character, Mr. Choate' s words concerning 
him may well be pondered : ' ' Were I called upon to point out to 



my sons the type of citizen best worth}' of imitation, I should 
pass over all the great generals, all the great magistrates and 
officials, who often become such by accident rather than merit ; 
and I should point them to the private citizen who was ever 
ready to render service in any good cause, to promote any needed 
reform, and who, seeking and taking nothing for himself, yielded 
everything to the public good." Such was his example, such in 
public estimation Mr. Jay himself ; the first, and for eleven con- 
tinuous years, president of this Society ; by name, by ancestral 
qualities, in his whole life, a truly representative Huguenot. As 
such, in and for the Society he loved and served well, we render 
him this farewell tribute. 


His speeches and pamphlets which have been widely circulated 
include : 

11 America Free or America Slave," 1856. 
" The Church and the Rebellion," 1863. 

' ' On the Passage of the Constitutional Amendment Abolishing 
Slavery," 1864. 

" Rome in America," 1S68. 

" The Sunday School a Safeguard to the Republic." 
• ' The Fisheries Question." 

"The Public School a Portal to the Civil Service." 


By Prof. Henry M. Baird, D.D., LL.D. 

The story of the recovery of religious liberty by the Hugue- 
nots, at the close of the eighteenth century, has received little 
attention and is, perhaps, not generally understood. Yet it is a 
record not devoid of interest and instruction. Without entering 
into minute details, I wish to present to you to-night some of the 
most salient features of the struggle by which the victory of free- 
dom of thought and of worship was achieved. 

Protestantism was suppressed by law in France for not less 
than 1 02 years. As the revocation of the Edict of Nantes took 
place in 1685, the legal existence of the religion of the Hugue- 
nots came to an end fifteen years before the close of the seven- 
teenth centur}- ; and as the Edict of Toleration was not signed by 
Louis XVI. until 17S7, by far the greater part of the eighteenth 
century had elapsed before any attempt was made by the crown 
to satisfy the demands of justice in behalf of a considerable part 
of the population of the kingdom. 

This was strange. It was more strange, perhaps, that nearly 
two-thirds of the same century had passed, before the attention 
of the public mind of France was brought to a serious considera- 
tion of the propriety of suspending the sanguinary laws enacted 
against the Huguenots by Louis XIV. and Louis XV. Most 
strange of all was it that the voice that first secured a hearing at 
the bar of humanity, was not the wail of some one of the perse- 
cuted Huguenots — such wails had arisen to high heaven in 
volume great enough, one would have supposed, to make them- 
selves audible far and near, yet men would not listen — nor was it 
the charitable intercession of some minister C priest or bishop), of 
the establishment — the Roman Catholic and Apostolic Church. 
No ! It was neither the cry of agony of the Protestant nor the 
generous appeal of a compassionate member of the other com- 

• Read before the Huguenot Society, December 14, i?94- 



munion. It was the protest of a free thinker whose caustic wit 
had been long directed against all that men regarded as most 
sacred ; indeed, a writer who, far from holding that sublime con- 
ception of toleration which regards it as admirable only in so far 
as it is founded upon or co-exists with strong convictions, laid it 
down as a principle that toleration, the sole cure for fanaticism, 
can be brought about only by indifference. 

Voltaire, the foremost French writer of the century, published 
his Treatise on Toleration in 1763. It was called forth by the 
judicial murder of Jean Galas, at Toulouse, in the previous year. 

Jean Calas was an aged Protestant merchant of Toulouse, 
highly respected for his probity, and though firmly attached to 
his own religious views, by no means a bigot, as is proved by the 
circumstance that he made no strenuous opposition when the 
second of his sons — Louis, by name — chose to become a Roman 

One evening in October, 1762, while the rest of the Calas fam- 
ily were upstairs, the eldest son, Marc Antoine was found to have 
hung himself on an inner door of the store over which they lived. 
At the outcry' raised when the suicide was discovered, some person 
in the crowd suggested that probably Marc Antoine had been 
murdered by his family. It did not take long for the suggestion 
to become a statement, and the story a circumstantial narrative. 
Toulouse was just then at fever heat. By invitation of the 
archbishop the bicentenary was about to be celebrated of the 
blood} 7 massacre perpetrated in this most superstitious of French 
cities, in the year 1562. (In our own days, or at least in 
1862, the tercentenary of the same atrocious event would have 
been celebrated under archiepiscopal patronage, had not the 
government of Louis Napoleon stepped in to forbid it. ) It was 
not difficult to persuade the populace that Marc Antoine Calas 
had died a martyr, having been put out of the w r ay to prevent 
him from making a professsion of the Roman Catholic faith. His 
family were arrested and put on trial, while the corpse of the 
suicide w r as taken to a church, exposed to the view of the people 
as a new saint, and buried with all the pomp that a new saint 
could justly claim. The unmerited honors paid by Roman Cath- 
olics to a person who was clearly a suicide, and almost certainly, 
not a. Roman Catholic, but a Protestant, were absurd and might 


be properly dismissed with contempt. But the trial of Jean Calas 
and his condemnation to death on the most flimsy evidence, or, 
rather, upon no evidence at all, is one of the darkest blots upon 
the judicial history of France. I shall not repeat the sentence 
rendered by the Parliament of Toulouse, further than to say that 
it included the application of both kinds of torture — the question 
ordinaire and the question extraoriiinai?'e — as well as that most 
painful death, breaking upon the wheel. Calas was to be left to 
die by exhaustion ; but, by a strange sort of mercy, a secret 
provision of the court ordered the time before he should be put 
out of his misery' by the eoup de grace to be limited to two hours. 
Those two hours he spent as a true Christian hero, suffering with 
noble fortitude, not bemoaning his own lot, but praying that his 
death might not be laid to the account of his judges, and adding 
with touching simplicity : " No doubt they were deceived by false 
witnesses. ' ' 

A few weeks after the tragedy, the attention of Voltaire was 
drawn to the travesty of justice enacted at Toulouse. The 
philosopher of Ferney sought out the youngest of Calas' s sons 
who fled for refuge to Geneva, near which Voltaire was living, 
and from him obtained authentic particulars of the occurrences. 

To the honor of the philosopher let it be said that, little as he 
sympathized with the religion professed by the unfortunate vic- 
tims of intolerance, Voltaire devoted himself, with a singleness 
of purpose rarely equalled, to the self-imposed task of securing 
the vindication of the memory of Jean Calas and the rehabilita- 
tion of his persecuted family. If anything could make one forget 
the outrages on the cause of morality and religion committed by 
Voltaire in his indecent stories and plays, and his sneers directed 
against all things divine, it would be the ardor of his new and 
benevolent undertaking. It was a difficult undertaking even for 
so able a writer. The king's council was the only body in France 
that could review the actions of a parliament, a sovereign court 
of the kingdom. Had France possessed a monarch worthy of 
the name, the task would have been easier. But Louis XV. , in 
his intense selfishness, was beyond the reach of appeals to justice 
or compassion. "If a hundred heads of families were to be 
broken on the wheel," Voltaire wrote to a friend, "Versailles 
would give itself little concern about the matter. ' ' 


I pass over the steps of the wearisome pursuit, which was at 
last crowned with success in the reversal of the parliament's 
action, the exculpation of the memory of the dead, and the royal 
grant of thirty thousand francs to the impoverished Protestant 

Voltaire assures us that he shed tears of joy at the news that 
the victory was won. I do not doubt it, nor do I doubt that, he 
felt much pleasure in writing - to a Protestant : 1 1 This affair is 
very likely to cause you Huguenots to obtain a toleration such 
as you have not enjoyed since the Revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes. I know very well that you will be sent to perdition in 
another world," he added maliciously, " but that is no reason for 
your being persecuted in this one ! ' ' 

It was one of the singularities of the discussion of the question 
of toleration into which others also were drawn — among them 
the celebrated Paul Rabaut — that the most unlikely men turned 
Biblical exegetes. We can scarcely read without a smile the 
most noted unbeliever of modern times gravely refuting, and with 
his characteristic skill, the interpretation fashionable among Roman 
Catholic controversialists for a hundred years or more, which made 
of the urgency of the master of the house in the Parable of the 
Great Supper — " Compel them to come in ! " — a justification for 
so-called "salutary constraint." "Clearly," said Voltaire, "a 
single servant could not force all whom he met to come in and 
sup with his Lord ; and guests thus constrained would not make 
the meal a very agreeable one. And he concluded the discussion, 
conducted in no irreverent spirit with the exhortation addressed 
to all parties : ' If you would resemble Jesus Christ, be martyrs 
and not hangmen ! ' " 

This was not the only case in which Voltaire interposed his 
powerful influence in behalf of persecuted Protestants. Witness 
the intercession, for example, for the poor Sirven family. 

I wish that I could say as much respecting another contempor- 
ary writer whose general influence on morals and religion was 
equally destructive. But I am compelled, in all frankness, to say 
that Jean Jacques Rousseau, whose writings against despotism 
and respecting the origin of inequality among men seemed to 
pledge him in advance to the defense of the downtrodden, shows 
to great disadvantage beside Voltaire. 


Rousseau was appealed to by the venerable Paul Rabaut about 
the same time as Voltaire was. He was asked to intercede with 
the French Government in behalf of the minister Rochette, and 
the three brothers Grenier, sentenced to be beheaded for an al- 
leged attempt to rescue that minister. But the appeal touched no 
responsive chord in Rousseau's breast. Rousseau was by birth a 
Genevese Protestant, and he did indeed reply that he had seen 
with mingled pain and indignation the frightful treatment to 
which " our unfortunate brethren " were subjected in Languedoc. 
But he was careful not to promise even to raise a finger to render 
the lot of those brethren more tolerable. He would not write to 
Malesherbes in their behalf — he knew him too slightly. He had 
no influence with the ministry, and declined to write because the 
ministers did not deign to reply to his letters. " Every man has 
his calling in this world," said he. My calling is to tell the 
public hard but useful truths. I have preached humanity, gentle- 
ness, toleration, so far as depended on me. It is not my fault if 
men have not listened to me. However, I have adopted as the 
rule of my conduct always to confine myself to general truths. I 
have composed neither libels nor satires. I attack not a mart but 
men, not an act but a vice. I cannot go beyond that." 

He recommended Rabaut to apply elsewhere, particularly to a 
man, whom he named, that could help mightily ; though unfor- 
tunately with him the will was wanting, as with himself it was the 
ability that was lacking. "Meantime, the righteous suffer!" 
He ended his letter with a whine: "I see by your letter," he 
says to the brave old preacher of the Desert, " I see by your letter, 
that, like me, you have learned to suffer in the school of poverty. 
Alas ! poverty maks us sympathize in the misfortunes of others, 
but puts it out of our power to relieve them. Goodbye, sir, I 
salute you w T ith all my heart ! ' ' 

And yet poor Jean Jacques who wanted only to be let alone, 
continued to be disturbed by appeals in behalf of his ' ' brethren ' ' 
till, in his timidity and cowardice, he would seem almost to have 
been sick of life. He preferred to pose as a knight that had worn 
himself out in the contest, and was quite ready to let younger 
men try their strength. (This was when he was of the advanced 
age of fifty- two years !) He pretended that he had contributed 
much to the tranquility of the Protestants, and that having done 

everything that he could, he was reproached for not doing more ! 

I nke saying useful things, but I do not like to repeat them. 
Those who must absolutely have re-statements need only to pro- 
vide themselves with several copies of the same written work ! ' ' 

I am not surprised that the French Protestants, contrasting the 
selfish indifference of Rousseau with the cheerful readiness of Vol- 
taire, were warm in their expression of gratitude to the latter. 
They had received scant kindness from any quarter, either in 
deed or in word, these many years ; so that a token of friendli- 
ness was welcome, no matter whence it came. And yet I confess 
that some of the expressions of this gratitude on the part of 
Protestants and Christians to their sceptical benefactor, are, to 
say the least, rather startling. I think that you will agree with 
me, if you will permit me to read some sentences from a letter 
written to Voltaire, a year or two before his death, by Gal Poma- 
ret, pastor of the church of Ganges. After calling down the 
blessings of heaven upon the octogenarian and praying that the 
last days of Voltaire may also be the happiest, and recalling what 
Voltaire had done to teach men to cease butchering one another 
for opinion's sake, he not only blesses God for having given Vol- 
taire birth, but actually sees in Voltaire a prospective heir of the 
Christian's crown and reward. I must give this astounding pas- 
sage, a very curiosity of literature, which, has received little 
notice, I think, in Gal Pomaret's own words and translation : 

II To contemplate the approach of death without fear and meet 
it without agitation, one must, in my opinion, believe the truths 
of the Gospel ; and I do not doubt that you believe them. It is 
true that you have set forth many difficulties against them ; but 
one may raise difficulties without being an unbeliever, and, still 
more, without being impious. When you were in the beautiful 
walks in which you found Numa, Pythagoras, Zoroaster, So- 
crates, and Jesus Christ, our Lord, you were told, sir, by the 
genius that led you, that the time when you were to know fully 
the last named had not yet come. Well, that time will arrive for 
you as for your fellow-men. You will see Jesus Christ in His 
glory, and you will share His blessedness ! He pitied poor sin- 
ners, He sorrowed over their wretchedness, He hasted to deliver 
them. He shewed himself harsh only toward hypocrites, and 
you were assuredly never a hypocrite." 


To which remarkable epistle, Voltaire replied courteously : " I 
am approaching the goal at which everything ends, and I shall 
finish my course regretting that I have gone so far without tast- 
ing the consolation of seeing you. I shall die near the region 
where died brave Zwingli, who thought that Numa, Socrates and 
the others whom you named were all of them very honest people " 
— " de fort honncies gens. ' ' 

Yet, beyond the growing aversion of the Government to exe- 
cute to the letter the cruel laws on the statute book, there were 
no immediate fruits from Voltaire's efforts. If Louis XV. had 
himself been willing to overturn the fabric of intolerance reared 
by the " grand monarch " and added to by himself, the clerical 
advisers whom he followed implicitly would never have permitted 
him to tear it down. 

At last his inglorious reign of nearly three score \ T ears came to 
an end in 1774. 

With the accession of Louis XVI. came bright but delusive 
hopes of a speedy triumph of religious toleration. Into his first 
cabinet were called two men of philosophic minds and known 
liberality of sentiment. These were Turgot and Malesherbes. 
Turgot had, twenty years before, published his "Letters on 
Toleration," which at the time were widely read and created no 
little consternation among the bigots. Now that he had entered 
the king's cabinet, he directed his attention to the coronation oath, 
from wmich he endeavored to persuade the young king to omit 
the customary clause that pledged him to ' 4 exterminate the 
heretics from his dominion. ' ' In this attempt he was not successful. 
Louis XVI. did, indeed, take care not to pronounce the objection- 
able words, and, in a low voice and blushing the while, supplied 
their place with some other words, wmich nobody heard or under- 
stood ; none the less w T as the official report allowed to go out, 
making the king to have used the same persecuting formula as 
his predecessor. Turgot did not give over his efforts to influence 
Louis to signalize his reign by a return to the spirit of wise toler- 
ation which Henry IV. had embodied in the Edict of Nantes. 
"No one," he told his majesty in a striking paper wdiich he 
laid before him, "no one, even be he a king, unless he has 
a direct commission from the Almighty, may exercise a control 
over men's consciences in the matter of their salvation." Turgot 


did spare the memory of Louis XIV. himself, and plainly told 
Louis XIV s descendant, that the prince that orders his subject to 
profess a religion which the latter does not believe, commands 
him to commit a crime ; and that the subject that obe} T s such 
a royal order, acts a lie, betrays his conscience, and does a thing 
which he believes to be forbidden him by God. These are to us 
elementary truths, which, at the present day, no one w T ould be 
so bold as to deny. They sounded strange, however, to many 
ears, only a little over a century ago. 

Unfortunately Turgot retained his seat in the cabinet for a very 
short time. Yet he remained in the government long enough, 
not only to urge his liberal views, but also to illustrate them, by 
as open a recognition of the existence of Protestantism in France 
as he dared to make. It is a significant fact that when in 
the course of the short-lived rebellion known as La Guerre des 
Farines, the government thought fit to send a circular, w r ith an 
accompanying letter of instructions, to all the Roman Catholic 
archbishops and bishops of the kingdom, to obtain their help 
in quelling the disturbance Turgot saw to it that copies were 
also sent to the Protestant ministers of the Desert ! It was a 
strange and unexpected event — a minister of the king asking 
moral support in putting down a civil commotion at the hands of 
ministers, upon whom, in virtue of their very office, the laws still 
in force pronounced the penalty of death! This w T as in 1775. 
It afforded the Protestant pastors an admirable occasion, which 
they were not slow to improve, to address an answer in which 
they proudly pointed to the inviolable loyalty of the Huguenots 
and expressed their confident expectation of the near approach of 
the return of that religious liberty for which they had patiently 
been waiting and praying for ninety years. It also gave an 
opportunity, when the rebellion came to an end, of holding at 
the gates of Nismes, a meeting so public that not only thousands 
of Protestants, but many Roman Catholics assembled, to render 
thanks to God at the king's coronation and sing loud Te Deums in 
honor of the event- 

I should be glad, did time permit;, to show, at this point, how, 
among the means employed to force upon the notice of the public 
the necessity of doing justice to the Huguenots, fiction was 
resorted to. I should be glad to reproduce, at least in summary, 

45 . 

the striking pamphlet, published in 1779, and entitled Le Vicitx 
Cci cnol, wherein Rabaut Saint 'Htienne describes the career of an 
imaginary Protestant and exhibits in his hero's experience the 
dangers and hardships to which those were still exposed by law, 
whom the absurd legislation, as yet unrepealed, would neither 
permit to live undisturbed in France nor suffer to expatiate them- 
selves. But this I may not do. 

I pass on to the year 1785, in which a nobleman endeared 
to Americans by his active intervention in the war to secure 
our national independence, carried out a long-cherished plan 
to obtain liberty for the Huguenots of France. The Marquis of 
Lafayette returned to his native land burning with zeal in this 
matter. A letter which he addressed to General Washington, 
May nth, and entrusted to " young Mr. Adams," fearing to 
put it in the mail, gives us the first revelation of his feelings and 
of his purpose. 

" The Protestants of France," he writes, "are subjected to an 
intolerable despotism. Although there is at present no open 
persecution, they are dependent upon the caprice of the king, of 
the queen, of parliament, or of a minister. Their marriages are 
not legal. Their wills have no force in the sight of the law ; their 
children are regarded as bastards, their persons are worthy of the 
halter. I should like to bring about a change in their situation. 
For this purpose I am going, upon certain pretexts, and with the 
consent of M. de Castries [one of the ministry] and of another 
[probably Malesherbes] , to visit their principal seats. I shall 
afterwards attempt to obtain the support of M. de Vergennes and 
of parliament, together with that of the keeper of the seals, who 
is acting as chancellor. It is a work that demands time and is 
not free from some inconveniences for me ; for the reason that no 
one w r ould give me a word in writing or any support whatsoever. 

Do not give me any answer in relation to this affair ; 
except that you have my letter in cipher, brought by Mr. Adams. 
But when, in the course of the autumn or winter, you learn that 
something has been accomplished in the matter, I want you 
to know that I contributed to it." 

Lafayette carried out his plan, and, a few weeks later, reaching 
Nismes almost by stealth, he sought out the venerable Paul 
Rabaut. Lafayette was not yet twenty-eight years old. Paul 

4 6 

Rabaut, the patriarch of the Desert, was over sixty-seven, and 
bowed down not so much under the burden of age, as under the 
crushing weight of incessant labors, exposures, perils and anxiety. 
It was a notable interview in which the foremost of the younger 
nobles of France, the scion of one of its most illustrious families, 
communicated to a Protestant minister, upon whose head a price 
had been repeatedly set by public proclamation, his hopes now 
apparently nearing realization. It is said that Paul Rabaut rever- 
ently thanked God, using the words of the aged Simeon : " Lord, 
now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, according to thy 
word, for mine eyes have seen thy salvation." 

Lafayette judged that it was indispensable that either Paul 
Rabaut or his son, Rabaut Saint Etienne, should come and take up 
his abode at Paris. The father was too infirm ; the son under- 
took the work, not without peril for a Protestant pastor, to labor 
at the capital in the interest of religious toleration. 

The difficulties were great. Louis XVI. was not hard-hearted, 
but he was timid and irresolute. Tolerant measures were 
naturally welcome to him, but he had been brought up under 
priestly influence. About a year later, the condition of the 
Protestants being about to come up for discussion before the 
council, Louis had made , up his mind to do them justice, but 
he still felt need of support and encouragement from without. 
Oueen Marie Antoinette became interested in the new projects, 
and spoke of them with warmth to her husband. Whereupon 
Louis took both her hands in his own and affectionately said : 
' ' You give me great pleasure by thinking thus. Talk to me often 
about the matter, so as to sustain me in this mood. ' ' Yet Louis 
XVI. was loath to break with the traditions of the past. More- 
over, although few cultured persons favored the sanguinary laws 
against the Protestants, the Protestants, and especially the Prot- 
estant ministers, were still the objects of a traditional aversion. 
No wonder ; for nearly a century their portrait had been drawn 
only by enemies. 

The most embarrassing circumstance was that no one, not even 
the most friendly to the Protestants among the king's advisers, 
dared to take any step resembling an attack upon the structure 
reared by Louis XIV. at so great an expense of time, trouble and 
blood. Malesherbes himself, in a memoir which he handed in to the 


king " on the Marriages of the Protestants," was careful to make 
it appear, that in providing a mode in which Protestants could 
lawfully be united in matrimony, his majesty would only be com- 
pleting what Louis XIV. "had intended to do, but for some reason 
had held in suspense. 

The circumstances were peculiar, and the work that devolved 
upon Malesherbes and his associates was peculiarly delicate. P A 
little careless handling, a few blunders would have ruined every- 
thing. The documents that have come down to us, the pleas 
of Rulhiere in his " Edaircisseme?its hisioriqaes ," etc., owe their 
characteristic features to this fact. What appear at first sight to 
be signal defects, the result of contracted views historically in- 
correct, both in the work just named and in the memoirs of 
Malesherbes, are, in point of fact, indications of a clear apprehen- 
sion of what, in the circumstances, was possible and what was 
impossible of attainment. 

The report made by Rabaut Saint Etienne to the committee of 
Protestants of Bordeaux, published for the first time, if I am not 
mistaken, two years since, by my friend the late Charles Dardier, 
whose recent loss the little band of workers in French Protestant 
history deeply deplores, sheds a flood of light on the situation of 
affairs in Paris. Among other things, Pvabaut Saint Etienne 
remarks that the memoirs of Malesherbes were not published so 
much to form public opinion, as to induce the Parliament of Paris 
to consent to the registration of the king's edict of toleration, of 
which I shall shortly speak, by showing that all the difficulties in 
the way had been anticipated. They were composed primarily 
for the king's council, and it is as read there that they must now 
be read and judged. Their author was a skillful writer, who 
turned aside prej udices which he could not destroy — a legislator 
who spoke as calmly and with as entire an absence of passion as 
the law itself. The reigning belief was that the Revocation of 
the Edict of Nantes was the work of a consummate policy and 
the result of a system planned long since. It was necessary 
to prove in the council itself that neither Louis XIV. nor his 
council had any system, that there were Protestants in France, 
and that that monarch had the intention of giving them their 
rights as citizens. 

Many months passed before success crowned the persevering ex- 


ertions put forth by Malesherbes and his faithful coadjutors. The 
rirst dawn of light came when ( February 9, 17S7) the Parliament 
apparently wishing to forestall the notables in their action, di- 
rected their first president to present himself before the king, and 
beg his Majesty to be pleased " to weigh, in his wisdom, the 
means of giving a civil status to the Protestants." 

But it was reserved lor the Marquis of Lafayette to bring be- 
fore the Notables, at their session of May 23, 1787, the proposal 
which was destined to win the day. In the address to the king 
which he moved, Lafayette granted that the matter was indeed 
foreign to the purpose for which the Notables had been called to- 
gether ; but justified their action on the ground that the regime of 
prescription under which the Protestants were groaning was con- 
trary alike to the general interest of the population, to the pros- 
perity of the national interests, and to all principles of morality 
and of policy. 

If six months more elapsed before the petition, graciously re- 
ceived by Louis XVI., was duly answered, the reason is to be 
found in the desperate resistence of the clergy of France, who 
seemed to have learned nothing, to have forgotten nothing, except 
that they were no longer living in the times of Louis XIV. I 
cannot 'pause here to describe the virulent pamphlet which a Jesuit 
WTrotein opposition, and which devout women, like the unfortunate 
Marechale de Noailles, thought it a w r ork of piety to circulate at 
their own private expense. 

On the 19th of November, 1787, attended by his two brothers, 
the Counts of Provence and Artois, the future Louis XVIII. and 
Charles X., the king visited the parliament house. He had been 
preceded by the law T officers of the crown who laid before the 
judges two important bills. The one had reference to a loan of 
480,000,000 livres to meet the pressing needs of the treasury. 
Unpopular as the measure was in itself, it was rendered doubly 
odious by the arbitrary course of Louis, w T ho after listening for 
some hours to a discussion of its merits, was so ill advised as sum- 
marily to stop the debate, by ordering the parliament to enter 
the edict on its records forthwith in his Majesty's presence, and by 
his most express command. The second bill which was next sub- 
mitted, before the murmurs of discontent on the part of the 
offended counsellors had been quieted, and which Louis left to be 


discussed after he should have left the hall, was the Edict of 

This law took the first step, but only the first step, in the direc- 
tion of religious liberty. It did not grant freedom of religious 
worship. It did not repeal the legislation of Louis XIV. It 
pretended only to supplement it. Louis XIV. forbade the public 
exercise of any other religion than the Roman Catholic, and, 
being misled by some delusive appearances of conversions, hoped 
to accomplish the complete religious reunion of his subjects. 
This prevented him from carrying into effect the plans, which he 
had formed, of giving a legal establishment, a civil status, to such 
of his subjects as could be admitted to the sacraments of the 
Church. It was ostensibly to remedy the evils flowing from this 
neglect that the present law was drawn up. There was no recog- 
nition, much less any authorization, of the Protestant religion. 
The law did not even use the word 11 Protestants," except acci- 
dentally once in the preamble. It referred only to " non-Catho- 
lics." But to these it proceeded to restore the rights of citizens, 
of men, of which they had been deprived for over a hundred 
years. Whereas heretofore they had no legal existence (for their 
births could not be recorded, the}- coul'd not be legally married 
unless they apostatized and were wedded by a Roman Catholic 
priest, and their children were smitten with the blight of bastardy 
and declared incapable of receiving by inheritance the property of 
their parents), the way was pointed out by which such persons as 
acknowledged no allegiance to the State Church might henceforth 
enter into full possession of those human prerogatives which can- 
not, save by flagrant injustice, be denied to any member of our 
race. Not only so, but the law was retroactive. It enabled 
children whose parents had been married in the Desert, as it was 
called, by the proscribed and fugitive pastors of the Desert, to 
establish the legitimacy of their descent, with all the benefits 
which this secured. To this end it was only necessary that, 
within a year from the publication of the edict, the husband and 
wife, accompanied by four witnesses, should present themselves 
before a curate or a royal judge and make declaration of their 
marriage, giving proof of its date and signifying the number, age 
and sex of their offspring. The curate that should refuse to 
accept this attestation and to record the marriage on the same 


register with his Roman Catholic parishioners, rendered himself 
liable to severe penalties. Similar provision was made for the 
registry of baptisms and deaths. In short, the Protestants were 
again permitted to live, after their long civil death. 

It was not all the Protestants desired and claimed. The law 
candidly confessed that it conceded only what could no longer be 
denied. But it involved a great deal more than this'. The 
enemies of the Huguenots saw this, and left no stone unturned to 
prevent the measure from becoming a law. While other courts 
applauded Louis XVI. , the court of Rome alone, we are told, 
gave him clearly to understand that, unless he should address 
himself to the pope, and confess his faults before the pope, he 
had signed his spiritual death-warrant. Upon hearing which the 
king remarked : "I shall do better ; for I shall address myself to 
God ! " 

Of the king's brothers one, the Count of Artois, the future 
Charles X., allowed his superstitious fears to sway him, and at 
clerical suggestion, attempted to dissuade the monarch from his 
liberal course. The other, the Count of Provence, the future 
Louis XYIII. , sustained that course by his influence. Not only 
so, but he remonstrated with Artois, getting from the latter for 
all reply only the apologetic statement that he wanted to save his 
soul. " In that case," tartly remarked Provence, " it were well 
for you to show yourself less of an admirer of the fair sex, and to 
lessen the number of your creditors ! ' ' 

I shall not attempt, I should indeed fail if I made the attempt, 
to depict the joy of the Huguenots when the news of the enact- 
ment and registration of the law came, when the}' could again speak 
of their religion otherwise than with bated breath, when in many a 
part of France, from man}' a town and village, from many a ham- 
let, men and women of every station and of every stage in life, 
from youth to decrepit age, might be seen hastening to the resi- 
dence of the nearest royal judge to claim the privilege of securing 
the sanction of the law for a union entered into often many years 
before. There were couples so far advanced in the journey of life 
that they were seeking to obtain," along with the official registry 
of their own marriages, the registry of the marriages not only of 
their children, but even of their grandchildren. It was the happy 
hour for whose advent they had long been straining their eyes — 

an hour whose brightness was only swallowed up by the superior 
effulgence of that day, two years later, when in the French Revo- 
lution there was incorporated in the Declaration of the Rights of 
Man, the full recognition of the right of public expression of 
opinion and of religious worship. 

Then it was, ladies and gentlemen, that a Protestant, the cele- 
brated Rabaut Saint Etienne (soon to become president of the 
National Assembly) repudiated the narrow principles of a law 
which he could now boldly characterize as 1 ' more celebrated than 
just," and exclaim: "Gentlemen, it is not toleration that I 
claim, but Liberty! 1 Toleration ,' 'sufferance,' 'pardon,' 
1 clemency ' — these are ideas supremely unjust to dissenters, so 
long as it remains true that difference of opinion is not a crime. 
1 Toleration / ' I Remand that ' Toleration ' in its turn be pro- 
scribed " And he begged the legislators of France, casting their 
eyes on the other side of the ocean, to learn a lesson from the 
inhabitant of the young republic of the New World. " If ex- 
amples ma} r be cited," he said, "imitate the example of those 
generous Americans, who have placed at the head of their civil 
code the sacred maxim of universal religious freedom ; of those 
Pennsylvanians who have declared that all that adore one God, 
in whatever manner they adore Him, shall enjoy every right of 
citizenship — of those gentle and wise inhabitants of Philadelphia, 
who see all forms of worship established in that city, with twenty 
different churches, and who perchance owe to this the profound 
acquaintance with liberty which they have won for themselves. ' ' 

Thus did the Huguenots of France win Religious Libert}'. Thus 
did their advocate in the National Assembly secure for himself a 
reputation which for a time seemed to surpass that of Mirabeau 


By Rev. Matthew Cantixe Juijex. 

Explanatory Xote : — The following paper read before the 
Society, April 30, 1895, was illustrated by a series of magic 
lantern views. A list of these views will be found at the close 
of the paper. The numbers in parentheses indicate at what point 
in the lecture these lantern slides were exhibited, and correspond 
to the numbers in the list just mentioned. 

The fact that the paper was read on the 106th anniversary of 
the inauguration of George Washington as the first President of 
the United States, as well as the fact that the esteemed president 
of the Huguenot Society of America was the chairman of the 
Civic Committee having the anniversary exercises in charge, 
will explain the particular allusions to Washington's visit to 

The Xew England forefathers and the Huguenots had already 
clasped hands in the Old World before ever the Mayflower sailed. 
(Slide Xo. 1.) In Holland, the common land of refuge for the 
persecuted of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the English 
Pilgrim and the French Refugee met, and recognized the sacred 
bond which unites all those who are ' ' persecuted for righteous- 
ness sake." In racial temperament and national history, they 
were not only very unlike each other, but might even have 
become antagonistic, had not the deeper impulse of a common 
faith and consecration overcome all other influences and made 
them friends. (Slide Xo. 2. ) 

In England, it is true, Sir John Knight in 1694 published what 
purported to be his off-hand speech before the House of Com- 
mons, against the bill for naturalizing the Huguenot Refugees, 
in which occurs this suggestion : ' 1 That the sergeant be com- 

♦Read before the Huguenot Society, April 30, 1S95. 



manded to open the doors, and let us first kick the bill out of the 
House, and then foreigners out of the kingdom." But the 
Pilgrims to New England (whatever ma}- be said of the Puritans) 
had felt the persecuting and intolerant spirit of their fellow- 
countrymen, and thus had learned to rise above mere race preju- 
dice in their intercourse with their refugee brethren from France. 

When from Delf shaven in Holland, the Pilgrims departed in 
the little ship Speedwell to meet the Mayflower at Southampton, 
they had in their company a Huguenot family, who were recorded 
on the ship's list of the Mayflower under the name of " Mullins," 
but who, in fact, were Guilliaume Molines, his wife and two 
children — one a son named Joseph and the other a daughter 
named Priscilla. The descendants of the Huguenots as well as 
New Englanders, therefore, have a right to be interested in the 
recently reported discovery by Mr. George H. Boughton of New 
York City, of an old Dutch painting, the subject of which, it is 
believed, is the departure of the Pilgrims from Delfshaven. 
(Slide No. 3.) The account will be found in Harper's Weekly 
of the 9th of March, 1895. The father, mother and son of the 
Molines died in the year following the landing on the bleak and 
wintry coast of Massachusetts — that awful year of famine, of 
suffering and of death, and yet of magnificent heroism. The 
daughter, however, survived to become the ancestress of one of 
the most noted and esteemed families of New England — that of 
the Aldens. And so completely has she become identified in 
New England thought and imagination with the story of the 
Pilgrims, that successive generations have ever held Priscilla to 
be what Longfellow described as the typical ' ' Puritan Maiden. ' ' 
(Slide No. 4.) As such her picture appears on the walls of the 
homes of New England, in hillside farm houses and in city 
dwellings. Little do many people realize that as a matter of 
historic fact, Priscilla was a native of France and born of French 
parents. Longfellow's poem has enshrined the French girl all 
the more in the affections of New England, as the typical New 
Englander ; and it is probable that in spite of the record of 
history, the picture of John Alden and his fair young bride will 
continue to be the popular representation of the peculiarly English 
ancestors of New England. 

And yet, even of John Alden himself, I have found some 


evidence which indicates that he also was of Huguenot origin. 
The Alden genealogies, so far as I have had opportunity to 
examine them, either state vaguely that the name of Alden is not 
found in England, or mention a certain Mr. Alden of St. John's 
College, who is referred to as 4 1 one who suffered by the tyranni- 
cal Bartholomew act" — which statement suggests that it was a 
French Refugee of 1572 who is the ancestor of the family. There 
is mention also of a "John Alden of the Middle Temple," to 
whom a coat of arms was assigned in the year 1607. Now 
the John Alden of the Mayflower, it will be remembered, was 
a cooper, whom the Pilgrims met at Southampton, just before 
their departure for America, and whom they induced to join their 
company with the understanding that he should be free to remain, 
or return to England as he pleased. I find in the list of persons 
mostly Huguenots naturalized by Royal letters patent and recorded 
at Westminster for the 5th of March, 1691, the name of Anne 
Alden with those of her son-in-law Jean Blancard and Mary, 
his daughter. And there is a still more significant record of the 
granting of naturalization in 1575 — that is, three years after 
the massacre of St. Bartholomew — to " Susan and Sarah Alden, 
daughters of John Alden of London, grocer, and Barbara, daughter 
of Jacques du Prier, his wife.'' 

In these records we have sufficient evidence I think, at least to 
surmise, that the John Alden of the Mayflower, as well as his 
wife Priscilla, was of direct Huguenot origin. (Slide No. 5). 
Everj'body is familiar with Millais' beautiful picture of the 
Huguenot Lovers of the period of St. Bartholomew massacre. It 
would be a curious continuation of the story which that picture 
suggests if it should have a New World companion piece in the 
New England Lovers of 1620, who, on the white sand and amid 
the tangled sea grasses of Plymouth beach, vowed fealty to each 
other. (Slide No. 6). 

And that same little ship, the Speedwell, which left Delf shaven 
in Holland with Pilgrims had also among its passengers the 
Huguenot Philip de la Noye, who, although born in Holland, 
was the son of French Refugee parents. He crossed the ocean a 
year later than the Molines in the ship Fortune. His descendants, 
who now bear the name of 1 ' Delano ' ' are numerous in the region 
where their ancestors first landed — a number of them being among 


the best known and most esteemed people in my present home, the 
city of New Bedford, and in its neighborhood. It was not, how- 
ever, until after the Revocation that the Huguenot emigration to 
New England became surdeieutly large to attract attention, and 
even at that time we are not to suppose that the total number was 
at all comparable with that of the French Refugees who came to 
New York and its vicinity. The climate of New England was too 
bleak and the winters too prolonged to offer much attraction to 
the natives of sunny France. And it is a fact that a large propor- 
tion of those who came to New England were inhabitants of 
the towns and villages along the western and northern coast of 

Out of a list of seventy-seven names of Huguenot Refugees, 
who were in Boston at the close of the seventeenth and the early 
part of the eighteenth centuries, I find that thirty-seven were 
from the west coast, and four from Normandy, making more 
than fifty-three per cent, residents cf the colder parts of France. 
It is very probable that this percentage would be increased, did 
we know the provinces from which twenty-three of the remainder 
had fled from the dragonnades of Louis XIV. LaRochelle was 
the central city of the region from whence came most of the 
Huguenots who found a home in Boston. (Slide No. 7.) While, 
as Dr. Charles W. Baird has suggested, the main cause of the 
immigration from LaRochelle to Boston was the acquaintance 
which, through navigation and commerce, the people of western 
France had already acquired with New England, it seems possi- 
ble that the story of those Huguenots of the earlier day who had 
cast in their fortunes with the Pilgrims of the Plymouth settle- 
ment, had also had some influence in suggesting Massachusetts as 
a home for the exiles. For the Pilgrim and the Huguenot were 
alike in the fact that each had suffered persecution from their 
own countrymen. In the early summer of the year 1686, under 
stress of renewed persecution, a company of Huguenots came to 
Boston from the island of St. Christopher (or St. Kitts) W. L, 
among them being David de Bonrepos, the second pastor of the 
French church in Boston, and afterwards pastor of the church in 
New Rochelle, N. Y. (Slide No. 8.) It is probable that these 
Refugees were originally from the colder parts of France, and it 
is reasonable to believe that they would not have left their pleasant 


West Indian homes had it not been that, under the pressure of the 
home government, the era of toleration in these distant colonies of 
France had been succeeded by one of determined persecution. 

The gentle climate of South Carolina of course attracted the 
larger number of the Refugees, and even of those who came to 
Boston it seems quite certain that the majority soon drifted to 
•other towns or regions where the climate was more genial. "While, 
therefore, we cannot expect to find in the story of Old Boston, as 
large a number of Huguenot names as in towns or cities farther 
south, and preeminently in the city of Charleston, South Caro- 
lina (Slide Xo. 9), yet, even in the earlier Colonial period that is 
to say, at the beginning of the eighteenth century, there is a 
group of individuals who occupied positions of note in the city of 
Boston, who were all of them Refugees from France. I will not 
weary you with a mere list of names, but wish, rather to set be- 
fore you a few of the most prominent and typical characters of 
the Huguenot Refugees, who made Boston their home and who, 
especially when we consider their small number, have with their 
descendants moulded to a marked degree the history and the 
character of the people of Xew England. 

Dock Square marks the site of the earliest landing place of Old 
Boston. (Slide Xo. 10.) Xo description of the town in Boston 
in the da}* when the Protestant Refugees from France sought its 
protection for a home, could be complete, which did not make this 
Square a conspicuous feature. There is nothing in the present 
view which belongs to the scene upon which these Frenchmen 
looked, when, at the close of the seventeenth century* the}* came 
to Boston to find the religious liberty and the right to happiness 
which were denied them in their own land. (Slide .Xo. 11.) 
Just when their number was large enough in Boston to make 
them feel justified in organizing a church there of their own order 
is not known. Dr. Charles Baird suggested that it may hav? 
been formed under the Rev. Pierre Daille as early as 16S2 or 
1683. At any rate we find the little Huguenot congregation 
assembling each Sunday in the year 16S6 in the Latin School 
House by permission of the select men of Boston. (Slide Xo. 12. ) 
This school was the beginning of the educational system in Bos- 
ton, having been established in 1634. It gave the name School 
street to the roadway on which it was situated. It occupied the 


space now covered by the east end of King's Chapel and a part of 
the lawn in front of the present City Hall about as far as the 
statue of Benjamin Franklin. (Slide Xo. 13.) Its front was 
nearly opposite the School street entrance of the Parker House. 
Here the Huguenots worshipped from 1686 for a period of thirty 
years before they were able to erect a church or ' ' temple ' ' of 
their own. Their inability was due not to a lack of meanSj but 
because permission to build was at first withheld by the town 
authorities. (Slide Xo. 14.) We are not informed as to the real 
reason for this refusal of official permission, but I think it may be 
fairly surmised that the Huguenot custom of observing Christmas 
and like festival days, together with the fact that the congrega- 
tion spoke a foreign tongue, seemed to their Puritan neighbors to 
justify a measure of restraint, especially when we remember that 
in the laws of Massachusetts Bay it was enacted in 165 1 " That 
whosoever shall be found observing any such day as Christmas, 
or the like, either by forbearing labor, feasting, or any other way 
upon any such account as aforesaid, every such person so offend- 
ing, shall pay for every such offence, five shillings as a fine to the 
count}\" As early as the beginning of the year 1705, the 
Refugees were in possession of the land on which they afterwards 
erected their church. It was situated on School street, but on the 
opposite side of the way from the school-house, and further down 
toward what is now called Washington street. (Slide No. 15.) 
I should judge that the site is that on which to-day stands the 
Five Cent Savings Bank. The view I present you, is taken from 
the site of the Latin School to that of the little brick building 
which in 17 16 was erected as the Huguenot church of Boston. 
The picture is, of course, useless, so far as giving one an idea of the 
scene as it appeared in the early day, yet it may be helpful in 
identifying the site if you should visit Boston in search of the 
localities having Huguenot associations. This church was of 
course the centre of Huguenot interest in the period we are con- 
sidering, that is, the first half of the eighteenth century. It 
covers the time when the Huguenot Refugees were in their prime, 
and when the public interest in their history was the most active. 

Taking this brick church as the centre, we will find by con- 
sidering the buildings in its vicinity, that they make up a group 
of Huguenot homes, whose occupants (with a few exceptions to 


be considered later) were the most conspicuous characters in the 
Huguenot life of Old Boston. The brick ' ' temple ' ' itself, was 
not erected until 1716. (Slide No. 16.) Now the earliest en- 
graved map of Boston, that of Bonner, which was published in 
1722, fairly determines the site of the French church. A mar- 
ginal note on this map informs us among other items, that at this 
time there were nearly 3,000 houses, one-third of them -built of 
brick, and a population of nearly 12, coo people in the town of 
Boston. On this map the site of the church is marked by the 
letter " K." 

From 167 1 to 1708 the Latin School was in charge of 
Ezekiel Cheever, a man of marked ability and influence. In 
1704, a new school-house was erected on the same site, and the 
Huguenot congregation therefore worshipped in each of these 
school buildings successively. Of the four pastors of this French 
congregation, Van den Bosch, Bonrepos, Daille, and Le Mercier, 
only the last two remained long enough to leave their personal 
impress upon the community. The pastorate of Pierre Daille ex- 
tended from 1696 to 1715, and it may also be true that it was he 
who, thirteen years before his regular settlement in Boston, had 
formed the church itself. Daille 's name is as familiar to those 
who have read the history of the early Huguenot churches in 
New York State, as that of the churches in Massachusetts. ( Slide 
No. 18. ) He has indeed been called ' ' The Apostle of the Hugue- 
nots in America." Arriving in New York in 1682, when he was 
about thirty- three years of age, he became the pastor to. the 
French congregation, which like the Dutch, met in the church 
within the fort. 

In 1683, while Johannes Weekstein was the domine of the 
Dutch church in Kingston, New York, Daille, probably with the 
domine' s endorsement, organized the French church at New 
Paltz in the same region. The years from 1696 when he became 
the pastor of the church in Boston until he died, w r ere the period 
of its greatest prosperity. On the 21st of May, 17 15, Daille 
died, universally respected for his remarkable earnestness and con- 
secration of character, as well as for his ability and scholarship. 
(Slide No. 19.) 

Just beside the Park Street Congregational Church in Boston, is 
the Granary Burial Ground, so-called from the public granary 


which in the Colonial Period occupied the site of the present 
church. Here lie the ashes of main* of the French, who com- 
posed the congregation to which Daiile ministered, and here his 
body also was at last interred. (Slide No. 20. ) His grave-stone, 
which, by some mischance of time, was carried away, and only 
accidentally discovered some years ago by workmen who were 
digging a cellar on Pleasant street, has been replaced in the old- 
burial ground. There it stands to-day partly broken, but still 
showing plainly its quaint can-en border and inscription. 

It was during his pastorate that Queen Anne presented to the 
church a pulpit Bible. (Slide Xo. 21.) This Bible continued in 
use until the church was dissolved. It then passed into the pos- 
session of Rev. Mather Byles, the first pastor of the Hollis Street 
Congregational Church, who w-as one of the most famous scholars 
and wits of the Colonial Period. At the sale of Mather Byles' 
library it was purchased by a Mr. Cobb, whose wndow in 1831 
presented the book to the Divinity Library of Harvard Univers- 
ity, where it is now carefully preserved. I w T ish that it had been 
possible for me to show you the volume itself to-night, but the 
library authorities kindly permitted me to make the photographs 
of it, which I now T show- you. (Slide Xo. 22.) This book, in- 
teresting for its associations with Queen Anne and with early 
Huguenot history in our country, is in a state of very good 
preservation — the leather backing only being frail. It shows that 
it has been carefully and skilfully repaired at some time in the 
past ; but although the back may be a restoration, the sides are 
certainly the original covers. The book measures eighteen and 
three- fourth inches in length, by a foot in breadth, and five and 
one-half inches in thickness. It contains a few- illustrations and 
maps, and also the Old Testament Apochrypha. It is most pro- 
fusely annotated. (Slide Xo. 23.) By the imprint on the title 
page, we learned that it was printed in Amsterdam by Louis and 
Daniel Elzevier in the year 1669. The language of course is 
French. On the inside of the cover is pasted a slip of paper on 
which the history of the book is written, and it is signed by the 
Xew England historian, John G. Palfrey, in whose handwriting 
the statement appears. 

The last pastor of the Huguenot church in Boston, was Andrew r 
Le Mercier, whose sen-ices began in 17 16, and lasted until the 


dissolution of the church iu 1748. He came to Boston a young 
man with ideas of church government, quite in contrast with 
those of his English neighbors. Presbyterianism in New Eng- 
land owes much to the influence of this Huguenot pastor. It was 
while he was in London that he had contracted with Andrew 
Faneuil to become the pastor of the Boston church at a salary of 
100 pounds. Like many other Huguenots, who were ever hoping 
for some change in the State policy of France toward their re- 
ligion, Le Merrier did not ask for English naturalization until a 
number of years had passed. In February, 1731, however, we 
find his name with those of others of his congregation, signed to 
a petition addressed to the General Court of Massachusetts, ask- 
ing this privilege. L'pon the wall of the Essex Institute at Salem 
to-day hangs the portrait of this last pastor of the Huguenot 
church of Boston. (Slide No. 24.) He was an energetic and 
industrious man, whose interest in the public welfare went beyond 
the bounds of his own church. The most conspicuous evidence 
of this interest, perhaps, was his success in 1738 in securing Sable 
Island, off the coast of Nova Scotia, as a place of refuge for ship- 
wrecked mariners. 

It was within a year after his arrival that the brick church 
building was erected on School street. (Slide No. 25.) A num- 
ber of sermons which he preached in its pulpit, evidently a series 
of discourses on the Epistle of Peter, are preserved in the library 
of the Massachusetts Historical Society. It is by courtesy of the 
Society's officers that I am permitted to exhibit to you photo- 
graphs of the title page and of the inside pages of one" of these 
sermons. By the record it appears that it was preached in Boston, 
November 15, 1719. (Slide No. 26). 

By the year 1748 the Huguenot Church had dwindled to less 
than a dozen members, mainly because of the death of most of 
the original Refugees, but also because their descendants naturally 
preferred to attend churches where the English language was 
used in the public worship. Consequently in that year the organ- 
ization was dissolved and the building sold to a Congregational 
church, with the proviso that it should never be used for other 
than Protestant worship. This condition was, however, after- 
wards disregarded ; for on November 2, 1788, after all the orig- 
inal founders had long passed away, it came into Roman Catholic 


hnnds and was used for their worship. Le Mercier continued to 
reside in the vicinity of Boston until his death on the 31st of 
March, 1764. He left a family of three sons and two daughters ; 
and an estate which comprised some property near the Long 
Wharf in the city of Boston. 

To the west of the church, just where Beacon street (known in 
the ancient time, curiously, as " the lane which leads to the Alms 
House,") joins Tremont street stood the residence of Gilbert 
Deblois who belonged to one of the principal Huguenot families 
of this French congregation in Old Boston. The Deblois family 
had come from Marennes in Saintonge, on the west coast of 
France, and arrived in Boston in 1687. They were nobly con- 
nected and had always been staunch Protestants. Their home 
was long known as the " Deblois Mansion," and in the year 1769 
we find it mentioned as one of the stateliest private dwellings in 
Eoston, when the town had a population of 18,000. Among the 
ladies of Boston at that time, who — as was said — were " noted 
for unusual attractions," occurs the name of Elizabeth Deblois. 
(Slide Xo. 27.) In 1S00 a sketch of Tremont street shows the 
Deblois home removed to the corner of Bromfield street. 

Just north of Beacon street, on Tremont street, was another 
Huguenot home. In the early Colonial Period it was one 
of the most attractive private mansions in Boston. (Slide Xo. 
2S.) The ground with a stone house upon it was bought by 
Andre Faneuil in the year 17 10 for 800 pounds. Andre and his 
two brothers, Benjamin and Jean, had fled to Holland from their 
native city of La Rochelle, at the time of the Revocation of the 
Edict of Xantes. Jean afterwards returned to France. But Ben- 
jamin and Andre settled in Boston in 16S6. Benjamin was the 
elder brother, and therefore was at the head of the mercantile 
house of Faneuil & Co. , which did a constantly increasing business. 
In 1699, Benjamin removed to Xew York, where he became well 
known among the French population. Andre remained in Bos- 
ton, and won for himself the reputation not only of being the 
most enterprising and successful merchant there, but also of hav- 
ing acquired the largest fortune of any private citizen in Boston. 

His warehouses were the most extensive and his residence, 
which was erected in 171 1, was the most attractive private man- 
sion in Boston in his time. (Slide Xo. 29.) We have already 


seen in what high esteem he was held by his fellow Huguenots, 
in that the selection of a pastor for their chiirch was left wholly 
to him. Perhaps I can best suggest the remarkable commercial 
success which this French Pvefugee made in the new land of his 
adoption, and also the profound impression which he left upon 
the Puritan community as well, if I quote the brief and quaint 
account of his funeral which appeared in the Boston News Letter- 
on February 23, 1737: "Last Monday the corpse of Andrew 
Faneuil, Esquire, whose death we mentioned in our last, was 
honorably interred here, above 1,100 persons of all ranks, besides 
the mourners following the corpse ; also a vast number of specta- 
tors were gathered together on the occasion, at which time the 
half-minute guns from on board several vessels were discharged. 
And 'tis supposed that as this gentleman's fortune was the great- 
est of any among us, so his funeral was as generous and expen- 
sive as any that has been known here." (Slide No. 30.) The 
ashes of the Huguenot merchant lie in the Faneuil tomb, which 
is situated near the southwestern corner of the burial ground 
beside the present Park Street Church. The name on the tomb 
is curiously misspelled, " Funal." At the front of the tomb are 
the Faneuil Arms, most elaborately and beautifully cut in the 
stone. (Slide No. 31. ) 

His brother Benjamin, after leaving Eoston with his wife Anne 
Bureau, daughter of Francois Bureau, lived in New Rochelle, 
N. Y. Here their son Peter, the eldest of eleven children, was 
born in the year 1700. The volume of collections of the American 
Huguenot Society contains the record of his baptism on the 15th 
of July of that year, by the Rev. Pierre Peiret, first pastor of the 
old Huguenot church of New York City, which once stood on 
the site now occupied by the Produce Exchange. His father 
Benjamin died when he was eighteen years old, and Peter went 
to Boston to live with his Uncle Andre, whose favorite he soon 
became. On the death of the old Huguenot merchant of Boston, 
Peter became the heir to his fortune, and the occupant of his 
stately mansion. Although he was not himself a Refugee, yet as 
he survived his uncle but five years, and had always been closely 
identified with the interests and affairs of the French population, 
he seems more nearly a representative of the generation of the 
Refugees than that of their descendants. In the few years that 


he lived after he received the inheritance, he largely extended 
the fortune which had come to him. The record of his life is the 
more complete because of the attention which his marked indi- 
viduality received in the community. His love of good living, 
and his liking for display, came into contrast with the stricter 
habits and simpler tastes of his Puritan neighbors. And he was 
particularh- remembered because of his widespread benefactions. - 
The best known of these is his princely gift to the town of Boston 
of the building which, with its successors, has ever since borne 
the name of " Faneuil Hall." (Slide No. 32.) We have a 
description of his personal appearance by a contemporary which 
would seem to indicate that he was not physically attractive. 
The exact words are: " A fat corpulent brown squat man, hip 
short, lame from childhood." The force of this description, 
however, should be modified by other evidences that w r e possess 
of his personal appearance. (Slide No. 33.) 

On the wall of the gallery of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society in Boston to-day, hangs a life-size painting of Peter 
Faneuil. It is in excellent condition, and from it was taken 
the copy which hangs in Faneuil Hall. (Slide No. 34.) The 
original painting is the work of John Smibert, an artist who came 
to America, and who was married in Boston in 1730. If one may 
judge from the picture, Peter Faneuil was certainly not lacking in at 
least a degree of dignity in his personal appearance — in spite of the 
description I have just quoted. For the last five years of his life 
he was the most conspicuous figure in the commercial and in 
the social life of Boston. His palatial home (the enthusiastic 
description of which has come down to us) ; his stately chariot 
expressly imported from London ; his large and well-stocked 
cellars, but above all his noble charities, were the features by 
which he was perhaps the best known to the community at large. 
(Slide No. 35). 

The letters of Peter Faneuil which have been preserved are 
largely of a commercial character. Yet occasionally there are 
items of a more personal nature. There is one letter dated 
February 3, 1738 — that is, a year after his uncle's death — which 
has a curious interest, in that it contains directions for the pur- 
chase of negro boy. There could hardly be a more striking 
reminder of the lapse of time and of the changes which the years 

6 4 

have brought, than this memento of the days of slavery in Massa- 

Somehow it has always been a difficult matter to make men 
believe that the evasion of customs-duties w r as a sin ; or else 
we might suspect Peter Faneuil of free trade tendencies, when 
we find him in another of his letters instructing the captain of 
one of his ships to inquire ' ' What good French brandy was 
worth, and if it be possible to cloak it so as to ship it for rum." 
The ashes of Peter Faneuil like those of his Uncle Andre, were 
interred in the Faneuil tomb in the Granary Burial Ground. 

The gift of Faneuil Hall to the town of Boston was occasioned 
by the fact that at that time there were no market houses within 
its limits ; and there was such a wide difference of popular 
opinion as to whether there ought to be any built — probably 
because of the supposed interference with the old customs and 
privileges granted to the venders from the country round about 
— that it was impossible to secure sufficient unanimity to raise the 
necessary means. (Slide No. 36). In this juncture, Peter 
Faneuil offered to build a market at his own expense and present 
it to the town. By a close vote the offer was accepted. But 
Peter Faneuil built more than a market-house. Its great hall 
above the market became famous in history. On its completion, 
a meeting was held at which a committee was appointed ' ' to wait 
upon Peter Faneuil, Esq. , and in the name of the town, to render 
him their most hearty thanks for so bountiful a gift. ' ' The artist 
who had painted the portrait of Peter Faneuil — John Smibert — 
was the architect of Faneuil Hall. It suffered greatly by fire in 
the year 1761, but was re-built in 1764. Further additions and 
changes were made in 1805, and since then, of course, the neigh- 
borhood has changed so much that it is hardly conceivable that its 
founder would recognize it could he revisit Boston. (Slide Xo. 
37). Peter Faneuil died a few months after its completion ; and 
at the first town meeting held within its walls on the 14th of 
March, 1743, the principal address w r as one commemorating his 
generosity and expressing the gratitude of the community. It was 
delivered by John Lowell, the master of the old Latin School, 
where, at the beginning of that century, the Huguenot church 
had weekly assembled for worship. There are sentences in that 
address which are very suggestive when considered in the light of 

later history — all the more so when we remember that the orator, 
who uttered them, thirty-two years later, fled from Boston as a 
Loyalist. "May the same public spirit," he fervently cried, 
"that glowed in the breast of the generous founder influence 
all your debates, that society may reap the benefits of them ! 
Ma}' Liberty always spread its joyful wings over this place ! 
Liberty that opens men's hearts to beneficence and gives the relish * 
to those who enjoy the effects of it ! " Let us not forget that the 
Huguenot Faneuil gave to New England its ' ' Cradle of Liberty. ' ' 
As the old church in School street marks the centre of the 
Huguenot story of Boston in the Colonial Age, so Faneuil Hall 
marks the centre of the Huguenot life of Boston in the Revolu- 
tionary period. But it is with the earlier time that we have to do 
in this paper. 

There is another well-known and historic building still standing 
in Boston, which likewise is a memorial of Peter Faneuil, and that 
is King's Chapel which stands on the corner of School and 
Tremont streets. (Slide No. 38.) Originally built of wood, the 
credit of starting the movement which resulted in erecting the 
present stone structure belongs to three men of whom Peter 
Faneuil is one. At the very beginning he was appointed the 
treasurer of the fund, he himself making much the largest sub- 
scription of an}-. It was not, however, until seven years after 
his death that the corner-stone was laid. And in 1748, when the 
work of erection began, and the congregation made a petition for 
a portion of the land on which the Latin School stood, the grant- 
ing of the request provoked the following witty verse : 

" A fig for your learning ! I tell you the town 

To make the church larger, must pull the school down. 
1 Unhappily spoken ! ' exclaims Master Birch ; 

1 Then learning, it seems, stops the growth of the church. ' " 

The portico of King's Chapel (or Queen's Chapel, as it was 
called in Queen Anne's day), was not completed until 17S9. And 
I may be permitted to say on the evening of this day which marks 
the 1 06th anniversary of the inauguration of the first President 
of the United States, that in that same year George Washington, 
•dressed in a suit of black velvet, occupied one of the pews in this 
church, listening to an oratorio which was being given to raise 


money to complete the work which Peter Faneuil began. Wash- 
ington on this occasion contributed five guineas to the fund. To 
the north of King's Chapel was then, as now, the burial yard, 
lying just across the street from the grounds of the Faneuil man- 
sion. (Slide No. 39.) To-day the view is barred by the store of 
Houghton & Button. Next to the Faneuil dwelling was the resi- 
dence of another successful Huguenot merchant, Jacques 
Le Blond. His neighbor was the famous Judge Samuel 
Sewell, whose diary is one of the principal sources of information 
we have, concerning the social life and public events of Boston at 
the beginning of the eighteenth century. 

On the southeast corner of School and Tremont streets stood 
the brick mansion of Jacob Wendell, the great-grandfather of the 
poet, the late Oliver Wendell Holmes. (Slide No. 40.) To the 
north of the King's Chapel grave}-ard was, at the beginning of the 
eighteenth century, the house of Henry Messenger, the site 
of which is now occupied by the Massachusetts Historical Society 
building and by the Boston Museum. Just west of the Huguenot 
church stood a little tailor shop, and on the other side of the 
street was the Latin School House. Further down the block 
was the two-story brick dwelling of another noted Huguenot, 
Jean Paul Mascarene, who went to Nova Scotia by royal appoint- 
ment in 1711, as the Lieutenant-Governor of that province, but 
returned later to Boston, where he died in 1760. There is no 
more romantic or thrilling story in the records of the Huguenot 
Refugees who fled to America, than that of the escape of this man 
and his father from the fire of persecution which followed the- 
Revocation. Next to this house, at what is now No. 19 
School street, where a restaurant exists to this day, stood the 
then celebrated inn known as the "Cromwell's Head Tavern." 
It was a famous resort in the provincial period, and undoubtedly 
well known to the Huguenot members of the church on the 
opposite side of the way. If I may be again pardoned the digres- 
sion, it was at the door of this tavern that one winter's day in the 
year 1756, three mounted military officers, accompanied by their 
negro servants in livery, drew rein and requested lodgings. They 
had come as an embassy from the Governors of Virginia and 
Maryland to ask General Shirley of Boston, who was then in 
command of all the military forces in America, to settle a dis- 


puted question of military rank. The three men were the young 
Lieutenant-Colonel George Washington, his Aide-de-Camp, Cap- 
tain George Mercer, and " Captain Stewart of the Virginia Light 
Horse." During their week's stay in Boston the}* lodged at this 
inn. And it was at the same time of this visit that Washington sat 
for a miniature to Copley the artist, friend of the Huguenot Paul 
Revere. (Slide No. 41.) The miniature is interesting as show- 
ing Washington at the age of twenty-five. How little could he 
have foretold the hour when, on the balcony of the old City 
Hall building in New York, he should take the oath of office as 
the first President of a nation which knows no sovereignty but 
that of the people. (Slide No. 42.) 

With the exception of King's Chapel, all the buldings I have 
mentioned have long ago disappeared. Xear to the Cromwell's 
head tavern, however, there stands to-day the same brick build- 
ing on which the early Huguenots looked on their way to 
and from their church. (Slide No. 43.) At that time it was the 
residence of Edward Hutchinson. It has, of course, passed 
through many changes, but the brick walls at least of what is 
now called the " Old Corner Bookstore," are those of the original 
building which was erected in 171 2. Just north of it was a build- 
ing in which on the 24th of April, 1704, was published the 
first number of the newspaper known as the " Bostoji News Let- 
ter. ' ' Opposite it was another famous inn, known as ' ' The 
Blue Anchor," of which we find mention in SewelVs Diary for 
the year 1685 as follows: k ' This day about thirty-one ministers 
meet. Mr. Higginson prayes excellently ; Governour gives the 
question ; dine all together at Monk's " — George Monck being at 
this time mine host of the Blue Anchor. At the corner was 
the residence of Elder Thomas Oliver, a prominent physician, and 
on the next block were the residence and grounds of Gover- 
nor Winthrop, to the south of which was erected in 1729 the 
present brick structure long known as the ' ' Old South Meeting 
House." (Slide No. 44.) Just around the corner on Milk 
street, was the home of James Boutineau the Huguenot brother- 
in-law of Peter Faneuil. Opposite was the house where, one 
January day, ten years before the French church was built, was 
born — at least according to one tradition — that American genius, 
Benjamin Franklin. He was a boy of eight years, attending the 


Latin school for a year at the time (17 14) when the Huguenot 
congregation was worshiping in the same building on Sundays. 
And his statue to-day stands close to the site of the old school- 
house of his boyhood. A little to the westward of Franklin's 
birthplace was the home of Daniel Johonnot. one of the prin- 
cipal members of the Huguenot church and one of the most conspic- 
uous names also among the wealthier Huguenot families of Bostoii. 
From the year 17 13 the official residence of the Royal Gov- 
ernors, which was called " The Province House," was situated on 
the west side of what is now known as Washington street, just at 
the head of Milk street. (Slide No. 45.) And back of it, half- 
way to Tremont street, was the home of Edward Bromfield 
whose memory survives in the name of the street which now 
passes through this very section. 

This completes the list of the principal structures in the immed- 
iate vicinity of the Huguenot church on School street, in the 
early part of the eighteenth century. But there were several 
members of the French congregation of equal eminence who lived 
farther away. There was Gabriel Bernon of the earliest period 
who, although he left Boston as early as 1697, had made a name 
for himself in the New England town. His unfortunate experi- 
ment at colonization at Oxford, Massachusetts, is well-known to 
all readers of the Huguenot emigration to this country. But his 
commercial activity and success in Boston were second to none. 
As manufacturer, or as merchant, he dealt extensively in nails, in 
salt, in resin, and in various naval stores ; he was associated in 
many important business ventures with his fellow refugees — with 
Peter Canton, with the Faneuils, and with Louis Allaire — and 
also with other Boston merchants, who were not of Huguenot race. 
He was largely interested in ship-building and in the exporting 
of goods to England and to the West Indies. The name of Ber- 
non was known everywhere among the Huguenot Refugees on 
this side of the ocean as that of one of the most successful and 
broad-minded of their fellows. 

And there was also Pierre Chardon, the Refugee from Paris, 
who was known as the " man of polished manners," and whose 
residence stood on Bowdoin Square at the corner of the street 
which still bears his name. And there was Andre Sigourney the 
uncle of Daniel Johonnot, of whom I have already made mention. 

6 9 

The disastrous ending of the Oxford experiment alone made him 
willing to return to Boston. He lived to be nearly ninety years 
old, and his descendants are still to be found in the modern 
city. Mrs. Sigourney, the poetess, whose husband was one of 
these descendants, was always an enthusiastic student of Huguenot 

And especially should we recall the name of Pierre Baudoin, 
from whom the well-known and esteemed family of Bowdoin is 
descended. There was no man among the Huguenots of old 
Boston who was held in greater honor by them than he, both for 
his character and as a man of scholarly culture. Nor were there 
any among these Refugees whose descendants more conspicuously 
displayed the qualities of their honored ancestors. Pierre the 
Refugee died in 1706. His son James was for years a member 
of the Colonial Council. It was said of him that on his death he 
11 left the greatest estate that had ever been possessed by one 
person in the Province." William Bowdoin' s name appears 
among the few who were left when in 1748 the French church 
property on School street was finally sold. And a few years later 
there stood on the corner of Beacon and Bowdoin streets the resi- 
dence of James Bowdoin who from 1785 to 1787 was the honored 
Governor of Massachusetts. (Slide No. 46.) It w r as his son 
James who became the munificent patron of the college which had 
been named in his father's honor. 

This is the story of the Huguenots of Old Boston as represented 
by their more conspicuous names. When we remember the 
smallness of their number, the contrast in climate w T ith that of 
their native land, the w T ide differences in personal habits and 
view r s w 7 hich existed between them and their Puritan neighbors, 
we cannot but wonder at, as well as admire, the perseverance and 
energy which made them so influential a factor in the develop- 
ment of the commercial and social life of Boston. ( Slide 
No. 47.) 

One further fact needs to be emphasized concerning these 
Huguenot merchants of Boston, which is especially true of those 
who came from families of rank, that the success which they met 
with and the wealth they acquired, coupled with their conscious- 
ness that it was England's protection w T hich had secured for them 
so happy an issue to their sufferings and losses from religious 


persecution, created in their hearts a very ardent feeling of grat- 
itude for the country of their adoption. The}- were reluctant to 
criticise a government under which they had found both protec- 
tion and riches. An examination of the Revolutionary period, 
I think, would show you how fierce was the struggle between 
this traditional sentiment of gratitude and the innate Huguenot 
sense of resistance to tyranny which led to strange contrasts in 
the attitudes assumed by the Huguenot descendants of a later 

In the web of human history there are countless threads, 
many of which seem wholly unconnected, and even conflicting ; 
3 r et in the divine weaving each answers a real purpose, as the 
design, when completed, shall itself reveal. 


Exhibited with the foregoi?ig paper. 

Note. — With a few exceptions, these slides were photographed by 
the author. For the purpose of identification the sources from which 
the slides were made, are indicated in the case of the more important 
engravings and photogravures. In one instance a copy of the 
manuscript is given. 

1. A Puritan of the 17th Century. 

2. Early Huguenots. 

{Histoire de Fra?ice, Guizot. Tome III, 164.) 

3. The Departure of the Speedwell. 

{Harper's Weekly, March 9, 1895.) 

4. Priscilla. 

(From photogravure of Geo. H. Boughton's picture.) 

5. Millais' Huguenot Lovers. 

6. John Alden and Priscilla. 

(From photogravure of Alfred Frederick's picture, by per- 
mission of Taber Art Co.) 

7. The Port of La Rochelle. 

(Histoire de Fra?ice, Guizot. Tome IV, 93). 

7 1 

S. Saint Christopher (St. Kitts), W. I. 
9. The Battery, Charleston, S. C. 

10. Dock Square, Boston, at the present time. 

11. Dock Square, Boston, in the Colonial Period. 

(Longfellow's Works. Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1SS0, 
Vol. II, p. 6S3.) 

12. Section of Modern Map of Boston. 

13. Front of the City Hall, Boston. 

14. Site of the first Latin School, Boston. 

15. Site of the Huguenot Church, Boston. 

16. Section of the first engraved Map of Boston. 

(Bonner's Map of 1722. Mem. Hist. Bost. Vol. II, p. xiii). 

17. Sketch Map of the Huguenot centre of Old Boston. 

18. View of New Amsterdam (X. Y. City) in the Colonial Period. 

{Doc. Hist, of N. Y., Vol. IV, p. 116 ) 

19. The Granary Burial Ground, Boston. 

20. Grave of Rev. Pierre Daille. 

21. The Queen Anne Bible, outside. 

(Divinity Library, Harv. Un., Cambridge, Mass ) 

22. The Queen Anne Bible, open. 

23. The Queen Anne Bible, title page. 

24. The Essex Institute Portrait of Rev. Andrew Le Mercier. 

(Mem. Hist. Bost., Vol. II, p. 255.) 

25. Title page of Sermon of Le Mercier. 

(Mass. Hist. Soc.) 

26. Inside pages of Sermon of Le Mercier. 

27. Sketch of Tremont Street, Boston, in 1800, showing the 

Deblois Mansion. 
(Antique Views of Ye Tow?ie of Boston, p. 291.) 

28. Site of the Faneuil Mansion, Boston. 

29. The Faneuil Mansion. 

(Mem. Hist. Bost., Vol II, p. 523.) 

30. The^Faneuil Tomb. 

31. The Faneuil Arms. 

(Mem. Hist. Bost. Vol. II, p. 262.) 

32. Faneuil Hall, Boston. 

33. Gallery of Mass. Hist. Soc'y showing Portrait of Peter 


34. Portrait of Peter Faneuil. 

(Mem. Hist. Bost., Vol. II, p. 260.) 


35- Autograph Letter of Peter Faneuil. 

{Mem. Nisi. Bost., Vol. II, p. 264.) 

36. The Second Faneuil Hall, Boston. 

(Mem. Hist. Bost., Vol. II, p. 267.) 

37. Faneuil Hall, Boston. 

38. King's Chapel, Boston. 

39. King's Chapel Burial Ground, looking west. 

40. King's Chapel Burial Ground, looking north. 

41. Miniature of George Washington at 25 years of age. 

(Irving 's Life of Washington, Vol. I, Frontispiece. Putnam 
& Co., 1S57.) 

42. Old City Hall, New York City. 

43. The Old Corner Book Store, Boston. 

44. The Old South Meeting House, Boston. 

45. The Province House, Boston. 

{Homes of our Forefathers. E. Whitefield.) 

46. Portrait of Gov. James Bowdoin. 

{Mem. Hist. Bost. Vol. Ill, p. 195.) 

47. Petition in favor of Mrs. Judith Gruzlier. 

(Mass. Hist. Soc'y by permission.) 
The petition reads as follows : 

These may Certify that We Esteem Mrs. Judith Gruzlier a person 
of sober conversation. That her late Husband dying has left her a 
poor Widow with young children to bring up ; that he left her with- 
out means for their Support ; that she is a w r eakly woman & not able 
to get her living by hard Labour ; We therefore humbly recomend 
her to the Hon ble Justices of the Court of Sess s , and Select Men of 
Boston, for License to Retail Liq rs . 

Boston, July 17, 1735. Subscribed by 

Yo r Hon rs most Humble Serv s , 

And* Faneuil, 
James Bowdoin, 
Job Lewis, 
Benj. Hallowell, 
Wm. Nichols, 
Joseph Hubbard, 
Steph. Boutineau, 
Daniel Johonnot. 


On our arrival in London, I sent the letter of introduction 
from Mr. Marquand, accrediting me as the representative of our 
Huguenot Society to Reginald S. Faber, Esq., Hon. Sec'y of the 
Huguenot Society of London, and a life member of our Society. 

In response I received a courteous invitation from Mr. Faber 
to attend a dinner and meeting of the Society and to read my 
paper on " The Marigold." On this occasion at an informal re- 
ception before the dinner hour, I was presented to members of the 
Society by Sir William Henry Peek, Bart, President of the 

At the dinner the president introduced us in a few well-chosen 
sentences, giving the special reasons for our visit : the Reception 
in 1898, our desire that their Society should accept the Marigold 
and the Ribbon. He told them of our library and office, of our 
Coligny statue, of our Ladies' Committee, of the care with which 
our pedigrees are being made out, and urged upon the London 
Society to follow our example. Then he gave the toast : "The 
Guests of the Evening, the Huguenot Society of America, and 
its Representatives. ' ' 

Mr. Browning, an honorary member of our Society, responded 
for me. 

At the meeting of the Society which followed the dinner the 
president proposed Mr. Marquand as an honorary member of the 
London Society. 

The idea of the proposed celebration was received with enthusi- 
asm but the ' ' Marigold ' ' as the Huguenot emblematic flower 
provoked animated discussion. 

We w T ere indebted to Mr. Browning for an interesting visit to 
the French Protestant Hospital. I will give you a very brief 
resume of the events leading to its foundation, its origin, 

* Read before the Huguenot Society by Mr. J. C Pumpelly, November 26, 1S95. 



growth, and present condition. After the Revocation of the 
Edict of Xantes, signed at Fontainebleau, October 18, 1685, and 
published on October 226., thousands of Huguenots were forced 
to fly from France. A refuge was sought for by them in all 
Protestant countries, even in the newly settled American colonies, 
but naturally many of them landed on the neighboring coast of 
England. For a time, almost daily, fugitives, most of them in 
a state of destitution, others in the last stages of exhaustion, 
arrived on the southeast coast. Every effort was made to 
' 1 succor and help the poor exiles for conscience sake. ' ' Under 
the strong pressure of public opinion, King James II. issued an 
order for a collection to be made in the churches for their benefit. 
Two hundred thousand pounds sterling was raised, which Fund 
was called the " Royal Bounty." The first year, 15,000 French 
were relieved by it, the following year, 27,000. The committee 
did more than distribute this money, they found employment for 
all, providing for artisans and workmen their outfits and tools. 
About six hundred of the emigres for whom no employment could 
be found were sent to America. After a few years, only the 
aged, infirm, and suffering were left to be cared for. In 1708, 
M. de Gastigny, a French Protestant gentleman, who had at- 
tached his fortunes to the Prince of Orange, bequeathed ^1,000, 
for the purpose of building a hospital, ,£500 for the building, and 
the income of ^500 towards its maintenance. Investing for 
a time, this sum, the trustees raised contributions from the 
families of Huguenots and French merchants «who had prospered 
in trade. Many bequests and legacies from the English were 
added, and in 17 16 those in charge purchased a piece of land 
called the "Golden Acre," north of London, where a hospice 
was erected for eighty poor persons. On July 20, 17 18, the 
charter was given by King George I. ; November 12th the 
* ' chapel and hospital were dedicated to Almighty God. ' ' In 
1736 the corporation took in more land and extended their 
charity, the asylum affording shelter to 230 poor. One of the 
wings was for those whose minds had given way under the 
horrible tortures they had undergone for their faith. The 
hospital was then, and is now known as "La Providence." 
"The poor descendants of the French Refugees are still in 
England, nor has the line been broken of the more favored 


descendants of that stock, who gladly devote themselves to the 
care of their poor brethren." In 1S62, a better locality was 
sought for, as the growth of London had rendered the old site 
unsuitable for the original purpose. The site chosen lay to the 
north of Victoria Park. 

In the erection of the present stately building a twofold pur- 
pose was kept earnestly in view by the Directors : firstly, to pro j 
vide a peaceful asylum for some of the poor and aged descendants 
of the French Protestants : and secondly, to erect a standing me- 
morial of the practical piety of the early French Refugees, which 
impelled them to provide to the very limit of their power for the 
necessities of their poorer brethren. 

The anniversary of the hospital is celebrated upon the fourth 
Wednesday in June by a gathering of the Directors, their friends, 
and many representatives of the old Huguenot Refugee families. 
The proceedings commence with a short service and sermon (in 
French) in the chapel. The hospital and grounds are then in- 
spected by the visitors, who afterwards partake of a cold collation, 
at which many an old memory is revived, and many a happy con- 
trast suggested between the intolerance in matters of faith which 
characterized the Governments of Europe in the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries and the religious freedom enjoyed at the 
present day. By none is the anniversary festival looked forward 
to from year to year with greater interest than by the aged in- 
mates of the hospital. 

And now a few words to try to convey to our American Hugue- 
nots some idea of the pleasure Mr. Browning gave us that day — a 
day full and rounded out — the eye, mind and heart fully satisfied : 
and every detail Huguenot. The huge gold and silver flagons 
and tankards, incrusted with Huguenot medals, the Loving Cup 
designed and made by Huguenots — every piece of glass and china 
with its history — even the very spoons designed by Mr. Brown- 
ing, took you back to the past and its glorious souvenirs. The 
wine with its history, the dishes made from recipes concocted in 
the dear old homes in France by the Huguenots of long ago — the 
portraits and engravings surrounding us. Nothing incongruous 
— all making one perfect whole. I verily believe there is not a 
nail in the stately edifice that has not been driven in by Hugue- 
nots ! The library contains about 1,500 volumes besides maim- 


scripts, choice portfolios of engravings, art treasures, Huguenot 
medals, etc., etc. Words fail me, as they did then, and my heart 
went up in thankfulness to the God of our Fathers, who had 
granted me the privilege of having the heroic blood of martyrs in 
my veins. Then he went to see the old people so happy, so peace- 
ful, so courteous, so perfectly at home with us, when they heard 
their mother tongue. Then to the gardener, where the gardener 
was told by Mr. Browning that he must plant marigolds in plenty, 
for 11 it is the emblematic flower of the Huguenots, and hereafter 
it must always be here. ' ' 

The ceremony of the 1 ' Loving Cup ' ' which is always gone 
through with, on the celebration of the hospital anniversary, is 
very interesting. It is performed as follows : 

Deputy Governor. — Mr. Steward, what brings you here? 

Steward. — Two Loving Cups, prepared by the secretary's direc- 

Deputy Governor. — Mr. Secretary, what do these cups contain? 

Secretary. — The choicest wine of France, commemorating our 
Huguenot ancestors, fortified with the spirit of admiration for 
their faith and courage, and sweetened by sympathy with the poor 
and aged among their descendants. It is left, sir, for you to add 
the cordial welcome to the guests assembled at your table. 

Deputy Governor. — Gentlemen, I invite you to drink with me 
to the memory of the Huguenot founders of this corporation, 
and I offer you a warm welcome at this table from their succes- 
sors, the present governors and directors of the hospital. 

On our arrival in Paris we sent copies in French of the follow- 
ing letter, to all of the members for whom we had certificates : 


Dear Sir : — 

I have the honor to inform you that the Huguenot Society of 
America, in requesting me to be their representative to the Huguenot 
societies abroad, also desired me to deliver to you Certificates of 
Membership in the Huguenot Society of America. 

May I be permitted to interest your Society through you, in the 
project of celebrating in America the 300th Anniversary of the Pro- 
mulgation of the Edict of Nantes. We are most anxious to have 
with us representatives of all the Huguenot societies. We wish to 
extend to all the hand of good fellowship, that we may know and 


love one another, and that in the future we may be a grand interna- 
tional society. 

Write to me, I beg, what you think of this plan. 

Our committee is now being organized, and awaits with interest 
the result of my mission to }-ou. 

Our Society have adopted the marigold as our emblematic flower, 
and the white ribbon with a border of red, of white, and of blue. (See 
article on Marigold and Ribbon, by Mrs. Lawton, in the last "Pro- 
ceedings of the Huguenot Society of America.") Tiffany, of New 
York, makes the marigold button for the American Society, and will 
make it in Paris for the foreign members, for twenty-five francs. 

We hope the English Society will adopt the marigold. They have 
the white ribbon with a red border. 

My address, etc., etc. 

Awaiting your reply, I beg to assure you of my profound esteem. 

E. M. C. A. Lawton, 
Representative of the Huguenot Society of America. 

M. le Baron de Schickler did us the honor to invite us to attend 
a Seance de Comite of the Societe du Protestantisme Francais of 
which he is president, on the nth December, but it was impos- 
sible for us to remain. He warmly approved of the proposed 
celebration in 1898. He sent me a letter, giving all the salient 
points concerning the French Library. The library contains 
over 44,000 volumes and is open four da}~s of each, week to the 
public, w T hen it is crowded.* It was founded in 1852, and is, as its 
name indicates, for the purpose of finding, collecting, and making 
known all documents inedited or published in the French tongue 
bearing on the history of the Protestant churches. The Society 
is " sanctioned " by the State, which gives it the right to possess 
landed property and valuables, and to receive gifts and legacies, 
which, in a Roman Catholic country, means a great deal. The 
Society has now nearly six hundred members. 

♦Note.— The present Library of the French Society occupies the site in the Rue des 
Saints-Peres of the first cemetery accorded to the Huguenots in Paris in the sixteenth 
century, and is opposite that of the Dutch Embassy in which Huguenots were buried in 
the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. It was in this Embassy when the public 
celebration of their worship was forbidden, the Protestants were accustomed to assemble 
for religious services, protected by the diplomatic privileges of the Dutch representative. 
The first mentioned cemetery was a piece of ground reserved for the burial of persons 
who had died of the plague. Casaubon wrote of it, " We are banished from the city, we 
are thrown like rubbish in any corner ; but our country is in God, our city is in heaven " 
(notre patrie est en Dieu notre cite est au ciel). 

From the proceedings of the Huguenot Society of London. Vol. L, No. 3, page 248. 


Let me add a few extracts from a delightful letter from M. de 
Richemond of La Rochelle, another of our honorary members : 

" The idea is a most excellent one of celebrating the approaching 
anniversary of the Edict of Nantes by the Huguenots of the entire 
world under a common symbol, the marigold, that is, the soul turned 
towards the God who has sustained and blessed the Church through- 
out all ages. The dove represents the Holy Spirit. ' Everything" 
relating to the Huguenot Society of America is inseparably connected 
in my mind with its honorable founder and first president, John Ja.y. 
In remembrance of the affectionate relations with which he always 
honored me, I should like to have the little flower calling to my mind 
the Society and its founder, and I thank you for showing me the 
difference between the marguerite and the marigold. It was indeed 
the latter which Marguerite de Valois adopted.' " 

He further quotes from a letter received by him from one of 
the most celebrated archaeologists of France, who writes in refer- 
ence to the marigold : 

' ' What you tell me about the souci of Marguerite de Valois is as 
poetic as it is charming, and the American society has had there a 
most graceful thought, but I have not found that the Huguenots of 
old adopted the marigold as their emblem. The dove was the 
ordinary emblem. " 

I sent this letter to Mr. Browning, who returned it with the 
following : 

"I return to }'ou the charming letter of M. de Richemond. The 
idea is so delicately conveyed that you are less wrong in supposing 
the marigold to be the accepted badge of the Huguenots, than the 
Huguenots themselves were in neglecting to adopt an emblem at 
once so poetical and so admirably adopted to their case, " etc., etc. 

Recrossing the channel, a visit was made to the Cathedral of 
Canterbury. In the Library of our American Society are photo- 
graphs of the tomb of Odet de Coligny, the communion table, 
the tablets on the chapel wall, and also a photograph of the 
picture of the landing of a band of Huguenots near Dover, with 
Odet de Coligny, brother of the Admiral, at their head. This 
picture is in the Chapel of the Black Prince opening into the 
Huguenot Crypt proper. The whole of the Crypt was given to 
the Huguenots by Edward VI., July 24, 1550, taken away 
from them by Bloody Mary, and given to them again by Eliza- 


beth. There they put up looms. For many years they have 
only had the chapel in which they worshipped while we w r ere 
there. But there are very few Huguenots w T ho understand French, 
and the Consistoire were deliberating whether they would embrace 
the opportunity offered them of securing an inalienable title to 
this chapel of the Black Prince, which is much smaller, giving up 
the chapel where they now are, with the privilege of using the- 
whole crypt 011 stated occasions. Among their sacred treasures 
are a half -gallon flagon and five communion plates of latine 
(silver and iron) and eight silver cups. These have all been in use 
for three hundred and forty-four years, and were brought over 
from France by the Huguenots, and had been in use there before 
they] came over. I can w T ell believe it, the plates and flagon were 
more antique than beautiful, as most of the silver was rubbed off. 
As a special favor, we were given a bit of the last lace made by 
the Huguenot workmen in the crypt : a stone flower which fell 
from the tower over the crypt during the great fire, and a bit of a 
stained-glass window found in excavating. These with an old 
Huguenot prayer book bought there, I bequeath to our library. 


By Rev. James LeFevre, D.D. 

Much of what I shall say in this paper will be more than a 
1 1 twice told tale. ' ' The most that I will do will not be a research 
— scarcely a search — but a compilation and arrangement of what 
the fathers have told us, and' what the many contributions to 
family and church histories have so well preserved. You will 
readily see that repetition is needful in presenting anything like 
a true portraiture of the twelve men who took possession by 
purchase from the Indians, and by patent from Governor Andross, 
of what is called the village and township of New Paltz. 

Obtaining possession by patent, and there being twelve in the 
original compact, they came to be designated the ''Twelve 
Patentees," and quite commonly called the " Duzine." Of 
course, I will not be able to trace in minute detail all of the 
families of the illustrious twelve. 

These Patentees had fled in former years from the French 
persecutions to find a home in the Lower Palatinate along the 
Rhine ; and their Palatinate home gave the name ' ' New Paltz ' ' 
to their American home — "palatinate" — being the English of 
the Dutch " Paltz." There can be no question that the Lower 
Palatinate was a place of refuge also for the persecuted Holland- 
ers. Here, no doubt, warm friendship and marriages were formed 
between the Huguenots and the Dutch. And it is quite well 
verified that our Patentees returned to Holland with their Dutch 
friends, and, after a time, emigrated w T ith some of them to 
America about 1660. 

They sailed, no doubt, from a Holland port to this country in 
a Dutch vessel. After a short sojourn in New Amsterdam they 
found their way to " Wiltwyck," now called Kingston, at the 
junction of the Rondout creek with the Hudson river, in Ulster 

* Read before the Huguenot Society, January 23, 1896. 



" Wiltwyck " is the same as "Wildwyk" in low Dutch, 
meaning " \Vild-countr3 r ," which it certainly was at that day, 
both on account of its native population and uncultivated 

In 11 Wiltwyck " they had an unsettled home for a time, as the 
Indians were unfriendly and were determined to drive off or ex- 
terminate the white-faced intruders. On the seventh of June, 1663, 
the place was burned, a number of the people heartlessly mur- 
dered, and several women and children made prisoners. Among 
the captives were the wife and three children of Louis DuBois, 
who afterward became the leading spirit of the Patentees of New 
Paltz. The tradition of the capture of the prisoners and the 
discovery of the lands about New Paltz is familiar to every 
descendant of the noble band. The first to put it in a permanent 
printed form was the Hon. Edmund Eltinge, in an admirable 
paper for the Ulster Historical Society. The substance of this 
tradition has been written by several in later years ; but, as the 
Rev. Ame Vennema, in the " History of the Reformed church 
of New Paltz," is the most recent, I will give the tradition in his 
most picturesque words. 

" Catharine Blanshan, wife of Louis DuBois, and three other 
females were captured and carried far away from all that was 
dear to them, into the forest primeval. The indignation and 
anxiety of the bereaved families were so aroused that they 
promptly resolved, by all means and at all hazards, to recover the 
captives and punish their captors. They were fortunate in arrest- 
ing one of the savages who was in league with those who had 
carried off the wives of the white men , and who knew of their 
whereabouts. Him they held responsible for the deed, promis- 
ing life and liberty to him if he should aid them in the recovery 
of the women, but threatening certain death if he refused to tell 
them the place of their concealment, or if he misdirected them. 
1 he lonely husbands, with a company of friends, then went in 
swift pursuit. Following the three Big Waters, the Rondout, 
W allkill and Shawangunk streams, up to their forks, as directed, 
they came to a place which they identified as that where their lost 
and longed-for treasures must be found. Their excitement be- 
came more intense as their steps became more hasty. Louis 
DuBois, somewhat in advance of the others, suddenly encountered 


an Indian, who emerged from behind a tree. The unsuccessful 
missile from the warrior's bow was retaliated by a blow with the 
sword by DuBois, which laid the savage low and motionless in 

" After but a momentary detention they passed on, when sud- 
denly their expectant gaze was greeted by a sight of the Indians' 
camp in the distance. They tarried in concealment till the dusk 
of eve, intending then to surprise the camp by rushing upon it 
with a shout that would lead the Indians to flee in terror, and 
leave their captives behind. They approached at the time ap- 
pointed, and what should they see but the wife of Louis DuBois 
placed on a pile of wood, on w y hich she was to be burned." 

" Like Paul and Silas, rejoicing in their tribulation, her religion 
triumphed, and she resorted to singing that beautiful captive 
Psalm, the 137th, which laments the afflictions of Israel, as they 
sat in sorrow by Babylon's streams. The music charmed the 
untrained ear of the foresters. They that had carried her away 
captive required of her another song. Her execution was stayed. 
The knife was lifted, but had not fallen ; the torch was lighted, 
but not applied. In this awful but fortunate interval, consterna- 
tion spread among the savage host. The barking dogs, which 
had run on in advance, betrayed the stealthy approach of -the 
whites, and signalled danger to the Indians. The cry was raised : 
"Swanekers and deers ! Swanekers and deers ! The white 
men's dogs ! The white men's dogs ! " Not knowing the true 
cause of the alarm, the captured females, as well as their un- 
friendly companions, fled in haste to the savage camp. But no 
sooner did the familiar voices of DuBois and his party resound 
through the dense woods than the captive women suddenly turned 
toward their exultant rescuers, and, as they fell in their open 
arms, breathed upon the air a deep, long sigh of relief, while the 
savages in charge of the camp, apprehending the cause of the 
alarm, fled to the mountains, whither their companions had gone 
in search of game." 

" Having- recovered the prisoners they returned in safety by the 
way which they went. As they returned with more leisure and 
as they were better prepared to make observation, they did not 
fail to see the picturesque appearance of the country, and the 
unsurpassed fertility of the valley of the Wallkill. The New 


Paltz flats seem particularly to have attracted their attention as a 
suitable region in which to locate permanently. ' ' 

While the tradition I have thus cited may be called in question 
for want of corroborating documentary data, it does not deserve to 
be unceremoniously thrown out of the pale of veritable history. 
Besides the uniformity of the tradition, it is surrounded by the 
highest circumstantial probability. ' ' Another consideration which 
favors its authenticity," says the Rev. Dr. Stitt, 1 ' is the indis- 
position of the settlers to commit to writing current events of equal 

In reference to the captives singing the beautiful Psalm of the 
Babylonish captives when they were expecting death, as soon as 
the pile should be fired, the following from William E. DuBois in 
the " DuBois Reunion " will here be interesting : "In the Psalm- 
ody of the French Protestants, every Psalm in French version 
and metre had its own tune ; and not only the words, but the 
music written on the staff, were to be found in their books of de- 
votion or appended to their printed Bibles. In a folio copy of 
the French Bible, printed at Amsterdam, the writer has found the 
music and words of this very Psalm, the 137th, undoubtedly 
the same as was sung by Catherine DuBois on this extraordinary 
occasion and touchingly adapted by the very circumstances of the 
captives. ' ' You call to mind our English version : "By i/ie 
rivers of Babylon , there w r e sat down : yea w r e wept when we re- 
membered Zion, etc." 

" These Psalms were much in use among the Huguenots, and 
they had been forbidden to sing them where they could be heard 
by others. These very words she had sung doubtless many times 
in suppressed tones, when hunted by relentless persecutors and 
in peril of imprisonment and death. She had sung them in 
her voluntary exile from kindred and country, when her husband, 
her babe, and her religious faith, were her only comforts. But 
now she sung them with the joy of a believer about to die. Her 
singing proves her both a Christian and a courageous woman." 

As has been intimated, the rescuing party, returning with their 
lost loved ones, were able to admire the fertile low lands and 
the beautiful rolling uplands where the village of New Paltz 
is located. Three years later, the Twelve Men, called the 
"Twelve Patentees," purchased from the Indians about sixty- 

3 4 

four thousand acres of that territory, which now includes most of 
the township of New Paltz, Gardiner, Rosendale/Esopus, and the 
whole of Lloyd. The tract was bounded on the west by the 
Shawangunk mountains, taking the mountains to the very top, 
from a point called Gertrude's Nose running north seven or eight 
miles and then running in lines almost parallel to the Hudson 

The names of the Twelve Patentees are as follows : Louis 
DuBois and his son Abraham, Christian Deyo, Abraham Has- 
brouck and his brother Jean Hasbrouck, Louis Bevier, Antoine 
dispell, Hugo Freer, Isaac DuBois, Peter Deyo, and the two Le 
Fevre brothers, Andries and Simon. (I would note in passing 
that I am the sixth from Simon, the Patentee — Simon, John, 
Andries, Johannes, Nathaniel, James. Simon is the ancestor of 
all of my name in New Paltz, and quite a number in other places, 
as Andries, his brother, left no heirs, according to the record). 

The Huguenots who settled New Paltz and vicinity were not 
seeking wealth in possession of land, so much as a home where 
they would have liberty of conscience and freedom to serve 
God and one another. Hence, while they were well received and 
treated by the early Dutch settlers of Esopus, their minds were 
set upon the enterprise of forming a colony, somewhere, solely for 
the enjoyment of religious and civil freedom. As has been truly 
said of them: "They were not mercenery trades-people, nor 
socialists, nor religious enthusiasts, but sensible and earnest godly 
men and women, to whom freedom in their labors and worship 
was dearer than the treasures of both the Indies. ' ' 

The tradition is, that in an early May morning in 1677, these 
twelve men with their families, in three large canvas-covered and 
strong looking wagons called cors — French built, with low wheels 
— left their Kingston friends with tender farewells, and were 
soon in the deep woods wending their way to their New Paltz 
home, and to meet the hardships that were before them. 

The place where they encamped the first night — for their 
journey was only one day — was in the open field on the west side 
of the Wallkill, a place called the " Tri-cors," from the wagons 
or cors in which they journeyed. It has been familiar to our ears, 
even from childhood, that the three cors (wagons) were drawn 
together for the night, and there "under the blue dome of 


heaven, upon a carpet of green sward, the towering mountain 
near by, the gallery of angel-attending witnesses, the limpid 
river flowing at their feet, these exiled pilgrims in a strange land 
assembled for the worship of Jehovah." No doubt it was Louis 
DuBois, the leading man of the company, who opened his French 
Bible and read, M The Lord is my shepherd, I shall not want." 
Then devout thanks were given to God from whom all blessings 
flow, and earnest prayer offered that the curtains of safety might 
be drawn around them for the night, and that a covenant God 
would guard and guide and keep them in their new home. What 
a memorable occasion was that ! And what blessings must have 
flowed through the generations from that scene ! 

There is a large trunk filled with Patentee papers in the safe- 
keeping of the Huguenot Bank in the village of New Paltz. 
These papers have quite recently been translated with great 
literalness of spelling, capitalizing, punctuation, etc, by Rev. 
Ame Vennema, and printed in the New Paltz Independent. All 
of these papers are full of interesting facts ; but as they will 
be on file in the Library' of the Huguenot Society, I will merely 
characterize their contents for the guidance of those who may 
wish to consult them : 

Permission is granted to the citizens of New Paltz to purchase of 
the Indians, on approval of His Excellency, the Governor, the un- 
purchased lands, to wit : Sewakanamie and Sewankonck, to the 
New Indian Fort. 

By order of the Special Session Court, held in Kingston, Feb. 13, 

Rv.nd d La Monragerh. 

Permission asked to purchase of the Indians ; A patent granted by 
Governor Andross ; copy of purchase from the Indians ; agreement 
of the 24 owners of New Paltz patent authorizing the 12 men to fix 
the title to lands, etc.; the 12 men chosen to represent the shares of 
the 12 patentees respectively; the New Paltz orders; and matters 
submitted to the voters for their decision. 

The New Paltz settlement from the first, even to the present day, 
has had a dread of litigation ; and their difficulties have been so 
few and their adjustments so easy, that no lawyer previous to 
18 73 found a permanent residence among them. It is said this 
dread of litigation prompted them to decline the offer of making 
New Paltz the county seat in the early history of Ulster County. 


The Rev. Dr. Stitt in his admirable paper on "The Hugue- 
nots of New Paltz " in 1862 says in reference to the government 
of New Paltz by the twelve men : " The only exact parallel of 
such a settlement and government, is found in the history of a 
band of Huguenots, who settled about the same time, and under 
not widely different circumstances, in a fertile valley in .South 
Africa, called the valley of the French, not many miles distant 
from Cape town. One of its villages, called Chanon, the name of 
its founder, is governed to this day by an elder or chief, who, 
with his associates in office, is chosen by the people ; their system 
of government being modelled after the democratic ideas of the 
Calvinists. - The church has always been an essential feature in 
their history. And even to this day they are said to resemble 
their Huguenot brethren at New Paltz ; not only in their wealth 
and prosperity, but in purity of morals, simplicity of manners, 
and sound evangelical faith and piety. ' ' 

Each of the Twelve Patentees located on his allotment of the 
land secured by purchase and patent ; and, in some cases, the al- 
lotment was more than was accepted I have often heard my 
grandfather say that his patentee ancestor was urged to take quite 
a large portion of what is now the township of Plattekill, lying 
next to the Le Fevre district, but he stoutly refused. And to this 
day several districts are marked by the names of the original own- 
ers. About the village there were several Deyo residents. 
Farther south the farms were mostly owned by DuBoises ; and 
still farther south by a group of Hasbrouck families. Then 
crossing the Wallkill, at the Hasbrouck bridge, going east, we 
come to Kettleborough, where my tribe located ; and a few years 
since there were a dozen adjoining farms owned by theLe Fevres. 

But changes, sad changes, are taking place in these eminently 
agricultural districts as in so many other farming communities. 
One of the saddest things to be seen in this country is the giving 
up of landed estates ; old homes. They are readily relinquished, 
sold out to any bod} 7 ; even deserted and allowed to go to ruin. 
Ancestral acres held by old parchment deeds, substantial houses 
full of old heir-looms and fuller of old memories ; the very floors 
still echoing the tread of some stalwart sire, and the rustle of a 
mother's bridal dress ; the very walls throwing back one's own 
childhood laughter ; sold, instead of held. No thought of making 


and keeping them a center of family affection, a rallying place 
and a resting place, tor any and all of the family to the latest 
generations ; to which the childless Xaomies might return for 
sympathy and the widowed Ruths for cheer. 

These Huguenot families are all more or less closely related by 
intermarriages. Indeed, it seemed almost a necessity in the early 
years of the settlement of new Paltz that a man should marry a 
wife somewhat near of kin. It was before the days of railroads, 
the trolley or even good earth roads, and a young man had to have 
a great amount of enterprise and venture to seek a wife in the 
outlying districts. 

The New Paltz patent being a distinct commonwealth and the 
families being more or less closely related, as we have seen, 
the earlier and later marriages with the Dutch on both sides of the 
water, have given marked characteristics of features to the people 
of New Paltz and vicinities. There is a physiognomy neither 
French nor Dutch, but a combination of both peculiar to the de- 
scendants of the Twelve Patentees. Having the most of my life 
been a resident of Xew Jersey, and been able to study the people 
of my birthplace at a distance and at intervals, I have come to 
note their features and forms, so that I fancy I can tell an Ulster 
County face whenever I meet it. It is neither beautiful nor 
ugly, but marked by ruggedness and strength — a kind of good- 
looking homeliness. And there are the same combined traits of 
mental character — the vivacity of the French modified by the 
conservative calmness of the Dutch. 

From the religious character of the people we might expect 
that a church would soon be organized ; and a formal organization 
was effected on January 22, 1683. The first place of worship was 
a log edifice which served the twofold purpose of school-house 
and church. For nearly fourscore years this church had no 
settled pastor. At long intervals a minister would come to them 
preaching the Word, administering the Sacraments and encourag- 
ing the little flock to continue faithful and hopeful. When there 
was no preacher, many of the earnest Christians of New Paltz 
would wend their way on Sabbath mornings to Kingston, sixteen 
miles, to enjoy the administration of the Holy Word and Sacra- 

In the early years of the eighteenth century the Holland 


language had become the vernacular in Ulster and adjoining 
counties, and the French was gradually superseded in the public 
services of religion. Up to this time the minutes of the New 
Paltz church were kept in French ; but July 6, 1718, we find the 
first entry in Dutch. Here we must leave the history of the New 
Paltz church, as Domine Vennema has preserved that in his 
admirable sermon on the occasion of the 200th anniversary in 1883. 
I would simply add that it is to-day one of the largest churches 
both as to building and membership that we find out of the large 
cities. The large audiences on Sunday mornings completely 
filling the capacious brick edifice is the wonder and admiration of 
strangers visiting the place. 

The Patentees and their Dutch friends were true to their 
ancestral usages in building the school-house very near the 
church, showing how closely associated in their minds were edu- 
cation and religion. In after years the New Paltz Academy was 
established in a fine building, which was the pride of the village 
and the joy of the surrounding community. I cannot better 
set forth the spirit of the people of New Paltz in sustaining the 
cause of education than to quote part of a letter to me from 
the Hon. Edmund Eltinge in answer to some inquiries concerning 
the old Academy : ' ' The old Academy whose semi-centennial, had 
been celebrated in June, 1883, was destroyed by fire the following 
winter. The trustees felt very keenly the loss of their beloved 
institution but bravely met their misfortune by resolving at once 
to raise money for its rebuilding. In the course of a few months 
they raised $20,000 and then made contracts" for the new build- 
ing. The subscriptions toward this object were noble and gener- 
ous, developing a wonderful interest and appreciation of the 
importance of academical education. The advance of the com- 
munity for the previous fifty years had been elevating to its 
character and standing, and which must be upheld and continued. 
They were all lineal descendants of the immortal band of Hugue- 
nots, who, two hundred years before, had shown their attachment 
to those great principles of government which could only be 
secured by true mental, moral and religious education and cul- 
ture. When the building was nearly finished it was proposed by 
the Trustees to convert the academy into a Normal School under 
the care of the State. They proposed to donate to the State their 

s 9 

entire property. They procured the passage of a law 03- the 
Legislature authorizing the State Board to establish a Normal 
School at New Paltz. The State officers were slow to carry out 
the power granted. The Governor and all the State officers were 
invited and prevailed upon to visit Xew Paltz and examine the 
property offered. A large number of the citizens of Xew Paltz, 
and the children from the schools met the Governor and the State 
officers on the Academy grounds. Addresses were made and 
conferences held which gave an impetus to the efforts of the 
trustees. There still lingered in the minds of the State officers 
a feeling of unwillingness to accept the offer. The}* made addi- 
tional demands on the trustees for some changes in the arrange- 
ment of the building, and also for furniture and supplies deemed 
necessary. The trustees bravely met their demands and the 
State accepted. As a result New Paltz has one of the best 
normal schools of the State." You will all readily admit that 
these successful efforts to provide educational advantages, show 
the real character of the Patentee descendants, better than words 
can portray. 

The village of New Paltz is beautifully located on the east bank 
of the Wallkill, on a gradually rising slope that commands one of 
the finest views of the Shawangunk Mountains. It is lighted by 
electricity, and recently water has been introduced from the 
mountain-side four miles distant. The springs and reservoir 
being at an elevation much above the highest point in the village, 
makes it feasible to use the gravity system. The village has a 
population of about twelve hundred. 

What is very much to the credit of the descendants of the 
Patentees of New Paltz, is their disposition to honor the memory 
of their Huguenot ancestry. The village has a Huguenot street, 
a Huguenot bank, and a Huguenot Monumental and Historical 
Society. Some time ago Edmund Eltinge, Esq., an octogenarian 
of the best type of Dutch and Huguenot blood, conceived the 
idea of erecting at New Paltz a monument, commemorating the 
virtues of the Huguenot Patentees and early settlers of that com- 

The suggestions of Mr. Eltinge met with such sympathetic 
approval and hearty support, that recently there has been organ- 
ized and incorporated "The Huguenot Patriotic, Historical and 


Monumental Association of New Paltz." The proposed monu- 
ment will no doubt be constructed of the white rock'of the 
Shawangunk Mountains. And,, as Mr. Eltinge has'proposed, it 
shall be crowned with the figures in bronze, of a Hollander and 
Huguenot, embracing each other, in token of that mutual esteem 
and regard which was manifested at the beginning of the settle- 
ment, and has not diminished through succeeding generations, 
even to the present. 

The scope and object of this association is broader than the 
single purpose of erecting a monument as first 'proposed, and it 
is endowed with the additional power to acquire, hold and pre- 
serve one of the old stone houses of New Paltz, and to gather 
and maintain therein a museum of documents and relics of early 

The stone house recommended for purchase by the committee 
is the Jean Hasbrouck house, of quaint style, built, no doubt, by 
the original Patentee, about thirty-five years after the settlement 
of New Paltz in 17 12. Everything about the house reminds one 
of the time when large chimneys and wide fireplaces were in 
vogue. The trammels and pot-hooks are still to be seen. The 
bricks of the two chimneys, ten feet wide, must have come from 
Holland and been hauled from Kingston. Everything about the 
house is evidently handmade. The nails in the doors and the 
bolts and hinges were drawn out by the home-blacksmith. The 
woodwork was made before the days of sawmills, and shows the 
hand-planing of the home-carpenter. The work is all substantial. 
There was evidently no slighting of work by mechanics in those 
days. The old settlers meant to stay, and they built their houses 
for themselves and their posterity. From cellar to garret the 
house is full of curious reminders of the olden time. 

To carry out these projects of the monument and the house, 
the Society has appointed committees for the several families of 
the Patentees, who are now soliciting funds from their kin that 
their worthy sires may be honorably remembered. The associa- 
tion requires $10,000 to accomplish both objects. Pursuant to an 
article in the by-laws, each contributor becomes a member of the 

The work of raising the funds is progressing surely r but slowly, 
on account of the depressing times to farming communities ; but 


we trust the day is not far distant, when these objects will be 
dedicated with proper ceremonies ; when the Huguenot Society 
of America will be invited to share in the festivities of the occa- 
sion, and become better acquainted with the worthy descendants 
of " The Twelve Huguenot Patentees of New Paltz." 




It is a great pleasure for me to have this opportunity of saying 
a few words before the Huguenot Society. I came to this country 
a few months ago, as the representative of the Huguenots of 
France, in order to plead their cause before their American 
brethren. They are few in number in their native country, poor 
as a whole, struggling with difficulties of all kinds, but still 
dignified, and trying to be worthy of their glorious past. 

Never, perhaps, in my life, have I felt the loss which France has 
suffered by 'the Revocation and during the two centuries of perse- 
cutions — one before and one after — as since I came to this country. 
I have found in America the very things we lack so much on 
the other side, and which are the very things that were distinctive 
of the Huguenot ancestors : wisdom, patience, labor, economy, 
moral strength, and above all, that strong and broad religious 
faith, without which they would never have left their native 
country, without which the very word Huguenot would never 
have appeared in the history of the world. 

The other day, I read in the papers an article entitled : " Alas 
for Miss Liberty," telling that the Statue of Liberty was a little 
neglected, no broom or brush having been used for a long time 
on the interior walks and stairs. When I read that, I thought of 
the other gift France made to America two hundred and eleven 
3 r ears ago, and which is in a much more favorable condition, 
namely, the Huguenots. They do not seem to have been 
neglected at all, and it would not be very appropriate to write an 
article entitled : " Alas for the American Huguenots." I have 
visited several of them, and have always noticed that brooms and 
brushes were at work every morning on their beautiful carpets. 

* Read before the Huguenot Society. January 23, 1S96. 



On the other hand, I am walking about from house to house say- 
ing : "Alas for the French HuguenoLs," and I assure you I have 
plenty to say. 

It is very difficult to estimate the loss which France has sullered 
through the Revocation and the persecutions which preceded and 
followed it. Such things can only be weighed and the scale is 
wanting. However, figures have their eloquence and can give us 
an idea of that great national calamity. 

In 1688, Vauban, in a confidential memoir addressed to Louvois, 
deplores the desertion of 100,000 men, the export of 60,000,000 
francs, the ruin of the commerce, the fleets of the enemy enlarged 
by 9,000 sailors, the best of the kingdom, the foreign armies by 
6,000 officers and 12,000 soldiers. This was only part of the 
truth, and during the following years, the emigration went on. 

St. Simon says in his memoirs : ' • This horrid plot depopulated 
a quarter of the kingdom, ruined its commerce, weakened it in 
every way." 

The historian of Normandy, M. Floquet, estimates at 184,000, 
the number of Huguenots who went from that one Province. 

The Archives des Intendants die Rot, exposing the condition of the 
kingdom about the year 1700, showed that the population had 
fallen from 22,000,000 to 19,000,000 ; the bridges and causeways 
were degraded, the roads were not safe, the famines periodical, the 
merchant navy ruined in Normandy and Saintonge. In Touraine 
one-third of the ploughmen were gone ; Tours had 80,000 in- 
habitants before the Revocation, there remained 33,000 after ; at 
Troyes the population had fallen from 60,000 to 20,000 ; the 
same decline at Nantes, Caen and LaRochelle. 

At Lyons, out of 18,000 looms for silk manufacture, there re- 
mained 4,000 after the Revocation ; at Tours, 1,200 out of 8,000. 

These Refugees were scattered all over the world, and the ruin 
of France was the fortune of the other nations. I do not speak 
of the thousands of Refugees who came over to this country. The 
United States had then 200,000 inhabitants. The Huguenots 
formed no inconsiderable part of the population. On this subject 
you know far more than I do. 

The French Refugees went to Russia, to Sweden, to Denmark, 
to Ireland, to Constantinople, where, in 1S55, one of the Protest- 
ant chaplains of the Crimean war found the old chapel where 


they worshipped, and the communion vessels' that the}- used. 
Several years ago, when the delegates of the Transvaal Republic 
came to Paris to negotiate a commercial treat}', almost all of them 
had French names : Duplessis, Beaumont, Cordier, Coteau, Du- 
mont, Saubatier, and so on. 

In 16S8, there were already sixty-two churches of Refugees in 
Holland, and 15,000 Huguenots in one single quarter of Rot- 

In 1676, 3,000 silk- workers had settled in Canterbury, and were 
working in the crypt of the cathedral, where the marks of the 
smoke of their furnaces can still be seen on the pillars. Queen 
Victoria herself is a descendant in direct line of a Refugee from 
Poitou, the Marquis d'Olbreuse, through Sophie Dorothea of 

Very few French names are to be found actually in England 
and Holland. The reason of this fact is that the Refugees trans- 
lated their names into English and Dutch, as the} T feared a French 
invasion and the vengeance of the king, in the years following the 

Eemaitre became Masters ; Eeroy, King ; Eetonnelier, Cooper. 
In Holland, Leblanc became DeWitt ; DuBois, Van den Bosch, 

For the same reason it is difficult to ascertain how many de- 
scendants of Refugees were to be found in the German army 
against France, in 1870. On the list of the Prussian army, on 
the first of August, 1S70, only ninety names appear for the staff, 
generals and colonels, the Huguenot origin of which is perfectly 
certain. This is one of the results of the Revocation. This 
statement is a painful one for French patriotism. 

What we have lost through the Revocation, nobody can tell. 
What France would be if the Revocation had not taken place, 
nobody knows. What we miss is certainly not the riches and 
material prosperity which went away with the Huguenots. What 
we miss is their spirit, their solid virtues, their fortitude in trials, 
their moderation in power, their sincere respect for liberty, the 
earnestness of their life. All these things are wanting in our 
national life, as we have felt in many troubled hours. 

The past cannot be blotted out in'one day. This it is fair to 
remember, when one speaks of French immorality, of French 


art, of French literature ; when one complains of the way in 
which Sunday is observed in France. 

Prof. Baird in his admirable book on the Huguenots, the best 
which was ever written on the subject, estimates at 1,500,000 
the numbers of French Huguenots at the beginning of the seven- 
teenth century. The whole population of France was then 
1 5,000,000. With that proportion, we should be actually 6,000,000, 
instead of 650,000. Actually we are but a handful, 2 per cent, of 
the population, but we are not discouraged. 

I am glad to state here that the new times for the French 
Huguenot churches begin with the Edict of Toleration of 1787, 
and that this Edict was obtained through the influence of La- 
fayette,' who had come back from America full of the most gener- 
ous inspirations. Washington had urged his friends to intervene 
in behalf of the Huguenots in France. 

Then came the dark shadows of the Napoleonic tyranny. 

Our history in this century, since the Restoration of 1830, fills 
our hearts with hope for the future. At the time of the Edict of 
Toleration, everything was to be done anew. Now we have 
1,300 churches, 1,200 ministers, 420 societies of all kinds. 
'Among these I will only mention the Society d' histoire die Protestante 
fra?icais, which was founded in 1852. Our influence in France by 
far surpasses our numbers, in the government, in the French 
Academy, where five of the forty are Protestant, in the public 
instruction, the two directors of which are Protestant. We are 
not discouraged, but we want more than ever the sj^mpathy and 
help of every one, at home and abroad, who has a drop of 
Huguenot blood in his veins. 

By James B. Laux. 

The history of the Huguenot emigration to Pennsylvania con- 
stitutes one of the most interesting, if not one of the most im- 
portant chapters in the dispersion of that dauntless race to which 
you and I have the high honor to belong. Strange to say, the his- 
tory of that emigration has not yet been written, though offering a 
subject of absorbing interest to the historian. It involves the 
recital of such a story of persecution and oppression as were never 
experienced by the Huguenot emigrants to the other colonies, 
though sad as were their trials in reaching their refuges of safety. 

It may surprise many of you when I say that a greater number 
of Huguenots settled in Pennsylvania than came to New York, to 
Virginia, to New England, or even to South Carolina, the only 
great notable Huguenot settlement in America ; great and notable 
because it influenced permanently the social character of that 
State by reason of its solidarity, a condition the Huguenots did 
not attain in any other of their American settlements. 

The Huguenot emigration to Pennsylvania is almost entirely 
involved in the great influx of Germans and Swiss, who came 
over between the years 1683 and 1776, with whom most of them 
had cast their lot for generations before emigrating to America. 

They came, therefore, as individuals, as families, and small 
groups of families, and not as colonies, separate and distinct from 
the rest of the community, as was the case with those who set- 
tled in Massachusetts, New Rochelle on Long Island Sound, at 
Mannakintown Virginia, or in South Carolina. Though great 
as were the number of these Huguenot families, they were so 
completely identified with the German and Swiss emigration that 
Pennsylvania has not been accorded the importance as a Hugue- 
not centre, to which it is entitled. 

What little has been w ritten (principally in foot notes), con- 
cerning the Huguenots of Pennsylvania, has been almost wholly 

♦Read before the Huguenot Society, February 27, 1*96. 



concerning those who settled in the city of Philadelphia, who for 
the most part were Refugees from the West Indies and the 

So much of the Huguenot emigration to America came through 
English and Dutch channels that many have lost sight of the fact 
that more than half of the Huguenots who fled from France went 
to Germany. Very naturally, therefore, it is to Germany we 
must look for the subsequent history of the majority of our ex- 
patriated race. We Pennsy Iranians realize this more fully than 
you can here in Xew York, where the Germans played compara- 
tively but a small though a noble part in the building up of the 
commonwealth. That this part was so small, was due to the 
illiberal policy pursued by the Colonial Government when Ger- 
man emigration began to set in towards this State through the 
efforts of Queen Anne. The injustice meted out to these settlers 
by Governor Hunter and by his successors caused an exodus 
of many of them to Pennsylvania, where the generous spirit of the 
Penns gave them a glad welcome, and turned the tide of future 
emigration entirely to that State. How valuable that emigra- 
tion was to Pennsylvania may be gathered from the statement of 
Governor Thomas in 1 738 who said : ' ' This Province has been for 
some years the asylum of the distressed Protestants of the Palati- 
nate and other parts of Germany, and I believe it may truthfully 
be said that the present flourishing condition of it is in a great 
measure owing to the industry of those people ; it is not altogether 
the fertility of the soil, but the number and industry of the people, 
that makes a country flourish." Of that race were the sturdy old 
hero and patriot. General Herkimer, and Bishop Kemper, the 
first missionary Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the 
United States ; two men who have added lustre to the fame of 
New York, and whose memory should ever be kept green. 

Contradictory , as. it may seem, it was this class of Germans, 
eulogized by Governor Thomas, who w r ere so much feared by his 
predecessors when their emigration outnumbered that of the Eng- 
lish and Welsh, 4 ' whose numbers from Germany," it was said, 
" at this rate would- soon produce a German Colony here, and 
perhaps such a one as Britain once received from Saxony in the 
fifth century." Governor Keith in 17 17, says the record, "ob- 
served to the Board — the Governor's Council — that great num- 


bers of foreigners from German}-, strangers to our language and 
constitution, having lately been imported into this Province, daily 
dispersed themselves immediately after landing, without producing 
certificates from whence they ca?ne or what they are, and, as they 
seemed to have first landed in Britain and afterward to have left 
without any license from government, or so far as they know, 
so, in the same manner, they behaved here, without making the 
least application to him or any of the magistrates. That, as this 
practice might be of very dangerous consequence, since by the 
same method, any number of foreigners, from any nation what- 
ever, enemies as well as friends, might throw themselves upon 

The sounding of this note of alarm by Governor Keith, led to 
the adoption of a measure, compelling every emigrant not a native 
of Great Britain, to take an oath of allegiance to the English 
crown. As a result of this measure there is on file among the 
Pennsylvania archives at Harrisburg the names of over 30,000 
aliens who took the oath of allegiance between 1727 and 1776, 
among which are the names of many Huguenots, of whom record 
otherwise would have been lost. So we are indebted to a spirit of 
jealousy for the preservation of invaluable data concerning 
Huguenot emigration to Pennsylvania. Many had come over 
from Germany and Switzerland before 1727, of whom trace can 
only be found in church records (very often imperfect and care- 
lessly kept), and in the registries of land warrants and deeds, a 
task very laborious and forbidding in its proportions. 

The temper of the times, the apprehension and horror shown 
by the English sovereigns who succeeded William and Mary, with 
reference to certain tenets of the Papacy, concerning excommu- 
nicated princes, and also their attitude toward the heirs of James 
II., is illustrated in a striking manner by the terms of this oath, 
taken by the Huguenots, in company with their German and 
Swiss companions, and which, with your permission, I will give : 

"I, A. B., do solemnly & sincerly promise & declare that I will 
be true and faithfull to King George the Second, and do solemnly, 
sincerly and truly Profess, Testifie and Declare, that I do from my 
Heart abhor, detest & renounce as impious & heretical that wicked 
Doctrine & Position, that Princes Excommunicated or deprived by 
the Pope or any authority of the See of Rome, may be deposed or 


murthered by their subjects, or any other whatsoever. And I do 
leclare that no foreign Prince. Person, Prelate, State, or Potentate 
hath or ought to have any power, Jurisdiction, Superiority, Pre- 
eminence or Authority Ecclesiastical or Spiritual within the Realm 
of Great Britain or the Dominions thereunto belonging. 

"I, A. B., do solemnly, sineerl}- and truly acknowledge, profess, 
testify & declare that King George the Second is lawful & right- 
ful King of the Realm of Great Britain, & of all others his Do- 
minions & Countries thereunto belonging, and I do solemnly & 
sincerly declare that I do believe the Person pretending to be Prince 
of Wales during the Life of the late King James, and since his 
Decease pretending to be taken upon himself the Stile & Title of 
King of England by the Name of James the Third, or of Scotland by 
the Name of James the Eighth, or the Stile and title of King of Great 
Britain, hath not any right or title whatsoever to the Crown of the 
Realm of Great Britain, nor any other the Dominions thereunto 
belonging. And I do renounce & refuse any Allegiance or obedience 
to him, & do solemnly promise, that I will be true and faithfull, 
& bear true Allegiance to King George the Second, & to him will 
be faithfull against all traiterous Conspiracies & attempts whatso- 
ever which shall be made against his Person, Crown & Dignity, & 
I will do my best Endeavours to disclose ec make known to King 
George the Second & his Successors all Treason and traiterous Con- 
spiracies which I shall know to be made against him or any of them. 
And I will be true and faithfull to the succession of the Crown against 
him. the said James & all other Persons whatsoever as the same is 

stands settled by An Act Entitled An Act, declaring the Rights 
»N: Liberties of the subject & settling the succession of the Crown 
to the late Queen Anne, & the Heirs of her Body being Protestants, 
and as the same by one other Act, Entitled. An Act for the further 
Limitation of the Crown and better securing the Rights & Liber- 
ties of the Subject, is & stands Settled and Entailed, after the De- 
cease of the said late Queen, & for Default of Issue of the said 
late Queen to the late Princess Sophia, Electoress & Duchess 
Dowager at Hanover, the Heirs of Her Body being Protestants and 
all these things I do plainly and sincerly acknowledge, promise & 
declare, according to these express words by me spoken, and according 
to the plain and common sense and understanding of the same Words, 
without any Equivocation, Mental Evasion or Secret Reservation 
whatsoever. And I do make this Recognition, Acknowledgment, 
denunciation, and Promise heartily, willingly and truly." 

All males over sixteen years of age were obliged to take this 


oath and declaration as soon after their arrival as possible, being 
marched to the Court House in Philadelphia for that purpose, 
although in a number of instances they were qualified at the 
official residence of the magistrate. Such an oath of allegiance 
was not required of emigrants to any other colony. 

As the great majority of the Huguenots who settled in ^Penn- 
sylvania came over with the Germans, we are compelled to search 
among German archives for their history. It must not be forgot- 
ten that the Huguenot exodus began fifty years before the mas- 
sacre of St. Bartholomew, in 1572, and only reached a climax 
after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, in 1685, and, as stated 
before, that Germany and Switzerland received the great majority 
of the Refugees, Brandenburg in Prussia, after the Revocation, 
alone receiving nearly 300,000, Switzerland over 30,000, the 
Palatinate of the Rhine many thousands more, and other German 
States smaller, though considerable numbers. Those who went 
to England more than made up the loss sustained by the depart- 
ure of the Puritans, while the Netherlands received over 100,000. 

The Huguenots of France, in fleeing from persecution, did 
"not stand on the order of their going," but fled precipitately, 
and very naturally directed their flight to Protestant countries. As 
Germany and Switzerland were the nearest to the great majority, 
those countries afforded them the speediest shelter in their dire 
need. How wretched that shelter was, when compared with that 
given in England, Holland, and the Scandinavian countries, I 
think it necessary 7 to picture, to form a correct idea of the char- 
acter of the subsequent emigration to Pennsylvania. 

When the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes took place, Eng- 
land was a Protestant country, intensely so, as shown in the 
popular demonstration which led to the expulsion of the House of 
Stuart, whose head, James II., had become a Romanist ; Holland 
had thrown off the yoke of Roman Catholic Spain and been added 
to the roll of Protestant nations, while Sweden and Denmark had 
been recognized for generations as the bulwarks of Protestantism 
in Europe. The Huguenots who were fortunate enough to reach 
those countries were assured of a warm welcome, as well as a 
peaceful, prosperous career in the days to come. Their sufferings 
were ended when they touched those hospitable shores. Very 
quickly they were merged into the new nationalities, and identified 


witn their development. The presence of the Huguenot in the 
English, Dutch and Swedish colonies in America, even prior to 
the Revocation, attest their activity in furthering the ambitions 
of their adopted countries. 

The Huguenots who fled into Germany experienced a different 
fate. They became involved in the frightful condition into which 
Germany was plunged by the Thirty Years' War, and the wars of 
Louis XIV., the effects of which are still apparent in some phases 
of German life. Germany to-day, great, noble and united, the 
dominant nation of continental Europe, was, during the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries, rent asunder and in constant chaos. It 
was the great battlefield of religious and intellectual freedom, a 
country so divided against itself, so forced to fight for its very 
existence often, so occupied with the tyranny of its numberless 
petty rulers, the thought even of a powerful nationality so hope- 
less, that taking part in the making of a new T world was a thing 
impossible ; and that is why no German explorers sailed into 
strange waters to claim for Germany new countries, as was done 
by the neighboring French and Dutch. 

If ever the dread invocation of war, such as that over the dead 
bod}- of Caesar by Marc Antony as Shakespeare worded it, was 
realized, it was so during the Thirty Years' War and the war that 
ravaged the Palatinate from which so many of our Pennsylvania 
Huguenots came. A "curse," indeed, seemed to have fallen 

upon the limbs of men ' ' and ' ' all pity choked with custom of 
fell deeds. ' ' Germany was a land literally ' ' with carrion men 
groaning for burial. ' ' 

In Saxon}- 900,000 men had fallen within two years ; in Bohemia 
the number of inhabitants had sunk to one-fourth. Augsburg, 
instead of 80,000 inhabitants, numbered but 18,000. Every prov- 
ince, every town throughout the Empire had suffered in like 
manner. The country was completely impoverished. The trades 
had disappeared. The busy looms were hushed, the factories de- 
stroyed, the warehouses gutted. Vast provinces, once flourish.- 
ing and populous, lay entirely waste [and uninhabited. In old 
Wurtemberg, there were left 250,000 acres of ownerless arable 
land, 40,000 acres of devastated vineyard, and 40,000 acres of 
unclaimed meadow. The peasantry appropriated them all, and 
there was no one to say them nay, for the power of the noble was 


broken ; whole families had been sweept away with none to suc- 
ceed them. 

The Thirty Years' War, was the last of the religious wars of 
Europe. The Peace of Westphalia declared in 1648, placed 
Romanists, Lutherans, and Calvinists legally on the same levels 
and laid the foundation of modern toleration, a toleration needed 
by Protestants at that time, unhappily as much as by Romanists. 
The enmity between Lutherans and Calvinists equalled their 
mutual hate for the Romanists. As an illustration of intolerance 
during the period preceding the Peace of Westphalia, the for- 
tunes of the Rhenish Palatinate may be cited. 

Up to 1540, the Rhenish Palatinate was Romanist, but under 
the Elector, Otto Heinrich, it was forced to become Lutheran. 
Otto Heinrich died without issue, and the Electorate passed to 
another house, whose chief, Frederick III. was as hot a Calvinist 
as his predecessor had been a Lutheran. 

Reckoning the changes of religion effected by the varying 
fortunes of war, the Palatinate passed through ten changes in 
less than a century. Verily the Palatines must have thanked 
God that they remained Christians still. Much the same sort of 
thing occurred in other parts of Germany. When the Prince 
changed his faith he made his people change theirs also. 

The political condition of Germany was, if anything, in a worse 
condition than that of its religion. The loose confederation 
which formed the Empire, and the policy of the Roman pontiffs 
to foment strife among the different rulers prevented the growth 
of nationality, a centralization such as made France, at that time, 
the most powerful nation in Europe. The ancient Empire existed 
merely in name ; the supremacy of the Emperor and with it the 
unity of the body of the state sank to a mere shadow. Every 
member of the Empire exercised the right of proclaiming war, 
of concluding peace, and of contracting treaties with every Euro- 
pean power, the Emperor alone excluded. What that meant we 
have only to remember that Germany , at the beginning of the 
year 1700, the year in which the lowest point of her decay was 
reached, was divided into 314 States of the Empire, and 1475 
small Territories belonging to Knights who exercised a power 
and jurisdiction as absolute as that of a prince. Try to realize the 
two States of Texas and Tennessee divided up into 1789 separate 

and distinct States and you can form some idea of the Germany 
to which the ancestors of the Pennsylvania Huguenots fled for 

How diminutive some of these States must have been we may 
gather from the description of a few that I will give. The sov- 
ereign Count of Leinburg-Styrum-Wilhelmsdorf , in Franconia (a 
ponderous name for so insignificant a realm), had a standing army 
of hussars, consisting of a colonel, nine lower officers and two 
privates. He published, however, his Court Gazette and instituted 
an order of nobility in his little state. Baron Grote, in the Harz 
mountains, reigned over one farm, and a small one at that, and 
when Frederick the Great passed by there on one occasion he met 
him with a fraternal embrace, saying: "Voila deux souverains 
qui se rencontrent. " At the present day the sovereign indepen- 
dent principality of Lichtenstein consists of a village or two, some 
Alpine pastures and scattered farms covering an area not much 
larger than Manhattan Island. It has a population of about 
9,000, its capital containing less than a thousand inhabitants. It 
is a constitutional monarchy, boasts its little army, points to a 
national debt of $35,000, and occupies a page of the " Almanach 
de Gotha." 

This w T as the Germany that became the asylum of more than 
500,000 Huguenots, the Germany which for more than a genera- 
tion had been turned into a hell on earth, and which for a time 
seemed abandoned to barbarism. And yet the Huguenots pre- 
ferred to accept whatever fate there w T as for them, in that pande- 
monium : poverty, the horrors of war, the loss of rank, dignities, 
name even, rather than remain in their native France and by 
being recreant to their faith, enjoy wealth, distinction, family 
honors — the consideration that goes with prosperity, the peace 
which the Church of Rome offered. 

I hope I may be pardoned for indulging in what may have 
seemed a lengthy digression. I felt it necessary and proper to 
sketch the trials and sufferings that did not end, when their fare- 
well to priest-ridden France w T as said by the Huguenots who went 
into Germany, particularly those who made their homes in the 
Palatinate. It was to show that in spite of the awful demoraliza- 
tion surrounding them on every side, they yet remained steadfast 
to principle, true men, "sustained and soothed by an unfaltering 


trust," which did not forsake them when they crossed the great 
sea to found new homes in the wilds of Pennsylvania: It was to 
show also that such an experience was sure to leave its impress 
on the fortunes and character of the Huguenot Refugees and their 

In the course of time these Refugees were absorbed, Germanized 
not only in speech and thought, but also in name in very many 
instances, so that it is a difficult matter to trace their individual 
history to-day. The translation of Huguenot surnames became a 
very common practice, effacing most effectually any traces of 
French origin, while the corruption of names was equally as mis- 
chievous in destroying their identity. A most interesting paper 
on the corruption of Huguenot patronymics could be written, 
showing the havoc raised with them in the countries in which 
they made their homes. A very recent illustration can be cited. 
The late ambassador to Germany, Chancellor Runyon, was of 
Huguenot ancestry, but you would not recognize the Huguenot 
refugee Roignon in the American Runyon. The changing of 
Huguenot names was as active in America as in Europe, and 
more particularly in Pennsylvania where the Germanizing process 
was kept up for generations. • 

Probably the first Huguenots to set foot on Pennsylvania soil 
were four Walloon couples, whose names have not been preserved, 
who came from Holland in 1623 in the colony brought over by 
Jesse de Forest who made the first permanent settlement in New 
York. These couples who had been married on shipboard, were 
soon after landing sent to the Delaware River, to form a settle- 
ment at a point about four miles below the present city of Phila- 
delphia. They remained but a short time, returning to New 
York, the settlement being abandoned. 

Ffteen years later, in 1638, another Huguenot, the famous 
Peter Minuft, ex-Governor of New Netherlands but now the 
leader of a Swedish colony, and the first Governor of Pe?msylva?iio 
sailed up the Delaware River to a point opposite the present city 
of Trenton, within the limits of what is now Bucks county, the 
northern boundary of the colony of New Sweden. He built the 
fort and town of Christina, near the present site of Wilmington, 

The family of Minuit was originally seated in the southern part 


of France, but owing to the persecutions that followed the massa- 
cre of St. Bartholomew's Day, took refuge in Wesel, Rhenish 
Prussia where Peter Minuit was born about 15 So and where he 
was a deacon in the Reformed Church. He died in Fort Chris- 
tina in 1 64 1. 

Another of the Huguenot race who, in those early days, became ' 
identified with Pennsylvania history, was Jean Paul Jacquet, who 
in 1655 was appointed by Peter Stuyvesant, Governor of the 
Dutch territory on the Delaware, which comprised the territory , 
dominated by the Swedes under Minuit, but of which they had 
been deprived by the Dutch. 

Jacquet was born in Neufchatel, Switzerland, whither his fam- 
ily had emigrated from France. He went to Holland, where he 
entered the service of the Dutch West India Company spending a 
number of 3-ears in Brazil. On his return to Holland he deter- 
mined to emigrate to Xew Amsterdam, and sailed from Holland 
November 23, 1654, taking with him letters to Peter Stuyvesant. 
After the conquest of Xew Netherlands by the English in 1664, 
Jacquet became a British subject, and was appointed a justice 
serving until William Penn took possession of his territory in 1682. 
He died on his estate near Wilmington, Delaware. The date of 
his death is unknown. His descendants became prominent in 
Colonial and Revolutionary times, several of them being officers 
in the Continental Army. The Rev. Joseph Jacquet, a clergy- 
man of the Protestant Episcopal Church and an accomplished 
scholar who was born in Philadelphia in 1794, and who died May 
24, 1869, was a descendant of the old Governor. 

William Penn, following the example of other Colonial leaders, 
extended a cordial invitation to the Huguenots to settle in Penn- 
sylvania. He had a personal knowledge of their worth, their 
high character and accomplishments, for in early manhood he 
visited France and studied under Moses Amyrault, the celebrated 
Huguenot theologian. 

Huguenot Refugees had become acquainted with the great 
natural resources of Pennsylvania through the agents of Penn who 
were making great efforts in Germany and Holland to induce emi- 
gration. But in spite of these overtures, comparatively few Hugue- 
nots settled in Pennsylvania before the beginning of the eighteenth 
century, New England, New York, Virginia and South Carolina 


receiving the greater number.and these being principally cf those 
Refugees who had sojourned for a time in Holland and in England. 
The reason for this preference for New York, New England, 
Virginia and South Carolina was due to the efforts that had been 
made to promote emigration to these colonies long before the 
Revocation in 16S5, long before Penn had received his charter. 
Pamphlets describing in glowing language the colony of South 
Carolina had been circulated in France, and when the great exo- 
dus began, many of those who fled to England were intent on 
reaching the sunn}' clime whose beauties and attractions they had 
already become familiar with. Many others naturally preferred 
to go to settlements such as New York and Massachusetts, where 
men of their race had already become identified with the new 
communities. Then again great numbers settled in Virginia, be- 
cause of the liberal policy pursued by the English in supplying 
free transportation and bestowing other help. Over twelve thou- 
sand pounds were collected for this purpose in 1699, in response 
to a call made by William III. 

Among the earliest Huguenots who settled in Pennsylvania 
after the landing of Penn were Andrew Imbert, a native of 
Nismes, France, who pledged allegiance to the Government of the 
Province, July 10, 1683. Gabriel Rappe and Nicholas Ribouleau. 
natives of the Isle of Re were naturalized July 2, 1684. Antoine 
Duche of La Rochelle, the father of Rev. Jacob Duche who made 
the opening prayer of the first Continental Congress, and who 
afterwards became rector of Christ Church, Philadelphia, also soon 
after became a settler, as also did James De la Plaine, in 1692. 
De la Plaine came from New York and was a son of Nicholas De 
la Plaine and his wife Susanna Cresson a Huguenot lady of Rys- 
wyck in the New Netherlands. 

Wm. Penn in his pamphlet describing " Pennsylvania in 16S5 " 
bears witness to the presence of Huguenots in the Province at 
that time. He says in one place " the wine especially prevails, 
which grows everywhere ; and upon experience of some French 
people from Rochelle and the Isle of Re, good wine may be made 
there. ' ' Unf ortunatelv before the year 1727 there was no provi- 
sion made by the provincial government compelling the registration 
of immigrants and there is, therefore, no record of the thousands 
who settled in Pennsylvania before that year, among whom, as I 


said before, were many Huguenots, save only the names of those 
that may be gathered from the records of the State, in land war- 
rants, acts of naturalization and other documents and private 

The floodtide of German, Swiss and French emigration to 
Pennsylvania began in 1702, and did not ebb until the beginning 
of the struggle for independence. It was suspended for a period 
of five years, from 1756 to 1761, during the French and Indian 
war. More than a thousand Huguenot families, who had pre- 
served the original integrity of their surnames came to Pennsyl- 
vania in this emigration previous to 1755, and man}- more after 
that date. 

Among the names preserved we meet with such as Bontaux, 
Huguelet, Foulquier, Fortinaux, Rouchon, Sanguinet, Latour, 
Maronette, Lallemaud, Parat, Montandon, Hottel, De Veau, Du 
Corbier, Lapierre, Le Cene, Grosjean, Frentier, Chateau, La- 
geau, De Die, Gourier, Coutouir, Petrie, Pavon, Vierisard, Ear- 
beret, Charle, d'Avier, Babtiste, De Grange, Du Pont and so on, 
alLof whom were scattered throughout the German settlements 
of the Province. 

Some of these emigrants were the bearers of illustrious names, 
Jean Jacques Cuvier, who arrived in 1754, maybe of the same 
family as that of the famous Cuvier the naturalist, a Huguenot, 
whose family settled in Wurtemberg, Germany, whither it had emi- 
grated from the Jura to escape persecution. In the emigrant Philip 
Peter Laplace, we are reminded of Laplace the eminent French 
mathematician and physical astronomer. In Pierre Fleury, 
who arrived in 1732, we cannot help thinking of Cardinal Fleury, 
the celebrated minister of Louis XV. The Cardinal was born in 
the Huguenot province of Languedoc, and our emigrant may have 
been a member of the same family. The name of Pierre Marot, 
who arrived in 1733, conjures up the beloved form of Clement 
Marot, the Huguenot poet of the Renaissance, whose famous 
psalms enjoyed the distinction of having been condemned by the 
Sorbonne (that mouthpiece of Rome), and of having driven him 
into exile ; the battle psalms which the Huguenot soldiers chanted 
at Ivry and at Coutras. It is related of a venerable Huguenot, 
settled at Xew Rochelle, on Long Island Sound, that he would 
go daily to the shore and turning his eyes to his beloved France 


sing one of Marot's hymns. Jean Francois Chretien, who arrived 
in 1730. calls to mind Florent Chretien, the celebrated tutor of 
Henry of Navarre, while the name of Johannes Ney, who came 
in 1 75 1, rouses memories of Hohenlinden, Austerlitz, Friedland 
and the Retreat from Moscow — memories forever interwoven 
with the achievements of Napoleon's great marshal " the bravest 
of the brave." 

How manj- Huguenots whose names have been corrupted be- 
yond recognition, or Germanized, were among these Germans and 
Swiss, who came to Pennsylvania, previous to 1776, will never be 
known. Only in instances where Huguenot traditions have been 
preserved is there opportunity to place their names on the roll of 
that devoted race, and to save them from the oblivion which 
absorption into another nationality makes inevitable. 

Almost all the early Huguenots, who came to Pennsylvania 
with the Palatines and Swiss, spoke German. Many had become 
so thoroughly identified with the German communities in which 
the}- lived, that the fact that they could speak French was not 
suspected until discovered by accident, as happened in the case of 
Jean Henri La Motte, a Huguenot of Province, who settled near 
Hanover in York county, in 1754- He was a silent man, rarely 
speaking of his past history, his own family not knowing that he 
could speak French, until he was visited on the occasion of 
Lafayette's tour through the United States in 1785, by a Captain 
de la Motte, who claimed to be a kinsman. It is possible that 
he was a relative of the de la Motte Fouquet, the Huguenot 
general who fled to Germany after the Revocation. He died in 
York in 1794, aged eighty-nine years. His descendants are 
living in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and North Carolina. 

The Huguenots did not settle in Pennsylvania in organized 
communities, but arrived in single families and scattered 
groups as I said before. The nearest approach to a distinctive 
Huguenot settlement was had in the beautiful Pequea Valley 
in Lancaster county. Here were located a number of Huguenot 
families of the name of Dubois, Boileau, Laroux and Lefevre. 
With them were aiso Charles de la Noe (now called Delano ), a 
minister, and Andrew Doz and other Huguenots who were 
induced to settle on the Schuylkill by Penn, to cultivate the 
grape and to lay the foundation of a great American wine industry, 


but who abandoned that project when they discovered that the 
soil was not favorable to the successful cultivation of the w r ine 

The Huguenot settlement in the Pequea Valley was due to the 
influence of Madame Mary Ferree or Madame Weraar or Warem- 
bier, as she was frequently called, a widow whose home had been 
in Bittingheim, in the high bailiwick of Germersheim, Germany, 
but who had emigrated to England, and from there with her 
family of three sons and three daughters had gone to Xew York 
with Kocherthal's colony in 170S. She lost her husband, a 
Huguenot of distinction, in France during the fearful days that 
followed the Revocation. In England she enjoyed the friendship 
of Queen Anne and William Penn through whose kind offices she 
was enabled to reach America. In 171 2 with others of Kocher- 
thal's colony who became dissatisfied with their life in Xew York 
she came to Pennsylvania and became the owner of four thousand 
acres of the richest land in the Pequea Valley, half of which was 
presented to her by Penn and the remainder acquired by purchase. 
Very soon Huguenot families began to settle on these lands on 
the warm invitation of Madame Ferree. They were welcomed, 
too, by Tanawa, the chief of a neighboring tribe of Indians. On 
his death, which occurred soon after their settlement, all the 
Huguenots of the valley attended his funeral and covered his 
grave with a pile of stones which long remained to mark the 
place on what is now known as Lafayette Hill. Isaac Lefevre 
the sole survivor of his family in France who was also a member 
of Kocherthal's colony on the Hudson, married Catherine, one of 
Madame Ferree' s daughters. 

Among other Huguenot families attracted to Lancaster county 
was that of De Haas, which arrived in 1750. A son, John Philip 
De Haas became famous as a general in the Continental arm}-. 
Pierre Laux, of the Angoumois family of that name, purchased 
a tract of land in 1738. Abraham Le Roy who emigrated from 
Switzerland, settled here previous to 1750. In 1762 his daughter 
Susan Le Roy became the wife of the celebrated preacher, the 
Rev. Philip William Otterbein, the founder of the United 
Brethren Church. Here also settled David Marchand who 
came from the canton of Berne, Switzerland, in 1754. He 
afterwards made his home in Western Pennsylvania where two 


of his descendants became members of Congress, each serving 
two terms, and another, Commodore John Bonnett Marchand, 
won fame during the Civil War as a naval commander. He 
was of Huguenot ancestry on the maternal side also, being a 
great grandson of Johann Peter Bonnett a native of Hesse-Cassel, 
but of Huguenot blood, who arrived in 1737. Jean Mathiot who 
come over in the same ship with David Marchand, also settled in 
Lancaster county. His wife was Catharine Bernard a daughter 
of Jean Jacques Bernard, Mayor of Dampierre, France. Their 
descendants have been prominent in professional, political and 
business life. Joshua D. Mathiot became a member of Congress 
from Ohio in 1S41. His daughter is the wife of the Rev. Theo- 
dore L. Cuyler of Brooklyn. 

Berks county as early as 1704 became the home of numerous 
Huguenot families. Oley or Wahiink, meaning ' 1 encompassed by 
hills, ' ' becoming a centre round which they clustered, among them 
the Bertholets, Berdos, De la Plaines, Delangs, Loras, Levans, and 
De Turcks, some of whose descendants still reside on the old 
homesteads hewn out of the wilderness so many generations ago. 
The De Turcks first settled in New York State near Esopus, now 
Kingston-on-the-Hudson whither they had emigrated with the 
Palatine colon}* sent over by Queen Anne under the leadership of 
Kocherthal. Oley for a long time received accessions of Hugue- 
nots. To be welcomed into Huguenot homes, to hear the sound 
of the familiar tongue in these wilds, to wandering Refugees 
seemed like a sight of the old homes in France in happier days. 
Among these Refugees was George de Benneville, son of a Hugue- 
not nobleman of that name, a native of Rouen, in Normandy, 
who came here soon after 1740, devoting the remaining years of 
his life to teaching, preaching, visiting the Indians and practising 
medicine. He came to America w r ith Count Zinzendorf after hav- 
ing spent several years in Germany, preaching in German and in 
French, and ministering to Huguenot exiles in Berlin, Magdeburg, 
Brunswick, the Palatinate, Holland and the Valleys of the Pied- 
mont. In 1745 he married Esther, daughter of Jean Bertholet of 
Oley, a native of Chateau-d'oex in the canton of Vaud, Switzer- 
land. Jean Bertholet was the ancestor of the Philadelphia Berth- 
olets. De Benneviile died in 1703 at the age of ninety, leaving 
five daughters and two sons, the elder of whom, Daniel, served as 


a surgeon during the Revolution. The name of De Benneville is 
revered in Eastern Pennsylvania to this day. 

A few Huguenot families had also settled in the pleasant little 
valley of the Toliickon near the old Tohickon church of the Ger- 
man Reformed Congregation in Bucks county as early as 173S 
and 1743, and in the neglected churchyard ma}* yet be seen the 
graves of the Huguenot forefathers of that section. 

The banks of the Delaware and its affluent, the Lehigh, became 
at an early day the home of numerous Huguenot families. The 
Bessonets who came originally from Dauphiny, France, settled in 
Bristol, in Bucks county in 1720. 

Prior to 1725 Samuel Dupui, a Huguenot, who had settled 
originally at Esopus, Xew York, came to the Minisink, near the 
site of Stroudsburg, in Monroe county, where, two years later, he 
purchased from the Minsi tribe of Indians, a great body of land 
on which the town of Shawnee is now located. He also acquired 
the two large islands in the Delaware River, Shewano and Man - 
walamink, in the picturesque region of the Delaware Water Gap. 

Dupui and his fellow settlers until they were visited by Nicho- 
las Scull, the famous colonial surveyor in 1730 had no knowledge 
of the river on which they had made their homes, where its source 
or mouth was. They did not know that they were located in 
Pennsylvania, so completely buried were they in the uncharted 
wilderness. They came across the country direct from the Hud- 
son, and what trading they did was carried on with Esopus nearly 
a hundred miles distant. Nicholas Dupui, probabry a relative of 
Samuel had also made his home at a point lower down the river 
near Easton, where he was visited in 1742 by Count Zinzendorf. 

In 1730, three Huguenot brothers, Peter, Charles and Abra- 
ham LeBar, journeyed up the Delaware, and settled in what is 
now Northampton county. Colonel Abraham LeBar, a grandson 
of Abraham LeBar, was commandant at the Easton Ferry during 
the Revolution. Near the LeBars were settled the Lamars. 
Major Marion Lamar served in the Revolution, under General 
Wayne, and was killed at the battle of Paoli, September 20, 

Among the Palatines who located on the fertile lands of the 
Lehigh, were a number of Huguenot families, who had become 
Germanized, no longer speaking the language of their ancestors, 

I 12 

but the patois of the Rhine country, which had given so many of 
them a home. Prominent among them were the Mickleys, origin- 
ally Michelet, who settled in Lehigh count}* in 1733. A great- 
grandson of the original settler was the distinguished antiquarian 
and scholar, Joseph J. Mickley, who died in Philadelphia, in 1S7S. 
He was the first president of the American Numismatic Society. 
A bronze medal was struck in his honor by the Royal Mint of 
Sweden, at Stockholm, in commemoration of his eminent services 
to numismatic science. 

Near the Mickley homestead, another Huguenot, stout-hearted 
Paul Balliet, had made a home, in 1738. His son, Col. Stephen 
Balliet, became prominent in the Revolutionary War. He was 
actively engaged in the battle of Brandy wine, was a member of 
the Supreme Executive Council from 1783 to 1786, and was also 
a member of the Pennsylvania convention to ratify the Federal 
Constitution, in 1789. 

Other families could be named here whose descendants to-day 
are honored members of the community, but the time allotted me 
will not permit their mention. 

As the settlement of Pennsylvania extended westward, in the 
forefront of the pioneers were men of the Huguenot blood. In 
Dauphin county of which Harrisburg is the county seat, the 
settlement on Wiconisco Creek, or the Lykens Valley as it is better 
known at the present day, was largely made up of Huguenot 
families, such names as Jury, Larue, Sallade and Williard still 
surviving in that beautiful region. 

Bedford county farther west also received a contingent of 
Huguenot families. The late John Cessna a distinguished mem- 
ber of Congress was a great grandson of Jean Cessna, who settled 
in Ireland after the Revocation but emigrated to Pennsylvania 
about the year 171S. Two sons served in the Continental army. 

Westmoreland and Somerset counties at an early day became 
the home of numerous Huguenot families who came with the 
Germans from the eastern counties, many of whom became very 
prominent in professional, political, and military life. 

Allegheny county in its early days became the home of pioneers 
of Huguenot ancestry among them the Revolutionary soldier, 
Colonel Stephen Bayard, who was born at Bohemia Manor, Cecil 
county, Maryland, in 1743. He was a descendant of Lazare 

Bayard, the Huguenot preacher of the Netherlands, whose daugh- 
ter Judith became the wife of Peter StUyvesant. Colonel Bayard 
settled in Pittsburg in 17S3 after the Declaration of Peace, and 
became closely identified with its business and social life. 

The Larges, Dravos, the Brunots through descent from Jacques 
Pons a Huguenot of Offenbach, Germany, are distinguished repre- 
sentatives of the Huguenot race in Allegheny county. Mention 
must also be made of the Rutans who were established in that 
section soon after the close of the Revolution. They were origin- 
ally natives of Lorraine. Abraham Rutau came to Xew York in 
1680 from the Palatinate of the Rhine whither he had fled before 
the Revocation. 

Among Huguenots who settled in Washington count}* were the 
Marquis family who came from the Virginia settlements where 
they arrived in 1720. The ancestor of the Marquis family fled 
from France to Scotland, from which kingdom they went to Ire- 
land and thence to Virginia. The family is represented to-day by 
distinguished descendants in Pennsylvania and Ohio. 

Fayette county, a county of more than passing interest to 
citizens of Xew York from having been for many years the home 
of Albert Gallatin, who now lies buried in Trinity churchyard, not 
far from the grave of his great rival and predecessor in office, 
Alexander Hamilton, also of Huguenot blood through his mother, 
became the home of numerous families of Huguenot ancestry. 
Mention has already been made of the Mathiot family. The 
Mestrezat family located here over a hundred years ago, came of 
distinguished Huguenot stock. It is descended from Jean 
Mestrezat, the famous Huguenot divine who died in Paris in 
1657. The first of the name to come to America was Charles 
Alexandre, son of Jacob Mestrezat, also a celebrated Huguenot 
divine who was born in Marseilles, France, in 17 15. 

His son, Charles Alexandre, was born in Geneva, Switzerland, 
in 1766, and came to Pennsylvania in 1795. He was an intimate 
friend of Albert Gallatin, and was attracted to western Penn- 
sylvania by the settlement of Genevese. which Gallatin had 
established on the Monongahela River. Judge Mestrezat of 
Uniontown, Fayette count}', is a grandson. 

Philadelphia being the metropolis of Pennsylvania naturally 
attracted emigrants who inclined to mercantile pursuits, or 


who wished to engage in a professional career. Numerous 
Huguenot arrivals are chronicled in the annals of the last century, 
but unlike, the Huguenots who settled in New York, where in a 
certain degree the}' became a distinct community in the city, 
with separate places of worship where the French language was 
used, the Huguenot families of Philadelphia never formed what 
is termed to-day a colon}*. They affiliated with the religious 
bodies already organized as their beliefs inclined them. Some 
became members of the German Reformed Churches, others joined 
the Lutherans, and others, a very considerable number, became 
Episcopalians and a few joined the Quakers. Many of the most 
distinguished citizens of Philadelphia during the last century 
were Huguenots, who left the impress of their character not only 
on the cit}* of their adoption, but upon the nation. Pre-eminent 
among them was Anthony Benezet, the philanthropist, who won 
for himself the love of his fellow-men by his many'deeds of kind- 
ness and benevolence. He was born in St. Quentin, France, in 
17 13, and came of noble ancestry. He was the son of Jean 
Etienne Benezet and Judith de la Majanelle, who was once a 
maid of honor in attendance upon the Court and Queen of Louis 
XIV. The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes brought upon 
them the persecution of their enemies, ending finally in 17 15 in 
the confiscation of their estates and compelling them to flee from 
their native land. They reached England by the way of Holland. 
In 1 73 1, after a sojourn of sixteen years in England, during 
w*hich period they regained a competency, they emigrated to 
Philadelphia with their sons and daughters, all of whom became 
worthy members of society and active in public life. 

Anthony Benezet died May 3, 17S4, aged seventy-one years. 
An officer, who had served in the Continental army, in returning 
from his funeral, pronounced this eulogium upon him : ' ' I would 
rather," he said, "be Anthony Benezet in that coffin than Gen- 
eralWashington with all his fame." Probably no man ever lived 
who strove harder to live the ideal Christ-like life. The unhappy 
slave, the homeless Acadians, the deaf and dumb, the suffering 
and unfortunate everywhere, found a friend in Anthony Benezet. 
No wonder the historians of his native province of Picardy number 
him among the distinguished sons it delights to honor as its own. 

Another illustrious Philadelphia^ of the Huguenot race was 

Elias Boudinot who was born in that city, May 2, 1740. He was 
jurist, statesman, patriot and philanthropist, as so many of the 
Huguenot race have become. 

Another of a noble and spotless character, one who loved his 
fellow-man, was Peter Delage, who settled there previous to 1736. 
He gave liberally to the Pennsylvania Hospital. 

Philadelphia was for many years also a refuge for Huguenots r 
from the West Indies where the red hand of persecution had fol- 
lowed them. The islands of St. Christopher, Guadaloupe and 
Martinique in the Antilles, as early as 1625, had become an asylum 
for the oppressed Huguenots, who hoped that in the seclusion of 
these islands of the palm, far from the haunts of civilization they 
would be secure in the enjoyment of those rights of conscience 
denied them in the land of their birth. 

This dream of peace was dissipated by the Revocation of the 
Edict of Nantes, and these islands, which had become the happy 
homes of many Huguenot families, now became penal colonies, to 
which were transported Huguenots who had refused to recant. 
The persecutions and indignites to which the Huguenots of these 
islands were now subjected, soon forced them to look for a friendly 
haven where they could be sheltered from the storm that had 
again burst upon them. 

Many prominent Philadelphia families of the present day are 
descendants of these Refugees. 

Daniel Roberdeau, patriot and soldier, the first Brigadier-Gen- 
eral of Pennsylvania troops in the Revolution, was born in the 
island of St. Christopher in 1727. He was the son of Isaac 
Roberdeau a Huguenot Refugee, and Mary Cunyngham, a de- 
scendant of the Scottish earls of Glencairn. He came to Phila- 
delpia in 1740. He was three times elected a member of the 
Continental Congress. 

The Borie family on the maternal side are also descendants of 
the Huguenot Refugees of the West Indies. 

The Bermudas also furnished a number of Huguenot families 
to Philadelphia among them the well-known Perot family, founded 
by Elliston and John Perot who arrived in 17S4. They were 
grandsons of Jacques Perot and Marie Coussou, his wife, who 
were natives of Rochelle, France. 

To sketch the history of the Huguenots in America of neces- 


sit}' compels the writer to deal very largely with the fortunes of 
individuals. You cannot portray their history in broad lines as 
has been done with the Spanish, English and the French Roman- 
ist colonies. Great governments were back of these. They 
constituted dominant communities, making laws, imposing lan- 
guage and creating a literature. The Huguenots, on the con- 
trary, disappeared, so far as their nationality was concerned, 
though they exerted a force that marked the high quality of the 
blood that was in them. The influence the} 7 exerted was the 
impress of individual character and genius upon the community 
in which they lived, and that influence in Pennsylvania, as else- 
where, was greatly cut of proportion to their number. 

The names of many more of the Huguenot race could be given 
with many a thrilling narrative of adventure, "of moving acci- 
dents by flood ani field ; of hair-breadth escapes in the imminent 
deadly breach ' ' in the Old World and in the New, but enough 
have been given to show how prominently they became identified 
with the building up of the State and Nation, and how precious 
were the gifts of mind and heart they brought into the wilderness 
of Pennsylvania with which to fuse in Freedom's candid light 
" into one strong race, all races there." 


To recall the memory of departed worth is softly pleasing, 
though a sad privilege. It is with such feelings that we make 
record of a beautiful life, which ended on the fourth day of Sep- 
tember, 1894, in Charleston, S. C; a life in the sixth generation 
of a Huguenot family, honorably identified with South Carolina 
for more than two centuries. 

It is an interesting historical incident, that not only was the 
first effort to colonize Carolina, in 1562, made by French Protest- 
ants under the truly great Coligny, but the earliest English pur- 
pose of founding a colony, between the Cape Fear and Port Royal, 
grew out of the desire of French Protestant Refugees, then in 
England, to make a home on the Western Continent. 

sfc sji ;fc 5js 

It is not generally known, but is, nevertheless, an historical 
fact, that as early as the tenth of February, 1629, French Protest- 
ant Refugees in England were in communication with Charles I. 
for planting a colony in what is now South Carolina, and that the 
patent issued to Sir Robert Heath, as sole proprietor of this 
extensive region, grew out of the proposals of Soubise, Due de 
Fontenay, representing French Refugees in England, whose 
name is indissolubly associated with Rochelle, France, and of 
Antoine de Ridouet, Baron de Sance, his Secretary. 

In 1630, a colony of French Protestants actually sailed from 
England for Carolina, and, as this most interesting record shows, 
in the ship ' ' Ma} T flower. ' ' Could it have been the same vessel 
that carried the Puritans to Plymouth Rock ? 

* * * 

These unfortunate French colonists were forced to endure 
further sacrifices and disappointments. For some unexplained 
cause they were landed in Virginia, and although the owners 

♦Prepared by Hon. W. Ashmead Conrtenav. for the New Eneland Historic Genea- 
logical Society^ and read before the Huguenot Society of An:er!ca by Rev. V.'. W. 
Atterbury, D.D., February 27, iSy5. 



of the vessel were made to pay ,£600 damages for the mis- 
carriage o: this hopeful voyage, it was insignificant, in com- 
parison with the loss of an early and promising founding, forty 
years in advance of the Ashley River settlement in the Spring 
of 1670. 

« If we have yielded at this length to the mention of the identity 
of the Huguenot Refugees with Carolina, it is for the reason that 
it is a congenial topic, and has its proper significance and rela- 
tion, as well socially, as historically ; for the countrymen of 
Coligny have left their impress on their new homes everywhere 
in the Western World, and nowhere more distinctly than in the 
land of the stately oak, festooned with gray moss, or wreathed 
with yellow jessamine, where the queenly magnolia scatters the 
perfume of its white flowers, and the evergreen palmetto senti- 
nels the shore, typical of heroic deeds. 

It is too a pleasant memory, that the Huguenots were among 
the earliest settlers under Charles Second's grant to the Eight 
Lords Proprietors, and that between 1670-80 they were in num- 
bers equal to the founding of a church in Charlestown, and that 
the lot at the southeast corner of Queen and Church streets in 
that city has been occupied since 16S0-81 by church buildings of 
the French Protestants. 

Among those who arrived in 1685 was Rene Ravenel, who was 
born at Vitre, Bretagne, France, September 26, 1656. In 16S7 
one hundred and eighty families arrived. These French emi- 
grants and many others purchased lands from the numerous and 
powerful tribe of Santee Indians, and " lived in their midst with 
remarkable and continuous friendship, doing them no injustice or 
wrong. ' ' 

They cultivated the soil and their crops of rice, indigo, and 
ultimately cotton, and the production of naval stores, with which 
they were seemingly familiar, so improved their pecuniary con- 
dition that for more than two centuries this element of Carolina 
population has been influentially identified with the life of that 
community. On a handsome mural tablet, in the French Protest- 
ant Church, Charleston, in memory of one of the early settlers, 
this quotation is prominent : 

"The lines are fallen unio me in pleasant places and 
I have a goodly heritage. " 


It was true of each and all of them. 

Rene Ravenel married Charlotte de St. Julien, demoiselle de 
Meslin, on October 24, 16S7. She was a daughter of a French 
Refugee. Of his sons, Daniel Ravenel, born in 1692, lived at 
Summerton plantation, in St. John's, Berkeley, near the present 
" Black Oak" P. O. His wife was Elizabeth Damaris de St. 
Julien, a native of Charlestown, whose father had emigrated from 

At the Summerton plantation, the chief burial place of the 
Ravenels remains to this day. Daniel Ravenel of " Summerton " 
had a son — "Daniel of Wantout " plantation, born May 4, 
1732. His son Daniel was born April 11, 1762, died August 15, 
1807. He was the father of Henry Ravenel, born October 10, 
1795, who married Miss Elizabeth Coffin, born February 24, 1S06, 
who was descended from the Coffin and Amory families of 

Daniel Ravenel was born on September 5, 1834. He was 
educated at the classical school of the late Christopher Cotes, an 
English gentleman of marked ability as a teacher, and subse- 
quently was a student at the college of Charleston. He entered 
upon business life in the then widely known house of Ravenel 
Brothers & Co. , his uncle conducting a very extensive business 
at home and abroad. 

This career was interrupted by the late war between the States. 
In the early months of the struggle he was on duty with the 
Washington Light Infantry, and subsequently served with the 
Marion Artillery. Of delicate physique, the exposed life in the 
ranks of an ill-supplied army soon impaired his health, and he 
was assigned to office duty in the ordnance department, where 
his business training made him most useful. He surrendered with 
General Johnston's army at Greensboro, N. C. , and finally 
reached his native city, which had been shattered by shot and 
shell, and prostrated by the sacrifices of that calamitous period. 
Under such depressing circumstances he began, with resolute 
purpose, the up-building of his broken fortunes. Many old 
established commercial houses had gone down in the general 
wreck, and new lines of business life had to be opened up under 
the most discouraging environment. Mr. Ravenel started in the 
insurance business in its several branches. His high character, 


popularity and intelligent aptitude soon brought him a large under- 
writing business, which continued during nearly three decades. 
Unlooked for losses early in his business career overtook him, 
under peculiar circumstances, and through no fault of his. To 
his honor be it recorded that he devoted many years to the pay- 
ment of these unexpected debts. No one ever lost a cent by 

Mr. Ravenel's life was closely interwoven with the venerable 
Huguenot Church, of which he was one of the elders, and in 
which his ancestors had worshipped through previous generations. 
His time and purse was ever at its service. 

In his select library could be seen every book or pamphlet 
relating to South Carolina or Huguenot history that was available 
on either side of the Atlantic. All the early maps, and rare plats 
of Carolina, he had also gathered up. His tastes were all on 
refined lines. He was well informed in numismatics, that seem- 
ingly attracts so few devotees, and yet is so instructive and so 
beautiful. His collection of book-plates was certainly the largest 
in number, the most valuable in rarity, and the most captivating 
in the South. These precious collections were not selfishly held 
— "lights hid under a bushel." Library, coins and medals, book- 
plates, all were open to their respective lovers, to make free use 
of them. How grateful now, these pleasant memories ! 

ifC >«c -Jf. ^ >|c 

He died September 4, 1894, ou the eve of his 60th birthday, 
universally respected and mourned by a very large circle of 
relatives and friends. 

Mr. Ravenel married on the 24th of January, 1866, Miss Harriet 
Parker, daughter of Dr. J. \V. Parker, of Columbia, S. C, who 
with a son and daughter (the seventh generation), survive him. 

Holding no public station, living strictly a private life, it is rare 
that so much of intrinsic worth is found in a single citizen, and of 
him it may be truly said — 

" Only the actions of the just, 
Smell sweet and blossom in their dust. " 

AND SAINT MARTIN-EN-RE— 1 8th, 19th 
AND 20th OF JUNE, 1895.* 

The following extracts from an account of the meeting of the 
-Societe de L'histoire du Protestantisme Francais at La Rochelle 
and Saint Martin-en-Re, 18th, 19th and 20th of June, 1895, from 
the Report of the Society were translated by Mrs. James M. 
Lawton : 

1 1 The church of the Reformed Faith at La Rochelle is a large 
edifice which can easily hold all the parish to which it belongs, 
numbering about one thousand persons. It is the ancient church 
•of the Recollets, constructed on the site of a vast hall which no 
doubt gave its name to the street or vice versa. It is a singular 
coincidence that it was in this hall of Saint Michael (according to 
Philip Vincent of La Rochelle) that the Protestants re-united 
themselves publicly three hundred and thirty-four years ago in the 
commencement of May, 1561, after having assembled themselves 
secretly in cellars of private houses before that time. 

' 1 The delegates were received at the City Hall by one of their 
co-religionists with all the honors of the occasion in the following 
address : 

1 ' I feel very much honored to have been selected by the Mayor 
of La Rochelle to bid you welcome, and I am rejoiced as a 
native of La Rochelle and a Protestant to show you the honors. I 
understand, gentlemen, the interest it must be to you to occupy 
yourselves specially with questions concerning our Protestant his- 
tory in this old Huguenot city that fought and suffered so much 
formerly for its faith, and which even to-day vibrates with the 
souvenirs of its glorious history. You will find these souvenirs, 
.gentlemen, at almost every step in our city, and in particular in 
this old City Hall where our old Mayors Gorgoulleau, Morrison, 
Henry and Jean Guiton, among so many others, fought formerly 
and were at the head of the revolution in favor of liberty of con- 

* Read before the Huguenot Society by Rev. W. W. Atterbury, D.D., February 27, i.S s *. 



science, of which our dear city is the Boulevard. To-day, gentle- 
men, you will see for yourselves that the Reformed Church is 
very much more restricted in numbers than you have been led to 
suppose ; we can, however, say, not without pride, that it is yet 
very^much alive and that the Protestants still hold in this town a 
very honorable place, and still uphold the souvenirs of their glori- 
ous ancestors. 

. 1 1 The strifes of former times have ceased, here perhaps more than 
elsewhere, and you will find everywhere with us a great, I hope 
not too great, spirit of tolerance which permits to all, Catholics 
and Protestants to live side by side, and to keep up cordial rela- 
tions. Our beautiful motto Servabor rectore Deo is broad enough 
to permit all of us to work together for the prosperhy of our city. 
We have, however, the duty of remembering what our ancestors 
did and what they suffered in old times, not to sharpen the bitter- 
ness and the hate that were in their day, but to raise our souls 
and warm our hearts at the contact with the great and heroic 
actions of the past. ' ' 

Monsieur le Baron de Schickler returned thanks for the official 
welcome tendered to the Society. The delegates were then shown 
over the City Hall where all the details were pointed out and ex- 
plained. The old house of the Bishop of Crussol d'Uxes, is now 
the library and museum. This was the bishop who denounced as 
a scandal, that the non- Catholics were, after the Edict of Tolera- 
tion in 1787, to be admitted to the rank of citizens. He, there- 
fore, ordered his clergy 1 1 Not to exercise any functions for the 
non- Catholics, not to publish their bans in the pulpit or on the 
church doors, not to give them any marriage certificates, never to 
receive their declarations of marriage, not to assist or to preside 
at their funerals, not to inscribe any of their acts on the registers, 
obliging them to go for all things to the secular authorities." 

At half -past eight in the evening of the 18th, accompanied 
by the members of the council, the delegates entered into the 
Reformed church. The meeting was opened with prayer. After 
addresses by two gentlemen, Monsieur le Baron de Schickler then 
spoke — giving in most poetic language the beautiful thoughts 
awakened in him by the sight of the old historic landmarks of the 
ancient city — every stone of which cries aloud its history. He 
continued, 11 In foreign lands the Huguenot Societies have gone 

I2 3 

on with their work, and to-day we congratulate them upon it, 
but we also unite with two of them in their mourning for their 
illustrious presidents. Sir Henry Austen Layard was a firm 
friend of our Society, analyzing in his Presidential Reports each 
of our Reports, and paying an annual visit to our library. The 
Hon. John Jay, formerly Minister Plenipotentiary from the 
United States, asked us in 1SS4 about one of his ancestors. In 
1878 Mons. de Richemond read before your academy a memoir 
of his family, which had become one of the most eminent in the 
great American Republic. The grandson of the first emigre was 
one of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence. When the 
Huguenot Society was founded in America, Mr. Jay accepted the 
presidency. He was one of the most ardent champions of the 
anti-slavery movement and his life was devoted to the reform of 
the most noble causes. It is particularly sweet to us to render 
homage to his memory in this city so dear to his ancestors, and 
from whence the}' transplanted their name to the other side of 
the Atlantic. 

Mons. de Richemond then gave a most instructive and interest- 
ing paper on the 1 ' Old Churches and places of instruction of the 
Reformers in La Rochelle. ' ' This paper is of great value to the 
American Society, treating as it does of the ancestors of some of 
its members. Mons. de Richemond says, " If very few of the 
families now in La Rochelle can trace their genealogies to the 
time of the sieges, we find in the New World, in England, in 
Holland, and even in the Cape of Good Hope, the old names 
that have disappeared from La Rochelle. The legendary ship of 
the La Rochelle coat-of-arms has sbeen repeated in a stained 
glass window in the church of Xew Rochelle, which has just in- 
augurated a monument to the heroes of the American Revolution, 
almost all of them of French origin. The names of Manigault, 
Jay, Chaille, Richard, Boudinot, etc., proclaim themselves French, 
and the American Republic has given to her young sister of 
France, a salutary example of the fruitful alliance of the Gospel 
and Liberty. ' ' The paper contains the record of many eloquent 
and touching events. 

One of the most interesting papers read was that by Monsieur 
Bonet- Maury on "La Rochelle en Amerique ' ' from material sent 
to him by Rev. Dr. Atterbury of the Huguenot Society of America. 

I2 4 

After a description of New Rochelle some account was given of 
the Huguenot founders and their trials in making new homes in a 
new world. The following sentence shows the veneration the 
French have for anything which is even re??wtely associated with 
their history. ' ' You can form some idea of the respect and 
admiration with which I entered into Faneuil Hall, thinking -of 
the part that the descendants of the Huguenots of La Rochelle 
took in founding the great American Republic. ' ' 

He cites Gen. Schuyler, among those of Huguenot descent, 
and among the statesmen, Jay, Franklin, Adams, Jefferson and 
Garfield, whose mother was Eliza Ballou. In conclusion he says, 
' ' Ah ! may we still merit the praises accorded to our Huguenot 
ancestors by the historians on the other side of the water. May 
we observe the beautiful motto of Garfield which seems inspired 
by the heroic defense of Jean Guiton at La Rochelle. ' 1 would 
sooner be vanquished in defending the right, than victorious in 
contending for a bad cause.' " 

The Secretary, Mons. Weisse, then read a paper entitled " The 
People of La Rochelle in Former Times ( 1526-1572) before the 
Impartial Tribunal of History. ' ' 

On the twentieth an excursion was made to the Isle of Re 
which was most delightful and entertaining, and in the evening 
the Secretary gave them ' ' The history of the Reformed Church 
in the Ile-de-Re. 




The first European colonists upon our continent, outside of 
Mexico, were French Huguenots. The Protestant history of 
North America dates back to 1562. In February of that 3'ear, a 
brave, God-fearing seaman of Dieppe set sail for the New World, 
to seek a region where the persecuted Huguenots of France might 
plant a settlement and build cities of refuge for their cruelly 
oppressed countrymen. Had they succeeded, the history of this 
land would have been not a little changed. But the Pilgrim 
Fathers of America were to be Saxon, not Gallic. " No ' May- 
flower,' " says Parkman, "ever sailed from a port of France" ; 
until, we might add, in 1632, a vessel of that significant name, 
possibly the same that brought the Pilgrims to Plymouth, carried 
the first Huguenot settlers for South Carolina, by some mistake 
or trickery, to the colony of Virginia. But the earliest crepuscule 
of religious liberty for the Western Continent went out in a blood- 
red flare. Then, for half a century, the darkness was uninter- 
rupted, till the first rays of a new day touched the Virginia 
forests, and the dawn finally broke upon the ' ' stern and rock- 
bound coast ' ' of New England. 

The middle of the sixteenth century was a period of gathering 
storm. War clouds hung all around the European horizon. 
Deadly persecution was never unknown. Yet there came lulls 
in the swelling tempest, when the oppressed and suffering could 
rest awhile and indulge the hope of a better day. In France, 
the Reformed party gained recognition and reprieve. But their 
far-sighted leader, the immortal Greatheart of the French Reform, 
Coligny — first born and first to die of the three great martyrs 
in the cause of modern freedom ; for his place will forever be 
with William the Silent and Abraham Lincoln — watched with 
anxious heart the thickening storm clouds, and cast his eyes 

* Read before the Huguenot Society, March 27, 1896. 

I2 5 


across the ocean to the New World for a place of refuge, where 
his afflicted countrymen might peaceably redress the unjust 
balance of the Old. 

Even before the great Admiral, at the urgency of his heroic 
wife, openly avowed himself a Protestant, he planned a colony 
in Brazil with this purpose as early as 1555. It was a strange 
syndicate that took up the scheme. Ostensibly to further the 
commercial interests of France, it was at bottom a plan to found a 
Protestant nation in South America, and thus contest the claim of 
Spain, Portugal and the Pope to the whole continent. Henry the 
Second, "an active burner of Huguenots," Villegagnon, the 
brilliant, heartless, double-faced adventurer, Coligny, Calvin and 
the mixed company that gathered behind these leaders, were 
the ill-assorted partners who undertook the enterprise. With 
Villegagnon, a self-seeking hypocrite, " the Cain of America," at 
the head of the expedition, it was foredoomed to fail. The miser- 
able story of this abortive attempt at founding la France antartique 
belongs to the present narrative only by way of historical preface. 
The feeble remnant of the colony, left by their treacherous leader 
in the beautiful region of Brazil's present capital, was swept away 
by the Portuguese in 1560. 

Coligny was not disheartened by this initial failure. His atten- 
tion was fixed upon Florida by the glowing accounts of explorers, 
who gave extravagant descriptions of its charms and its riches. 
Spain claimed it, and stretched both name and claim to cover the 
entire continent, east and north of Mexico. But other nations 
craved a share in the partition of this still undivided half of the 
New World. England held to a right of discovery, on the ground 
that Cabot, in 1497, had coasted as far south as Florida. The 
French maintained that Cousin, a Dieppe mariner, was blown by 
gales across the Atlantic in 1488, and that one of his men, Pinzon. 
told Columbus of the discovery thus involuntarily made, and sailed 
with him in 1492. A generation earlier still, it was asserted, 
Breton navigators had found their way to the coast of North 
America. Charles the Ninth replied to Philip the Second's charge 
that the French had poached on the Spanish manor in Florida, 
that it was discovered by Frenchmen more than a hundred years 

The imperious Spaniards despised all such pretensions. The 

I2 7 

Pope had declared the whole boundless continent theirs, and they 
were determined that it should be theirs — and the Pope's. Colum- 
bus, indeed, had never set eye or foot on Florida. Ponce de Leon 
it was who, voyaging in search of the fountain of immortal youth 
came, in 15 12, to the low, forest-lined coast of the peninsula, 
which he took to be an island. Palm Sunday, Pascua Florida, 
was the very day ; whence he called the smiling land he had 
found Florida. 

France could not suffer this dog-in-a-manger neighbor unchal- 
lenged to preempt a rich continent, without an actual settler upon 
its soil. In 1 54 1, Cartier and Roberval made a fruitless attempt 
to plant a colon}- in that northern part of greater Florida, after- 
wards known as Canada, a province of New France. What should 
forbid brave Frenchmen from staking out a claim in the southern 
wilderness ? This they attempted to do. 

Coligny the patriot, Coligny the Protestant, gave his best 
thought and energy to carrying out the plan. Says the Jesuit 
writer, Charlevoix, " He had the colony greatly at heart. It was. 
in fact, the first thing of which the admiral spoke to the king 
after he obtained permission to repair to the court. ' ' Upon the 
king he urged the national advantages of the enterprise, hoping, 
he said, " so to manage it that in a little while we may have the 
finest trade in all Christendom." In this patriotic prevision 
Coligny anticipated Colbert by a hundred years. 

But his deepest anxiety was in behalf of his endangered fellow 
Protestants. In face of the severest repressive measures the Re- 
formed faith had spread widely, especially among the serious, 
intelligent and peaceable middle class. In 1555, the exact year 
of the unfortunate Brazil expedition, the first Protestant Church 
in Paris was organized. The National Synod of Reformed 
Churches held its first meeting at that city in May, 1559. The 
Huguenots were becoming a power. By 1562 they had two 
thousand one hundred and fifty churches in France, and could not 
be suppressed. The edict of January in that year recognized the 
" New Religion," and gave provisional liberty of worship. 

Coligny, however, saw behind the scenes. He knew too well 
the forces of political and religious hatred which were preparing 
a more crushing stroke upon the adherents of the Reform. 
Sagacious and far-sighted, "one of the largest, firmest and most 


active spirits that have ever illustrated France," Coligny could 
not bear the thought of the dire calamities which threatened his 
Protestant countrymen from the worse than Turkish barbarity 
of their bigoted foes. Beautiful, fertile, unappropriated Florida, 
beckoned him with promise of a safe harbor for the Huguenots, 
which might prove to France in coming years a needed resource. ' 

The Huguenot party were ready to second his purpose. In 
1560, a large colony had been just ready to sail to Brazil when 
news of the Portuguese ascendencA' there reached France. Not 
discouraged, their indomitable patron, earl}* in 1562, set on foot an 
expedition to seek a favorable site for colonization on the 
northern continent. Taught wisdom in the choice of agents by 
bitter experience in the previous attempt, he selected a stanch 
Protestant to lead the present venture. 

Jean Ribaut was a skilful navigator, and a brave and prudent 
man. Under him sailed a company of veteran soldiers, w T ith a 
few young, adventurous nobles, in two tublike ships of the class 
called Roberges, similar to the caravels of Columbus. Laudon- 
niere, who was to command the next expedition, begins his 
history of Ribaut' s first voyage in these words: " Gaspard de 
Coligny, my Lord Admiral of Chastillon, a nobleman more 
desirous of the public good than of his private benefit, under- 
standing the pleasure of the king, his prince, which was to dis- 
cover new and strange countries, caused vessels, fit for his purpose, 
to be made ready with all diligence, and men to be levied meet 
for such an enterprise, among whom he chose Captain John 
Ribaut, a man in truth, expert in sea causes, . . . deter- 
mined to achieve some notable thing and worthy of eternal 
memory." Remembered, indeed, will be his high emprise, for 
its woeful and terrible ending ! 

The vessels sailed upon their quest from Havre, of which place 
Coligny was then governor. Most of the men were Calvinists. 
One of them, Barre, had gone through the Brazilian business. 
Others had crossed the Atlantic before, and w T ere more or less 
familiar with the American coast.* Ribaut took a direct course to 

* Gaffarel in his Historie de la Floride Francaise, has preserved the names of some of 
this first company of Frenchmen to come to the shores of North America. 

u On connait encore les noms de Nicolas Mallon, Fiquinville, Sale et Albert, ou Aubert, 
de la Pierria, dont le dernier, etait destine a. de tragiques aventures ; du sergent Lacaille, 
qui deji, sans doute, avait voyage' dans ces parages, car il connaissait la langue des 


avoid Spanish ships sailing to the West Indies. He left Havre 
February iSth, and sighted Florida on the last day of April. 
Going north from Cape Canaveral he reached the mouth of the St. 
John's the next da}', and, therefore, called it the river May. 
Glad indeed to see their land of promise, the explorers went 
ashore, kneeled upon the sand and devoutly thanked God. The 
natives, being sun worshippers, judged from their uplifted faces 
that the strangers also worshipped the god of day, and received 
them with sympathetic interest. The aboriginal Floridians made 
a decided impression on those early tourists, for we read : ' ' They 
be all naked and of a goodlie stature, mightie and as well shapen 
and proportioned as any people in ye world ; and the forepart of 
their body be painted with pretie deuised workes of Azure and 
blacke, so well and so properly as the best Painter of Europe 
could not amende it." This is from Ribaut's journal, as " newly 
set forth in Englisheand prynted in London," in 1563, the French 
original not being extant. 

Delighted with the luxuriant country and wild scenes around 
them, the French set up a " Pillar or columne of harde stone, 
our King's arms graved therein," and took possession of the 
land in his name. They then embarked and coasted northward, 
naming the rivers as they passed their mouths, after those of 
dear old France, the Seine, Loire, Charente and Gironde. May 
27th, they crossed the bar at Port Royal, and landed on the banks 
of the Broad River. The men were charmed with their surround- 
ings, and Ribaut had little difficulty in persuading a goodly number 
to remain and hold the country, all of which was called Florida, 
for their sovereign. A fort was built for them, which they called 
Charlesfort in honor of the boy-king, Charles the Ninth. Leav- 
ing a garrison of thirty, Ribaut sailed back to France for men 
and means. 

It was no time to secure help at home for the distant colony. 
Civil war had broken out. Frenchmen were killing each other, 
and besieging, burning and ravaging all over the land. Ribaut at 
once took service under Coligny, and fought bravely, no doubt ; 
but when peace came he sought refuge in England, while his 

indigenes. Citons eccore Nicolas Barre ou Barrois, qui avait fait partie de l'exp£dition de 
Villegagnon au Br£sil, le tambour Garnache, les soldats Lachere on lechery, Aymon, 
Rouffi et Martin Atinas, de Dieppe. Ce sont les seuls dont les noms soient parvenues 
jusqu'a nous." 


neglected colonists waited, hungered and mutinied. Their leader 
had grown harsh and tyrannical, so was put out of the way. 
Escape aud return home was their only thought. They built a 
crazy little bark, caulked it with the long tree-moss, made sails of 
their shirts, and launched forth. Becalmed, starved, delirious 
from drinking sea water, they killed and ate one of their num- 
ber chosen by lot, and, after incredible sufferings, were picked up 
by an English craft, and carried prisoners to Queen Elizabeth. 

Not till April, 1564, could Coligny dispatch another expedi- 
tion. Near the end of June, three vessels, under the command of 
Rene de Laudonniere, a man of ability, and not unlike Coligny, 
whose confidence he enjoyed, arrived off the coast of Florida, 
heavily loaded with men and material. They entered the inlet 
leading to the present site of St. Augustine, and anchored inside, 
in what they called the river of Dolphins, from the number of 
porpoises sporting in the waters. The remembered beauties of 
the river May attracted Laudonniere, and he pitched upon a 
locality six miles from its mouth. There, probably at or near 
St. John's Bluff, he built a triangular fort of palisades and walls 
of turf. This he named, in honor of his king, Fort Caroline. 
Here, at last, the French Protestant stock was planted on Ameri- 
can soil. Would it root and grow till it should cover the conti- 
nent, making a shelter for the oppressed and impoverished? It 
seemed a promising opportunity for divine Providence, if God 
were really on the side of persecuted truth. When the full time 
came, most of the Atlantic coast was colonized by men seeking 
refuge from religious tyranny. But the time and the men had 
not yet come. Fifteen months measured the entire history of the 
first attempted colony. A few weeks more, and not a Protestant 
remained in Florida as claimant for a foot of the land. 

The story is a wretched and bloody one. For a time the 
charms of novelty, the beauties of the region and still unfaded 
dreams of wealth and glory, covered the scene with roseate hues. 
But disillusion came, and, yet worse, dissension, deprivation 
and disintegration of the colony, even before the cruel finishing 
blow. Laudonniere was an able and noble man, but lacked the 
clear sight and commanding will needed in the founder of a new 
state. The heterogeneous company under him proved them- 
selves unfit to be pilgrim fathers of a Protestant nation. Most of 


them belonged to the Coligny-Conde political party at home, but 
many were Huguenots only in name. Too large a proportion 
were mere adventurers. The gold craze of the sixteenth century 
got a tight grip on them. They mixed in the tribal quarrels of 
the natives, hoping thus to reach the secret stores or mines of the 
precious metals of which they had heard. They eagerly swal- 
lowed lying tales of a golden mountain, and of the fabulously- 
rich city of Copal or Cibola, and some set out to seek them. 
Work of the soil those young nobles and veteran soldiers 
would not. Starve they must, when they could no longer buy 
or beg or steal supplies from the Indians. With fish swarming 
in the waters around, they depended on the natives to catch them. 

The French colonists needlessly made foes among their dusky 
neighbors, yet treated them better than the Spanish or English 
did afterwards. By their Gallic gaiety and camaraderie, they won 
a place in the memory of the natives which they long held. 
Years after, voyagers along the shores and rivers of Florida were 
saluted with snatches of Marot's psalms. Du fond de ??ia pensee, 
and Bienheureux est quiconqiie sett a Dieu volontiers seem to have 
been favorites with those rude vocalists. It is to the credit of 
the colonists that no vile or profane words lingered in Indian 
speech as a synonym for Frenchman, or as a supposedly correct 
greeting to the stranger. 

But life in the wilderness, without high, fixed purpose or 
steady, healthful toil, and apart from woman's saving influence, 
must always prove deteriorating. The worse element of the 
expedition got uppermost. Two successive conspiracies robbed 
Laudonniere of every ship and boat, and nearly of his life. Both 
parties went pirating. One had to put into Havana in a storm. 
To save their heads they told all the facts of the situation at the 
fort. The other had great success at first, but ran afoul of the 
authorities of Jamaica. A portion of this band escaped with their 
lives, to meet the justice of Laudonniere, who hanged the leaders. 

Famished and desperate, the remnant of the expedition pre- 
pared, during the summer of 1565^0 give up all and sail for 
France. But Sir John Hawkins happened that way just then, 
after a profitable slave- trading cruise, and put into the river 
May for fresh water. He supplied the starving company with 
bread and wine, fifty pairs of shoes, and other necessaries, besides 

selling or giving them a small vessel. Then the colonists betook 
themselves with new vigor to making final preparations for de- 

On the twenty-eighth of August another fleet arrived in the 
offing, and sent armed barges up the river. It was Ribaut at last, 
with a thousand men and the long delayed supplies. He drew 
near with weapons out, ready for peace or war. The deserters 
who had reached France had accused Laudonniere of setting up a 
satrap}* in the wilderness, and of committing all sorts of crimes. 
A few words of explanation set everything right. Hope and 
cheer prevailed. But, five days later, a fleet arrived bearing 
aloft the imperial standard of Spain. This was the beginning of 
the end. 

Philip the Second had heard of the attempt of his neighbor 
nation to rob him of a continent. The Catholic party at the 
French Court took pains to let him know the plans of the Hugue- 
nots. What ! France and heresy on my domain across the sea ? 
Never ! Spare no effort to crush the viper nest ! 

Pedro Menendez de Aviles, one of the foremost of Spanish 
marine officers and adventurers, a spirit exactly congenial to 
Philip and Alva, w T as chosen to the work. Already under sen- 
tence for crimes committed in the Indies when General of the 
Spanish fleet and armies in those parts, he was pardoned on con- 
dition of paying over some of his ill-gotten wealth. Then he was 
sent across the Atlantic to kill Huguenots and convert Indians at 
his own expense. Menendez was to furnish five hundred men, 
as many slaves (free of duty), a dozen priests and four Jesuits, 
with plentiful live stock for the new r colony. To make success 
certain, the king added men and ships, and invested Menendez 
and his heirs with almost absolute authority over the greater part 
of the continent. It was preached as a new crusade, a holy war 
to extirpate heresy. Fifteen ships and twenty-six hundred men 
set sail on the ruthless errand. Spaniard, in those days, was the 
synonym for black-hearted, bloodthirsty cruelty ; but the Portu- 
guese contingent which enlisted, could outdo their cousin demons 
in human butchery. Queen Elizabeth wrote the French ambassa- 
dor about that time, ''The King and Duke of Alva will spare 
nothing in the w T orld to drive the French out, for they take this 
matter much to heart, and if they are victorious, 3-our Majesties 


will hear very pitiful news of their subjects, to all of whom they 
will give a cruel death." Philip's order to Meuendez ran: 
' ' Gibbet and behead all Protestants in those regions ! ' ' 

This was the dark fate which hovered over the doomed colony 
that September day. Ribaut's sailors slipped their anchors and 
outsailed the big Spanish ships. These went back to St. Augus- 
tine, where Menendez had already landed part of his forces and 
begun to fortify. The French vessels, after reconnoitering the 
situation, returned to the river May. A council of war was held 
in the sick chamber of Laudonniere. To strengthen and defend 
the fort, to assail the Spaniards from the sea, to attack St. Augus- 
tine by land, were the three plans before them. Brave sailor that 
he was, Ribaut decided on the marine attack. Laudonniere, dis- 
senting, was left with the disabled, the non-combatants and a 
handful of soldiers, and the fleet sailed forth. Next day came on 
the heaviest tempest ever known by the natives, and lasted twelve 
days. The ships were driven down the coast and wrecked along 
the sandy shores sighted by Ribaut three years before. 

In the midst of the long downpour Menendez and five hundred 
men set off through tangled forests and dangerous swamps to take 
Fort Caroline. The drenched sentinels at the fort had been called 
in by the compassionate officer of the day. The Spaniards with 
their war-cry of ' ' Santiago ! ' ' came down on the garrison almost 
undiscovered. It was quick and bloody work. A hundred and 
forty dead strewed the ground before Menendez called out to 
spare the women and children. Only twenty or thirty escaped. 
Of these, half-a-dozen went back in their despair, and threw 
themselves on the mercy of the Spaniards. They were dragged 
by the hair into the fort, slaughtered and their bodies thrown into 
the river. After unspeakable hardships, the surviving Refugees 
were taken on board the two or three remaining small French 
vessels under command of young Ribaut, who then set sail for 
France, leaving his father to his fate. Menendez kept some of 
his prisoners for a more ignominious death. They were hanged 
on the branches of trees, with" this inscription placed over them : 
" I do this, not as to Frenchmen, but as to Lutherans." 

Great was the pious jubilation at St. Augustine. The priests 
donned their best cassocks and went out to meet the blood-smeared, 
victorious band. The chaplain writes in his journal, "We owe 


to God and His Mother, more than to human strength, this victory 
over the adversaries of the holy Catholic religion." According to 
this devout chronicler, miracles were worked all through the pious 
crusade, in behalf of those favorites of heaven, his murderous 

The blood}- work, however, was but fairly begun. A few days 
later, the Indians, delighting in carnage so long as it did not visit 
themselves, reported a company of shipwrecked Frenchmen as 
trying in vain to cross what is now known as Matanzas Inlet, on 
their way to Fort Caroline. Menendez took soldiers and went to 
meet them. He made no direct promise to spare their lives, but 
assured them that, if they would give themselves up, he would 
' ' do with them as God directed. ' ' Half-dead with hunger and 
hardship, they yielded. But, once in his power, their hands were 
tied behind them, lest, forsooth, the wretched waifs should over- 
master their well-fed, fully armed captors, and they were marched 
towards St. Augustine. Following on in companies of ten, as 
soon as each party reached a line drawn in the sand by the cane 
of Menendez, they were stabbed to death and left where they fell. 
A few Breton sailors, professing to be Catholics, were spared, 
together with four mechanics of whom there was need. Nearly 
two hundred Huguenots butchered, and out of Spain's way ! 

October ioth, the Indians reported a larger party of the ship- 
wrecked French at the same spot. The Spanish General went 
down with a strong force, gave Ribaut and his followers the same 
equivocal terms, and a hundred and fifty surrendered at discretion. 
The same fate was meted to them. Ribaut made the good con- 
fession " I and all here are of the Reformed faith," and went to 
his death reciting the psalm, Domine, mei?ie?ito met. A few were 
spared as before, but the valiant and skilful Huguenot leader had 
been sent where he would trouble Spain and the Catholics no 
more. " I judged this to be necessary for the service of God our 
Lord and of your Majesty," wrote Menendez to the king. " And 
I consider it to be great good fortune that Juan Ribao should be 
dead, for the king of France could effect more with him and five 
hundred ducats than with other men and five thousand, and he 
would do more in one year than another in ten, for he was the 
most experienced sailor and naval commander known." A great 


loss, indeed, to France and to the Huguenot cause was the death 
of this brave, pious, true-hearted hero. 

Two hundred of the surviving Frenchmen had refused to sur- 
render. These retreated southward along the coast. Near Cape 
Canaveral they fortified their camp, and set to work building a 
vessel from the wreckage. Menendez summoned troops from 
Fort Caroline, now Fort San Mateo, and went to make an end of 
this last fragment of the hated colony. Under express pledge of 
safety most of the French gave themselves up, and were really 
spared. The commander and a few of his men fled and took 
refuge among the Indians in the interior. William Gilmore 
Simms in his romance " The Totem and the Lily," founded on 
the tragic story of the colon}', gives a woeful picture of their 
wanderings and probable fate. Of the prisoners taken to St. 
Augustine, some under the labors of the priests and the menace 
of the Inquisition, recanted their Protestant faith or inclination. 
The destiny of the unconverted may be gathered from Philip's 
memorandum : " As to those he has killed, he has done well ; and 
as to those he has saved, they shall be sent to the galleys." 

France was horror-struck at the fate of her brave children 
massacred by the Spaniards at a time when the two nations were 
at peace. The hot sympathy of every Protestant was aroused ; 
national pride made even Catholic Frenchmen indignant. But 
the king and court were under Spanish influence. They were 
getting ready, at least in disposition and policy, for a St. Barthol- 
omew at home. Petitions for redress brought no positive re- 
sponse. Some diplomatic communications passed, but the Spanish 
government protested that the French were the aggressors, and 
so the matter dropped. 

A heart-moving appeal for justice was presented to Charles by 
the widows, orphans, and other relatives of the slaughtered colo- 
nists, but produced no more effect than a shrug of the royal shoul- 
ders. The incident was considered to be ended. Pope Pius the 
Seventh, sent to Menendez a letter of commendation. It called 
him " beloved son and most noble man," and conferred upon him 
a paternal and apostolic benediction. 

But divine justice did not let the matter so end. The general 
verdict of posterity has been that the destruction of those five hun- 
dred helpless Frenchmen was a cold blooded massacre, a piece of 


needless atrocity, damning to all responsible for it. A curse 
seemed to rest upon the region of the tragedy. The name Mat- 
anzas means " slaughter," and will always carry the black story 
with it. To this day the colored boatmen, who pilot visitors down 
to the Inlet to see the old Spanish fort, tell, in shivery tones, of 
ghosts of the murdered Huguenots still wandering around the 
scene of their taking off. The Minorcan fishermen from" St. 
Augustine refuse to camp over night near the supposed spot of the 
tragedy, because of the unearthly voices heard there in the dark- 

Literal retribution swooped down upon the Spaniards in garri- 
son at the forts near the mouth of the St. John's, or San Mateo, 
river. No traditionary superstition hangs about that locality, 
perhaps because the shades of the massacred Frenchmen were 
placated by the judicial vengeance that soon fell upon the murder- 
ers. The history of this crimson deed is one of the most chival- 
rous episodes in the annals of those bloody times, albeit the moral 
quality of the retributory act will always be questioned by strict 

When neither patriotism nor outraged humanity caused a single 
French arm to be raised in the attempt to avenge the foul crime 
of Spanish bigots, a gentleman of Gascony, who had suffered in 
his own person from Spanish inhumanity during the wars in Italy, 
determined that the stain on the honor of France should be wiped 
off in blood. Dominique de Gourgues was a soldier of high re- 
nown, with hot Gascon blood. He was a ''terrible heretic" 
according to the Spanish narrator ; a loyal Catholic, in the judg- 
ment of the French Jesuit Charlevoix. It mattered not which : 
he was a Frenchman, and hated the Spaniards, for this new bar- 
barity, worse than he hated the devil. 

He sold his estate, and fitted out an expedition ostensibly for a 
slave-hunting voyage. Arrived in the West Indies he unfolded 
his plan, and with fiery eloquence stirred up in his soldiers the 
same spirit of hatred and revenge towards the murderers of 
their countrymen which burned in his own soul. They landed 
north of the St. John's, found the Indians embittered against 
the haughty and cruel Spanish settlers, enlisted them in the 
vengeful enterprise, and then fell upon the two forts at the mouth 
of the river. These taken and their inmates put to the sword, 


de Gourgues moved upon Fort San Mateo. Menendez had greatly 
strengthened it after it fell into his hands. ' ' Half of all France 
could not disturb it." he boasted. But the garrison by a foolish 
sally fell into a trap, and all fled from the fort into the forest. 

Those that escaped the French arquebus and sword, fell 
under the arrow and war-club of the Indians. A few prisoners 
were taken and hung upon the very trees pointed out by one of 
their number, as those which had borne the Huguenot victims of 
Menendez. De Gourgues had the words, " Not as to Spaniards, 
but as to traitors, robbers and murderers," seared into a plank 
by a hot iron, and put up over their heads. Then he set the 
Indians to levelling the fort even with the ground, and sailed 
away for France. 

The chivalrous executor of national vengeance was received at 
LaRochelle and Bordeaux with enthusiastic honors. But Philip 
the Second set a price on his head, and the French king did not 
suffer him to appear at court. The nation was indignant. 
Coligny protested, but Spanish influence prevailed, and de Gour- 
gues lived in poverty and obscurity for many years. 

In 1583, he was appointed to command the Portuguese fleet, in 
defense of the crown of Portugal against the designs of Philip. 
Before he could join the fleet he was suddenly taken sick, and 
died at Tours. With the death of Coligny and de Gourgues, 
Gaffarel affirms, went all hope of founding in Florida an Ameri- 
can France. Had the king and the nation supported the forlorn 
hope sent into the wilderness, had they reinforced the colony 
with thrifty Huguenot settlers nourished and protected by the 
home government, New France might have stretched from the 
Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Sea, and then spread to the Pacific. 
But it was not so to be. 

Heaven's condemnation rested upon the actors in the crime 
narrated, and upon their descendants. Menendez was called to 
command the Great Armada gathered to destroy the power of 
Protestant England, but died before it sailed to meet its own de- 
struction. St. Augustine was taken, plundered and burned by 
Drake, twenty years after the tragedy which gave it a blood bap- 
tism. Twenty-five years later, the Indians captured and burned 
the town. They had murdered the missionaries sent by Menen- 
dez to convert them, making this confession of faith: "The 


devil is the best thing in the world ; we adore him ; he makes 
men brave. " They followed the example, rather than the doc- 
trine, of the blood-stained propagandists. 

In 1665, the bucaneer Davis treated St. Augustine to another 
experience of burning and looting. During the last century 
there was frequent strife between the Spanish in Florida, claim- 
ing the country far northward, and the British in Georgia and 
the Carolinas, claiming part of Florida. Several times St. Augus- 
tine was besieged and suffered severely, Huguenot soldiers from 
those colonies taking part in the expeditions, under Governors 
Moore and Oglethorpe.* 

In 1763, Great Britain got possession of the whole province, 
which then extended to the Mississippi. It was at that time far 
behind any other portion of the country. During nearly two 
hundred years of Spanish rule, little had been even attempted 
beyond reach of the guns in the fortress. Florida was still under 
a shadow when the United States received it from Spain in 1821. 
Since then, the transformation, political, industrial and religious, 
has been all that the first, ill-fated colonists could have desired. 
The transition from the bigoted tyranny of Philip to the American 
principle of civil and religious liberty ; .was like that from mid- 
night to noon. 

In Coligny's day, " the time marked by Providence, " Professor 
Charles Weiss concludes, "had not arrived. Neither fervor of 
the religious sentiment, nor excess of persecution had sufficiently 
prepared their minds for the creation of a Protestant colony in 
North America." Moreover, the tiue method of permanent colo- 
nization was not then understood. The failures of the sixteenth 
century furnished wisdom to the successful colonists of the seven- 
teenth. The Protestant party in France needed sifting and tem- 
pering in order to fulfill the ends of Providence, in either the Old 
or the New World. The Huguenot was not to lead the van in 
settling the Western Continent, but was destined to aid effectively 
in building up the greatest republic of history, which should be a 
complex of the strongest elements from the best nationalities of 

* Sir Walter Raleigh was an agent in opening the way for this belated cassation . 
He served in France under Coliguy, from 1569 to 1575, and there gathered information 
which led him to attempt colonization in Carolina. In the next century South Carolina 
became the " Mai sou des Huguenots " in the New World. 


Europe. The fine gold of the Huguenot ingredient, like jewels 
cast into the furnace to give clear, far-reaching resonance to a 
great bell, was to enrich with its intimate combination the whole 
conglomerate of population which made the Atlantic coast colonies 
the basis of the coming nation. It has thus been one of the most 
influential components of the American people, in union with the 
English Puritans of New England, the Dutch Protestants of New 
York, the mingled race elements in New Jersey and Maryland, 
the Quakers of Pennsylvania, the cavaliers of Virginia, and the 
Scotch, Irish and English settlers in the more southern states. 

Florida alone rejected this choice factor for the making of a 
great people, and with bloody hands cast it from her. But the 
Huguenot strain, like ineradicable nature, bides its time, and 
some day comes back to bless where it had been banned. With- 
out it, Florida languished. When, after two centuries of futile 
attempt, inspired by mistaken greed and stupid bigotry, to intro- 
duce an imperfect form of Christian civilization, the peninsula 
came under the sway of Protestant Britain, descendants of the 
Huguenots were speedily found there seconding every wise effort 
for the public welfare. In most instances they probably came 
from the Carolinas. Several of the prominent, public-spirited 
citizens under Governors Grant and Moultrie bore the names of 
Huguenot families in Charleston and on the Santee. Among the 
men who subscribed to build the well constructed ' ' King's Roads, ' ' 
still in constant use in East Florida, we find the names of Gerard, 
Manigault, Huger, Laurens and others. A Mr. Pant on was one 
of the leading traders of the province. Gen. Henry Bouquet, 
the most successful Indian fighter of ante-Revolutionary days, 
was assigned, in 1765, to the command of the Southern military 
department, but died at Pensacola in 1766. He was a Swiss 
Huguenot of canton Berne, and a soldier of superior ability. 
Had he lived and retained his command in the South, the Spanish 
would never by force have got footing again in Florida. He 
would have been a powerful aid to whichever side he might have 
espoused in the Revolution. As he had served with distinction 
in liberty-loving Holland, it may be hoped that his sympathies 
would have been with the infant republic, and his sword been 
tendered to Washington for service in behalf of American free- 


A much less pleasing association of Huguenot names with 
Florida was furnished during the Revolutionary struggle. After 
the surrender of Charleston to the British, the general in com- 
mand deported over sixty prominent patriots from that city to St. 
Augustine, as a measure of precaution. They had received 
paroles, but these were violated. The suspected persons were 
awakened at night and dragged from their beds to the ship which 
carried them to British territory. Among the names of those 
prisoners-of-war we find D. Bordeaux, Daniel Dessaussure, John 
Neufville and Samuel Prioleau. Good Americans, those Hugue- 
nots ! The exiles, arrived in St. Augustine, were allowed the 
freedom of the city, but were treated with heartless indignities 
and cowardly threats. After a year's expatriation, they were 
taken to Philadelphia, in 1 781, to share in the general exchange 
of prisoners. 

The author of " Old St. Augustine," speaking of the change of 
the name of Fort San Marco to that of Fort Marion, when the 
United States authority was extended over Florida, says : " Is it 
not the veriest romance of history that the Spanish fortress planted 
here by Menendez, the hunter of French Huguenots, should at 
last yield up its saintly name for that of a hero in whose veins 
flowed the blood of other Huguenot exiles ? And is it not the 
final justice of time that the British stronghold, within whose 
dungeons rebellious patriots were immured, should receive from 
the nation which those prisoners helped to establish, the honored 
name of one who endured with them the perils and privations of 
its cause, and won with them the final glorious triumph? " 

The second experiment at planting Huguenot seed in Florida 
soil had a less tragic ending than the first, but one almost as posi- 
tive. At the close of the Revolutionary war, England passed the 
peninsula over to Spain, who had already taken Pensacola, as an 
" equivalent " for some other conquered real estate elsewhere on 
the globe. 

The unfortunates who had made a home there during the 
twenty years of British rule, were speedily packed out of the 
country. The Tory element could not return to the States. Many 
went to England, Nova Scotia, and the Bahamas ; others, who 
had settled in Florida before the Revolution broke out, returned 
to Georgia and the Carolinas, taking with them 1,372 negro 


slaves. Among the compulsory emigrants were doubtless some 
of those Huguenot citizens who had helped build the King's 
Roads from Fort Barrington to St. Augustine. None of that sort 
were wanted on Spanish ground. 

When the Stars and Stripes were first hoisted in Florida, in 1821, 
Huguenot principles at length triumphed in that fair and fertile 
land. The darkness of the long night of bigotry and supersti- 
tion was finally scattered by the light of a new day. At the first 
advent of the regime of freedom, a zealous Protestant began to 
distribute copies of the New Testament. An indignant Spanish 
priest ran after him and angrily bade him cease his nefarious work. 
The American looked him calmly in the eye, and then pointed 
upward to where the starry banner was floating at the top of the 
flagstaff. The priest dropped his head and retreated in cowed 
despair. The Bible had come to sta} r . The bats flew away, or 
opened their eyes and took on daylight habits. 

The first United States Governor of the Territory, from 1822 to 
1834, was the Hon. William P. Duval of Kentucky. He was born 
in Virginia in 1784, and died at Washington in 1854. His great 
grandfather was Marin Duval, a Huguenot immigrant who settled 
in Maryland in 1643.* His grandfather, bearing the same name, 
crossed over the Potomac, and from him have descended the 
Duvals of Virginia and Kentucky. Judge Gabriel Duval of Mary- 
land, a descendant from the same original settler, was one of the 
early Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Gov- 
ernor Duval was a brilliant politician and a striking character in 
his day. He was the ' ' Ralph Ringwood ' ' of Washington Irving, 
and the " Nimrod W 7 ildfire ' ' of James K. Paulding. His brother, 
John Cope Duval, served as captain in the second war with Great 
Britain, and settled as a lawyer at Tallahassee in 1827. He was 
a Brigadier General in the Texan service, and then returned to 
Florida. At Governor Call's request he made a digest of the 
laws of the Territory in 1840. As acting Governor, he secured 
the capture of a large body of Indians. He was a strong Union- 
ist in the secession flurry of 1851. 

In the development of the affluent resources of Florida, so rapid 
and promising of late years, your racial kindred have borne an 

* Ke built the first brick house in Richmond, Va., before the site of which a tree p!anttd 
by Governor Duval's father still flourishes. 


honorable part. One of the officers of this Society can claim for 
her family the possession, for some generations, of the old Spanish 
earthwork called Fort Poppa, on the St. John's River, about forty 
miles from its mouth. It is situated on Bayard Point, a Hugue- 
not name given by General Duncan Lamont Clinch, after his 
daughter, Eliza Bayard Clinch, a great granddaughter of Nich- 
olas Bayard of New York. The whole estate comprised 'ten 
thousand acres. A large amount of land on Indian River belongs 
to owners of Huguenot descent. Fort George Island, on which 
de Gourgues landed before his attack upon the first fort situated 
on Batten Island, belonged, previous to the Patriot War, to John 
Houstoun Mcintosh, a grandson of Sir Patrick Houstoun, last 
President of His Majesty's Council of Georgia. Mr. Mcintosh 
married Eliza Bayard, daughter of Nicholas Bayard, so that 
Huguenots owned this historic Island. 

A -well-known gentleman of Huguenot extraction, Mr. Frank- 
lin W. Smith, has done much for St. Augustine. An expert in 
classical and antiquarian matters, his • ' House of Pansa ' ' at Sara- 
toga is the delight and instruction of all intelligent visitors. He 
has wrought a similar work for the frequenters of that Southern 
resort in the perfectly devised and beautifully appointed ' ' Moorish 
Villa." He also designed the Hotel Cordova, with its castellated 
Spanish style of architecture. His magnificent plan for a univer- 
sal historical museum at Washington, will be, if carried out, one 
of the supreme ornaments of the nation's capital, and a means of 
educational culture not surpassed by anything of the kind in the 

In that palace for tourists at St. Augustine called the Hotel 
Ponce de Leon, and built, in defiance of cost, after the style of 
the Spanish Renaissance, a panoramic pictograph upon the ceil- 
ing of its alcoves presents a historical summary of the chief 
events in the annals of Florida. Among the emblems designating 
the nationalities or incidents introduced, are the fleur-de-lis of 
France for the Huguenots, a sword with skull and cross-bones to- 
denote the tragedy of 1565, and a hand holding a dagger to sug- 
gest the judicial vengeance of de Gourgues. The dolphins of the 
fountain niches recall the name given to the bay of St. Augustine 
by Laudonniere. Some of the fine pictures on the walls of the 


parlors or corridors represent characteristic incidents of the early 
history of Florida. 

The Huguenot name and tradition persist in St. Augustine 
with remarkable tenacity. With little or no warrant in point of 
fact, except that all Protestants were called Huguenots by the 
Spanish inhabitants, the name clings to two or three localities in 
the city. Of these the Rev. Dr. Charles S. Vedder, the honored 
pastor of the Huguenot Church in Charleston, South Carolina, 
writes : " The Huguenot immigration to Florida is the most ob- 
scure portion of American Huguenot history. I, too, have ex- 
plored the St. Augustine cemetery, and sought to find something 
to justify the belief that what they call the Huguenot church in St. 
George street, was ever so used. I found out nothing, nor can I 
learn that any one knows more than I could ascertain. ' ' 

Dr. A. Anderson, one of the best antiquarian authorities in the 
State, says : "I have never heard the tradition of a Huguenot 
house in St. Augustine. The so-called Huguenot cemetery does 
not, to nxy knowledge, hold a Huguenot. The land was given, after 
the change of flags in 182 1 , to be used by the Protestants as a ceme- 
tery, and was deeded to the trustees of the Presbyterian church. 
Spaniards of the last and previous centuries treated non-Catholics 
with scant courtesy, and did not trouble themselves to furnish 
cemeteries for their dead enemies. The Huguenots killed at 
Matanzas are said to have been buried in the sands, but I doubt 
whether as much trouble as that was taken. ' ' 

Another improbable tradition asserts that the corpses of the 
slaughtered French were burned by their murderers. However 
the actors in that American St. Bartholomew may have disposed 
of the bodies of their Protestant victims, the souls of Ribaut and 
his true Huguenot followers have come marching down the cen- 
turies, till, under the tricolor of our own republic, the Providence 
of God at last gave to fair Florida her birthright, too long with- 
held, of liberty, progress and fuil-orbed Christian civilization. 


By Mr. R. H. Tilley. 

In 1636, a half century before the Revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes, Roger Williams, a recent comer to America from England, 
had been banished from the Colony of Massachusetts for no* less a 
crime than that he had ' ' broached and divulged divers new and 
dangerous opinions. ' ' Leaving that colony he settled in what is 
now Providence and founded the Colony of Rhode Island, where 
the separation of Church and State took place. Williams was 
followed two years later by another party from Massachusetts, 
under the leadership of John Clarke who settled on the island of 
Aquidneck. The settlement of Warwick, on the opposite side of 
Narragansett Bay, was, in 1643, made up of the followers of Wil- 
liams and Clarke, thus making three independent settlements. 
The additions to these were many, until 1643, when they were 
united under one patent granted by King Charles I. 

It would seem as if Roger Williams and John Clarke had been 
sent to provide a home for the persecuted Huguenots, and that 
half a century had been spent in the preparation. _ But when the 
Huguenots had determined to leave France the founders of relig- 
ious freedom in America had passed on to the unknown shore, 
Williams in 1683, and Clarke in 1676. 

In 1686, a company of forty-eight families of Huguenots left 
their native land, under the leadership of Rev. Ezekiel Carre and 
settled in that part of Rhode Island known as the Narragansett 
country, then almost a wilderness, with the intention of making 
it their permanent home. Negotiations were entered into with 
the Colonial Government which secured for each family one hun- 
dred acres of upland, beside meadowland in proportion. The 
price was fixed at four shillings per acre, cash, or twenty-five 
pounds for one hundred acres payable in three years. The minis- 
ter, Mr. Carre, was to have one hundred and fifty acres gratis. 
One hundred acres were assigned as glebe land, and fifty acres to 

* Read before the Hugtienot Society, April 13, 1S96. 



support a schoolmaster. A church and twenty-five houses were 
built. The new comers soon began to improve the land and were 
suffered to remain without serious difficulties for several years. 
The original deed (and its accompanying stipulations) was signed 
by Wharton, Hutchinson and Saffin in behalf of the Government, 
while the document, in behalf of the Huguenots, was signed by 
Ezekiel Carre, Peter Le Brenton, W. Barbut, Paul Collin, Jean 
Germon, Dechamps, Tourgere, Grignon, Legare, Robineau, Peter 
A3*rault, Magni Jr., Foretier, Louis Allaire, Grazilier, Amian, 
Lafon, Belhair, Milard, Joiiet, Renaud, Le Gendre, Bretin dit 
Laronde, Menardeau, Galay, Ratier, Beauchamps, MoiseLe Brun, 
Le Moine, Tourtellot, La Yigne, Targe Jr., Targe Sr., Traver- 
rier, Bouniot, Rambert, Coudret and J. Julien. 

Frenchtown, in which was the home of the Huguenots, is 
bounded on the west by Exeter, and on the south by North 
Kingstown. Though now a part of East Greenwich, the place is 
thinly settled, and lies about four miles from the more thickly 
populated portion of the town. 

The Huguenots showed good judgment in the formation of 
their new homes and in the selection of the ground. Even in 
those early days this spot must have been attractive. Near the 
centre of the settlement was a never-failing spring, on what is 
now known as the Mawney farm. Near this spring an entensive 
apple-orchard was planted for common use. It is said that this 
orchard was unusually productive, but to-day only one shattered 
stump marks the spot. Traces of the foundations of some .of the 
houses are still discernible. 

When the war between France and England broke out, these 
settlers were, by authority of the General Assembly of Rhode 
Island, allowed to remain unmolested on their taking an oath to 
comply with the conditions prescribed in the king's proclama- 

Where the Huguenots had every reason to hope for peace and 
prosperity, they found, too soon after their arrival, that they were 
not long to enjoy it. Their neighbors were not in sympathy with 
them. Their meadows were often unlawfully mowed and the 
hay carried off, and when complaint was made to the authorities, 
•one-half of the stolen fodder was returned to them, and the re- 
mainder given to 11 certain needy persons," until the rights of the 


parties could be determined. Lawsuits soon followed, and other 
annoyances compelled them to remove — some thirty families to 
Oxford, Mass., and others South, while a few remained in Rhode 
Island. Of the two score and odd families that came over from 
France, there remained in Frenchtown proper only the descend- 
ants of LeMoine, or, as now known by the name of Mawney. Of 
the antecedents of the original families but little is known. 

It is not my intention to weary you with an account of the 
troubles and trials of the poor Huguenots in Rhode Island. Judge 
Potter,* in his faithful " Memoirs " concerning these French set- 
tlers, has fully described them, and Miss Esther Carpenterf has 
told of their influence in the colony. 

Among those of whom somewhat is known are the LeMoines, 
Ayraults, Targes and Tourtellots, besides the families of Lucas 
and Bernon, who made their homes in the Narragansett country, 
though not in the French settlement. 

At the head of the LeMoine family was Moses, who came from 
the south of France. His children were Peter and Mary. The 
son. was known as " Colonel Peter," and was the first to lay out 
the present highways in the vicinity of Frenchtown, which work 
he began in 17 16. His first wife was Mary Tillinghast, who died 
in 1726-7, in the thirty-fourth year of her age. She lies buried in 
the Tillinghast burial ground, next north of the Mawney farm. 
His second wife was Mercy Tillinghast, who survived him, and 
died in 1761, the widow of James Brown, and is buried in the old 
North burial ground in Providence. When the French settle- 
ment was broken up the Mawueys remained. The name of 
Col. Peter ' ' Money ' ' is found on the oldest plat of East Green- 
wich. His land was held by his descendants until quite recently. 

Pardon Mawney, a son of Col. Peter, was the ancestor of the 
majority of the East Greenwich family of that name. Many 
relics of the Frenchtown settlers are said to exist among them. 
There is an ancient telescope or field-glass, an old pipe, and an 
oddly constructed corkscrew, all formerly belonging to old Moses 
LeMoine. They also treasure as one of their most precious relics 
a pair of iron-bowed spectacles that formerly belonged to Dr. 

* R. I. Historical Tracts, No. 5, Sidney S. Rider, Providence, R. L, 1S79. 
t Proceedings, R. L, Historical Society, 1S85. 


Gabriel Bernon made his home in the Narragansett country 
He was, it is said, a hereditary registrar of his native town, 
Roehelle. On leaving France he first went to Holland where one 
of his daughters married a Welsh reformer. Shortly after this 
event he came to America and settled in Rhode Island, and lived 
in Narragansett and Newport, but near the close of his life re- 
moved to Providence where he died in 1726, and was buried under 
the Episcopal church in that town. He was, perhaps, the most 
conspicuous among the French settlers. Quite full accounts of him 
are published in the collections of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society, in Mrs. Lee's " Huguenots in France and America," and 
in Updikes " History of the Narragansett Church." He was one 
of the petitioners for the establishment of an Episcopal Church in 
Newport. He married first, Esther LeRoy who died in Newport 
in 17 10. His second wife was Mary, daughter of Thomas Harris. 
Bernon left ten children, among them Jane who, in 1722, married 
Colonel William Coddington of Newport. She died in 1752 and 
was buried in the old cemetery in that town. 

Dr. Pierre Ayrault was born in Angers, and first made his 
appearance in PJrode Island at Newport, but soon joined his 
fortunes with the Frenchtown Huguenots. He was an educated 
man and early took part in the formation of the village, and, it 
is said, was as quick to assist in breaking it up. He probably 
soon removed to the neighboring village of East Greenwich. 
About 1699 he removed to Newport where he soon became busily 
engaged in helping to erect a church for the Episcopal form of 
worship, the result of which is still apparent in one of the chief 
landmarks of that city, Trinity church. Daniel Ayrault, the 
only son of whom we have any mention, settled in Newport and 
married Mary Robineau. Their marriage contract, dated April, 
1703-1 is given in full in Mrs. Lee's" Huguenots." He died in 1764, 
and his wife in 1729. Their remains were placed in a vault, the 
entrance to which is under the walk leading to the north door of 
Trinity church. They left many descendants. 

They soon left Frenchtown, but unlike nearly all the other 
families, took up their abode either in other parts of the township 
of East Greenwich or in what is now known as North Kingstown. 

The Lucas family was of French descent and was connected 
with the Hillhouse family of Connecticut, and the Robinsons of 


Narragansett. Augustus Lucas, the first emigrant, married a 
•daughter of Daniel Lefevre of Garhere, in 1696, at St. Malo, in 

The Jerauld family settled in East Greenwich. Dr. Dutee 
Jerauld a son of the Huguenot Refugee, was in Medfield, Mass., 
previous to 1742, at which date he removed to East Greenwich 
and died there in 18 13, at the advanced age of ninety-one years. 
One of his daughters became the wife of Dutee J. Pearce of New- 

The Tourtellot family continued to reside in Rhode Island. 
Abraham Tourtellot was a native of Bordeaux. The tradition is 
that he was engaged in mercantile pursuits before coming to 
America. After his arrival here he became a master of a vessel 
which sailed from Newport for many years. On one of his voy- 
ages he, with his son, was lost at sea. 

Francis Ganeaux came from Guernsey and settled in New 
Rochelle, where he died at the advanced age of one hundred and 
three years. Of his descendants Rev. Stephen Gano, as the name 
was later spelled, born in 1752, was pastor of the First Baptist 
Church of Providence in 1792. His family was connected with 
many of the prominent citizens of the State. 

The Targe family have a tradition that their ancestors came 
from one of the islands at that time in possession of France. 
Of the original family there seems to have been a father with one 
-or more grown up sons. 

Among the citizens of Rhode Island who have rendered distin- 
guished sen-ice to the colony and State, none are more prominent 
than the descendants of those Huguenot families who, for con- 
-science sake, left their native land, to find a home on the shores 
•of Narragansett Bay. 

With the original LeMoine (now called Money and Mawney) 
there are allied by marriage the Rhode Island families of Tilling- 
hast, Appleby, Brown, Fry, Bowen, Angell, Goddard, Whipple, 
Congdon, Carew, Gibbs, Gardner, Clarke, Gladding, Cole, Val- 
entine, Ware, Harris, Hopkius, Weeks, Potter, Arnold, Atkins, 
Davis, Wilbor, Dean, Nichols, Wheeler, Chappell, Maynard, 
Taylor, Frost, Gilbert, Fenner, Leonard, Corliss, Amory, Ives, 
Howe, Lee, Skinner, Vinton, Gammell, Swan, Slater, Morris, 


Coolidge, Corcoran, Fox, Duncan, Addison, Oluey, Halsey, 
Hare, Kane, Martin, Ward, Greene, Mitchell, and Moore. 

With Ayrault, there are connected those of Cranston, Gould- 
ing, Brenton, Tillinghast, Bours, Wanton, Scott, Robinson, 
Mann, Potter, Shaw, Mason and Chatnplin. 

With Bernon, there are LeRoy, Harris, Coddington, Powell, 
Seabury, Helme, Whipple, Crawford, Allan, Carpenter, Jenckes, 
Dorr, Aborn, Arnold, Crocker, Kenyon, Clarke, Richards, Weld, 
Jackson, James, Cory, Gardner, Wilbor, Nason, Olney, and 

With Tourtellot, there are Harding, Ballard, Mitchell, Dunn, 
Eddy, Angell, Jones, White, and Williams. 

With Ganeaux there are Britton, Stiles, Benedict, Ludlow, 
Jackson, Robbins, and Rogers. Other well-known Rhode Island 
families can trace their ancestry to the Frenchtown settlers, 
among them may be mentioned, Vigneron, Marchant, Lucas, 
Jerauld, and Targe. 

The religious interests of Rhode Island were in no small degree 
moulded by the zeal and energy 7 of the Huguenots and their 
descendants, and much can be found relating to them in the civil 
history of that State, yet few of the present generation have 
heard their story, and the spot once dignified by the pure home 
life of those Huguenot exiles remains unmarked and almost 




May 12, 1896, to April 13, 1902 


New York, July, 1903 




May 12, 1896, to April 13, 1902 


New York, July, 1903 

The Publication Committee herewith presents extracts from the Minutes 
of the Executive Committee, from May 12, 1896, to April 13, 1902, inclusive ; 
and from those of the meetings of the Society, held from 1897 to 1902, inclu- 
sive. These extracts cover all the items of business of other than a routine 
character, or of merely temporary interest. The various meetings herein 
mentioned have been, as a rule, held in the United Charities Building, 
Fourth Avenue and Twenty-second Street, Manhattan, New York City. 
Unless otherwise specified, the extracts relate to the Minutes of the Execu- 
tive Committee. The action of the Executive Committee relative to the 
celebration of the Tercentenary of the Promulgation of the Edict of Nantes, 
April, 189S, being already printed in the Commemorative Volume, issued by 
the Society in 1900, is here omitted. 

The papers also here presented were those read in whole or in part 
before the Society during the period covered by this part of Volume III., 
together with two of an earlier period. One error should be corrected. 
Mr. de Villiers's name, on p. 272 (note), should read Christoffel Coetzee de 

Samuel Macauley Jackson, Chairman, 
Alfred Victor Wittmeyer, 
Mrs. James M. Lawton, 

Copyright, 1903 



Ubc ftnicberbocfcer press 
(G. P. Putnam's Sons) 



Officers of the Society, 1897-1903 . - - 5_ IO 

Extracts from the Minutes of the Executive 
Committee and of the Meetings of the Society, 
1 896- 1 902 - -11 

St. Bartholomew's Day, Its Causes and Results. 

By Mr. Charles M. Dupuy 83 

Elias Neau, the Confessor and Catechist of Ne- 
gro and Indian Slaves. By Rev. Prof. Charles A. 
Briggs, D.D.; D.Litt. 103 

The Huguenots in South Africa. By Miss Anna M. 

Cummings 117 

Description of the Set of Huguenot Medals, by their 

Donor, Judge A. T. Clearwater - - - -132 

The Duvalls of Maryland. By Miss Mary Rebecca 

Duval - - - - 137 

The Huguenot Martyrs of Meaux, commonly called 
The Fourteen of Meaux. By Colonel Richard L. 
Maury - - - - - - - - 149 

Aymar of New York. By Mr. Benjamin Ayrnar - - 167 

The Despard Family. By Mr. Richard Despard Dodge, 230 

Notes on Some Huguenot Families : Vincent, Magny 
(Many), Aymar, Erouard (Harway), and others. 
By Rev. Edward Stanley Waters ----- 245 

Notes on Huguenots in South Africa. By Mr. Chris- 

toffel Coetzee de Villiers ------ 272 

Index to Volume III., Part I. - - - - 295 

Index to Volume III., Part II. 3°5 




Huguenot Society of America 

i 897- i 898 




FRED. J. de PEYSTER, Esq., N. Y. City. 


Col. WM. JAY, Port Richmond, N. Y. 


Rev. LEA LUQUER, Bedford, N. Y. 


HENRY M. LESTER, Esq., New Rochelle, N. Y. 


Hon. A. T. CLEARWATER, Kingston, N. Y. 


NATHANIEL THAYER, Esq., Boston, Mass. 


Hon. RICHARD OLNEY, Boston, Mass. 


WILLIAM ELY, Esq., Providence, R. I. 


Rt. Rev. HENRY A. NEELY, D.D., Portland, Me. 


Prof. D. D. DEMAREST, D.D., LL.D., Princeton, N. J. 


Hon. THOS. F. BAYARD, Wilmington, Del. 


CHARLES M. DUPUY, Esq., New York City. 


Col. RICHARD L. MAURY, Richmond, Va. 


B. K. NEUFVILLE, Esq., Charleston, S. C. 


B. C. HEYAWRD, Esq., Charleston, S. C. 


GEORGE S. BOWDOIN, Esq., N. Y. City. 


LEA Met LUQUER, Esq., N. Y. City. 

i 898- i 899 




Col. WILLIAM JAY, N. Y. City. 


Rev. LEA LUQUER, Bedford, N. Y. 


HENRY M. LESTER, Esq., New Rochelle, N. Y. 


Hon. A. T. CLEARWATER, Kingston, N. Y. 


NATHANIEL THAYER, Esq., Boston, Mass. 


Hon. RICHARD OLNEY, Boston, Mass. 


WILLIAM ELY, Esq., Providence, R. I. 


Rt. Rev. HENRY A. NEELY, D.D., Portland, Me. 


Prof. D. D. DEMAREST, Princeton, N. J. 


Hon. THOMAS F. BAYARD, Wilmington, Del. 




Col. RICHARD L. MAURY, Richmond, Va. 


B. K. NEUFVILLE, Esq., Charleston, S. C. 


GEORGE S. BOWDOIN, Esq., N. Y. City. 


LEA Mcl. LUQUER, Esq., N. Y. City. 






Col. WILLIAM JAY, N. Y. City. 


Rev. ALFRED H. DEMAREST, D.D., Port Richmond, N. Y. 


Rev. LEA LUQUER, Bedford, N. Y. 


HENRY M. LESTER, Esq., New Rochelle, N. Y. 


Hon. A. T. CLEARWATER, Esq., Boston, Mass. 


NATHANIEL THAYER, Esq., Boston, Mass. 


Hon. RICHARD OLNEY, Boston, Mass. 


WILLIAM ELY, Esq., Providence, R. I. 


Rt. Rev. HENRY A. NEELY, D.D., Portland, Me. 


Prof. ALLAN MARQUAND, Princeton, N. J. 


Col. H. A. DUPONT, Montchanin, Del. 


HERBERT DUPUY, Esq., Pittsburg, Pa. 


Col. RICHARD L. MAURY, Richmond, Va. 


Rev. Dr. ROBERT WILSON, D.D., Charleston, S. C. 


GEORGE S. BOWDOIN, Esq., N. Y. City. 


LEA Mcl. LUQUER, Esq., N. Y. City. 


I900— 190 1 





Col. WILLIAM JAY, N. Y. City. 


Rev. ALFRED H. DEMAREST, D.D., Port Richmond, N. Y. 


Rev. LEA LUQUER, Bedford, N. Y. 


HENRY M. LESTER, Esq., New Rochelie, N. Y. 


HON. A. T. CLEARWATER, Kingston, N. Y. 


NATHANIEL THAYER, Esq., Boston, Mass. 


Hon. RICHARD OLNEY, Boston, Mass. 


WILLIAM ELY, Esq., Providence, R. I. 




Col. H. A. DUPONT, Montchanin, Del. 


HERBERT DUPUY. Esq., Pittsburg, Pa. 


Col. RICHARD L. MAURY, Richmond, Va. 






. Mrs. JAMES M. LAWTON, N. Y. City. 






Col. WILLIAM JAY, N. Y. City. 


Rev. ALFRED H. DEMAREST, D.D., Port Richmond, N. Y. 


Rev. LEA LUQUER, Bedford, N. Y. 


HENRY M. LESTER, Esq., New Rochelle, N. Y. 


Hon. A. T. CLEARWATER, Kingston, N. Y. 


NATHANIEL THAYER, Esq., Boston, Mass. 


Hon. RICHARD OLNEY, Boston, Mass. 


WILLIAM ELY, Esq., Providence, R. I. 


Prof. ALLAN MARQUAND, Princeton, N. J. 


Col. H. A. DUPONT, Montchanin, Del. 


HERBERT DUPUY, Esq., Pittsburg, Pa. 


Col. RICHARD L. MAURY, Richmond, Va. 




F. ASHTON de PEYSTER, Esq., N. Y. City. 


Mrs. JAMES M. LAWTON, N. Y. City. 


I 902-1 903 





Col. WILLIAM JAY, N. Y., City. 


Rev. ALFRED H. DEMAREST, D.D., Port Richmond, N. Y. 


Rev. LEA LUQUER, Bedford, N. Y. 


HENRY M. LESTER, Esq., New Rochelle, N. Y. 


Hon. A. T. CLEARWATER, Kingston, N. Y. 


NATHANIEL THAYER, Esq., Boston, Mass. 


Hon. RICHARD OLNEY, Boston, Mass. 


WILLIAM ELY, Esq., Providence, R. I. 


Prof. ALLAN MARQUAND, Princeton, N. J. 


COL. H. A. DUPONT, Montchanin, Del. 


HERBERT DUPUY, Esq., Pittsburg, Pa. 

COL. RICHARD L. MAURY, Richmond, Va. 






Mrs. JAMES M. LAWTON, N. Y. City. 


(The minutes are always those of the Executive Committee, except where other- 
wise stated.) 

New York, May 12, 1896. 

President Marquand in the chair. 

The President announced that he had appointed the following 
members of the Executive Committee: Prof. J. K. Rees, J. C. 
Pumpelly, Rev. A. V. Wittmeyer, W. J. Schieffelin, and T. J. 
Oakley Rhinelander. 

The Treasurer made an informal report stating that there was a 
balance on hand of $694.71. 

The following-named persons were elected Members of the 
Huguenot Society of America, their pedigrees having been re- 
ported correct by the Chairman of the Pedigree Committee. 

Mrs. William S. Stryker — proposed by Rev. Dr. Atterbury; 
ancestor, Boudinot. 

Marinus G. Wildeman, Corresponding Member for the Nether- 
lands — proposed by Mrs. Jas. M. Lawton. 

Mrs. Erastus Gaylord Putnam— proposed by Gustavus D. Jul- 
ien; ancestor, Boudinot. 

Rev. Nicholas Bayard Clinch — proposed by Mrs. Lawton; 
ancestors, Bayard and de Peyster. 

Bayard Clinch Hey ward — proposed by Mrs. Robert Anderson; 
ancestors, Bayard and de Peyster. 

George F. Newcomb — proposed by Prof. T. S. Woolsey; an- 
cestor, Pinneo. 

Peter Jacobus Elting — proposed by Prof. Henry M. Baird; 
ancestors, Du Bois, Le Fevre. 

Mrs. Mary B. McK. Bailey — proposed by Mrs. Wm. A. Budd ; 
ancestor, de Peyster. 

The following supplemental pedigrees were accepted by the 
Executive Committee: 



Manigault, Marion, for Miss McAllister. 

Carre, for Rev. Dr. Atterbury. 

Bayard, for Miss Pierrepont and Mrs. Moffat. 

Bevier, Du Bois, Guimar, Doyau, for Mrs. Young-. 

After formal discussion of the subject it was resolved to request 
Mr. B. K. Neufville, the retiring President of the Huguenot 
Society of South Carolina, to join the Huguenot Society of 
America, and after joining said Society to appoint him Vice- 
President for the locality of South Carolina. 

The following resolution was adopted expressing appreciation 
of Mrs. Wm. A. Budd's valuable services rendered to the Hugue- 
not Society: 

" The Executive Committee of the Huguenot Society of America 
discharge a very agreeable duty in placing on record their appre- 
ciation of the services rendered to the Society by Mrs. Wm. A. 
Budd, which services have contributed largely to the comfort and 
pleasure of the Members of the Society. 

" H. G. Marquand, Pres. 

" Lea McI. Luquer, Sec. 

" New York, May 12, 1896." 

Mr. Dupuy, Chairman of the Auditing Committee, reported 
that the Treasurer's books and vouchers had been examined and 
found correct for the past year up to April 13, 1896. 

The following Committees were discharged with, thanks: 

Committee on Revision of the Constitution. 

Committee on Preparation of the Circular of Information. 

Committee on Auditing Accounts. 

The following Committees were then appointed by the Execu- 
tive Committee: 

Publication Committee — Rev. Dr. Atterbury, Chairman; Rev. 
Dr. A. G. Vermilye, Mr. Du Bois. 

Library Committee — Mrs. James M. Lawton, Chairman; Mr. 
Cortlandt Schuyler Van Rensselaer, Mr. Thomas Le Boutillier. 

Finance Committee — Mr. George S. Bowdoin, Chairman; Mr. 
Charles Lanier, Mr. T. J. Oakley Rhinelander. 

Pedigree Committee — Mrs. James M. Lawton, Chairman. 
(Mrs. Lawton was empowered to add two other members to this 


New York, June 2, 1896. 

Mr. de Peyster, Vice-President for New York, in the chair. 

The Treasurer made a verbal report, stating that the bank 
balance was $687.86. 

J. B. Laux was declared a Member of the Society to date from 
May 12, 1896. 

The Secretary announced that Mrs. Maddox had become a life 
member on payment of $50. 

The following supplemental pedigrees, favorably reported by 
Mrs. Lawton, were accepted by the Executive Committee: 

Cantine, Deyo, Blanshan, Jorise, Le Fevre, for Rev. Matthew 
C. Julien and Mr. G. D. Julieu. 

The following-named persons were elected Members of the 
Huguenot Society. 

Jacob G. Rapelje, Life Member — proposed by J. B. Laux; an- 
cestor, de Rapelje. 

Miss Helen M. Fisher —proposed by Mr. Laux; ancestor, de la 

New York, October 8, 1896. 

In the absence of the President, Mr. Lester, Vice-President for 
New Rochelle, presided. 

William Benezet Bogert was elected a Member of the Hugue- 
not Society of America; proposed by Mrs. Frances A. B. 
O'Brien; ancestor, Benezet. 

Mr. Lester made an informal report stating that there was a 
balance in the bank of $241.28. 

A sum not to exceed $50 per month was appropriated for the 
service of a clerk in the Library, and the Secretary, Mr. Lester, 
and Mr. Pumpelly were appointed a Committee to secure a clerk 
for the Library and to report at the next meeting. 

The Treasurer was authorized to open on his books an account 
to be styled " Permanent Library Fund," the amounts due this 
fund to be taken from the invested fund of the Society; also 
that he open on his books an account to be named " Library Ex- 
pense Account," to be credited with the interest from the Perma- 
nent Library Fund and all appropriations made by the Executive 


New York, October 27, 1896. 

President Marquand in the chair. 

The Chairman of the Publication Committee made his report, 
which was accepted and placed on the Minutes. The matters of 
permanent interest are these: " The Committee had had carefully 
prepared and printed one thousand copies of the Proceedings and 
Papers from October, 1894, to April, 1896, forming Vol. II., Parti., 
containing also a beautiful portrait of our late President, Mr. Jay, 
which w r as furnished for this purpose, without cost to us, by the 
generous courtesy of Mr. Win. J. Schieffelin. The cost of this 
edition w r as $251. 15, being much less than the cost of any previous 
volumes of the Proceedings. The Committee has also prepared 
and printed one thousand copies of a manual containing a sketch 
of the Society, Constitution, etc., and a list of members at a cost 
of $40. 75." 

The Treasurer, Mr. Lester, made the following detailed report, 
which was accepted and placed on file: 

Balance on hand April 13, 1896: 

Cash Received to date 


Annual Members $ 150.00 

Life Members 100. co 

Account Mr. Laux's Salary... 165.00 

Diplomas, Badges, etc 9.50 

Publications 6.50 


Cash paid out 


$ 223.78 

Deposited in the N. Y. Life Ins. and Trust Co., $1500.00 

Cash paid out : 

Mr. J. B. Laux's Salary $300.00 

Proceedings, Printing, etc 291.90 

Rent of Library and Assembly Hall 277.00 

Publications, paid for .' 39.20 

Postage 34.50 

Miss Morand 27.00 

Printing 13.00 

Bill Book for Treasurer 8.00 

Expenses of Secretary 4.91 

Tiffany & Co 3.50 

Office Supplies 3.35 

Collation Supplies 2.77 

Repairs 1.80 

Engrossing Diplomas 3.60 



The Secretary was requested to thank Mr. W. J. Schieffelin for 
his courtesy in securing the portrait of his grandfather, the late 
Mr. John Jay, for insertion in the copy of the Proceedings. 

The Secretary reported the deaths of the following members: 
Rev. Elie Charlier, Ph.D., Dr. L. V. Cortelyou, and Henry Milton 
Requa, as having occurred since the annual meeting in April. 

It was informally suggested that the Secretary be requested to ' 
report the deaths of members occurring during the year, at the 
annual meeting in April. 

A verbal report was here made by the Chairman of the special 
Committee appointed to secure a clerk for the Librarj r . 

This special report was accepted and Miss Edith Bell appointed 
clerk in the Library for three months from the 2d of November, 
with the understanding that if satisfactory the appointment was 
to be continued for the rest of the Huguenot year, at a compensa- 
tion of $40 per month. 

Mrs. Lawton made an informal report stating that the old 
French Church records of New Rochelle are soon to be published. 

Rev. Lea Luquer, of Bedford, N. Y., was appointed Vice-Presi- 
dent for Long Island for the remainder of the Huguenot year. 

New York, January 7, 1897. 

President Marquand in the chair. 

Mr. J. C. Pumpelly acted as Secretary. 

Mr. B. K. Neufville was received as a member, on condition 
that his pedigree be further filled out. 

A Society meeting was appointed for Thursday, January 21, 
1897, at which Miss Anna M. Cummings would read. 

A vote of thanks was sent to the Evangelical Alliance for 
courtesy shown the Huguenot Society. 

Mrs. Lawton, as Chairman of the Ladies' Committee, made the 
following report : 

" The Chairman of the Ladies' Committee wishes to report that 
at a full meeting of her Committee held in November, it was re- 
solved that ' whereas the Ladies' Committee was organized on 
October 31, 1887, by the Executive Committee for the purpose of 
enlarging the membership of the Society, they, by virtue of their 
authority and to further that end, do now issue a letter to members 
of the Society.' The Chairman has the honor to report that the 


result has been most gratifying, fifteen members having responded 
immediately to the appeal." 


" New York, November, 1896. 

"The Ladies' Committee wishes to call your attention to the 
approaching Tri-Centenary of the Promulgation of the Edict of 
Nantes, when the Huguenot Society of America invites all Foreign 
Societies to join her here in its celebration. 

"In order that our membership should fully represent the 
strength and number of the Huguenot element in this country, 
the Committee believes it wise to offer to each member in the 
Society the opportunity of proposing a friend of Huguenot descent 
for membership, so that all Huguenot families in America may be 
enabled to share in the courtesies of the occasion. 

"It is therefore requested that this Society, which leads by 
priority of age and wide historic interest those of the Old World, 
should wisely increase its membership and its strength, and that 
you, as a member, should personally assist the Committee by pro- 
posing one new associate of Huguenot descent. 

" The Committee asks for your cordial co-operation and gener- 
ous sympathy in this endeavor. 

M Mrs. Henry C. Stimson, Mrs. William A. Budd, 
Mrs. Anson P. Atterbury, Miss Maria D. B. Miller, 
Miss Lilian Horsford, Miss Ruthella R. Blackwell. 
" Mrs. James M. Lawton, Chairman, 
" Ladies' Committee of the Huguenot Society of America." 

The following report was made by Mrs. J. M. Lawton as the 
Chairman of the Library Committee: 

"The Chairman of the Library Committee reports from her 
Committee that since the removal of the books from Columbia 
College, ninety-one have been added to our shelves, properly ac- 
cessioned and bound. Many of these books are gifts, every one 
of which has been properly acknowledged by the Chairman, with 
the thanks of the Society, and when of sufficient importance re- 
ported to the Executive Committee. This makes a sum total of 
698 books on our list. Of these, however, forty odd books which 
are duplicates, and others having no connection with Huguenot 


History or Genealogy, have, by authority of the Executive Com- 
mittee, been weeded out for exchange or sale. Prices have been 
placed on these books, and the lists are to be sent to the various 
Libraries which have applied for them. 

The following-named persons were elected Members of the 
Huguenot Society of America. 

Mrs. John Spencer Finch — proposed by Mr. T. M. Banta; 
ancestor, Cossart. 

Miss Annie D. Ferree — proposed by J. B. Laux; ancestor, 

Samuel Patterson Ferree — proposed by J. B. Laux; ancestor, 

The Acting Secretary reported the deaths of two of the Society's 
members : 
James Henry Heroy, Dec. 25, 1896. 
General John Meredith Read, Dec. 27, 1896. 

New York, January 16, 1897. 
The following-named persons were elected Members of the 
Society : 

Miss Flora Allaire — proposed by H. M. Lester; ancestor, 

Geo. D. Allaire— proposed by H. M. Lester; ancestor, Allaire. 

Miss Maria L. Anderson — proposed by Mrs. Robert Anderson; 
ancestors, Bayard, de Peyster. 

William Morris Fontaine — proposed by Richard L. Maury; an- 
cestors, Fontaine, Bomsequot. 

\Vm. Meserole Branch — proposed by Frank V. Shonnard; an- 
cestors, Mesurole, Praa. 

Mrs. Elizabeth McLean Haugbey — proposed by Theo. M. 
Banta; ancestor, Coutant. 

Mrs. Idabelle Sparks Kress — proposed by Theo. M. Banta; 
ancestor, des Marest. 

Robert Oliver Morris — proposed by John Emery Morris; an- 
cestor, Bontecou. 

Miss Mary E. Robert — proposed by Miss Margaret A. Jackson ; 
ancestor, Robert. 

Charles Dewar Simons — proposed by R. C. Bacot; ancestor, 


Jas. Dewar Simons — proposed by R. C. Bacot; ancestor, Bacot. 
Charles Volney Wheeler — proposed by Mrs. H. S. Ladew; an- 
cestor, Jerauld. 


New York, January 21, 1897. 

In the absence of the President and all the Vice-Presidents, the 
Rev. Dr. Atterbury was elected temporary Chairman. 

The minutes of the last meeting, held April 13, 1896, were read 
and approved. 

The Secretary reported the names of new members elected since 
the last meeting; also the deaths. 

The reports of the Ladies' and Library Committees, were read 
by the Secretary. 

The Chairman then introduced the speaker of the evening, 
Miss Anna M. Cummings, who read a paper on " The Huguenots 
in South Africa." 

On motion of Rev. Dr. Vermil3 r e, seconded by Mr. Pumpelly, a 
vote of thanks for the paper was given, and a copy also requested 
for publication. 

Mr. Pumpelly proposed that the 1898 Committee secure a repre- 
sentative from South Africa for the celebration. 

New York, February 12, 1897. 

In the absence of the President, Prof. J. K. Rees was elected 
temporary Chairman. 

The Treasurer reported a balance in the bank of $723.80. 

Mr. Robert Hatcher received the thanks of the Society for his 
valuable gift of a five-dollar bill of the Huguenot Bank of New 
Paltz, and it was ordered that the bill be suitably framed and 
hung in the Library. 

The Library Committee reported a letter from the French 
Society offering a system of exchange for publications, but it was 
resolved that the Huguenot Society of America continue to buy 
the publications of the French Society, and to offer to supply its 
own back publications at regular selling price. The Committee 
also reported two books from the Holland Society, two engravings 
from Mr. Du Fais, and two medals from Mr. Schieffelin. 


The Publication Committee reported that it was not possible to 
secure papers for February or March. 

The following-named persons were elected Resident Members 
of the Huguenot Society of America: 

Mrs. Charles H. Alden — proposed by Mrs. C. Addison Mann; 
ancestor, Cazneau. 

Dr. Abraham Ernest Helffenstein — proposed by Wm. R. Val- 
leau; ancestor, Fauconnier. 

Mrs. Eugene A. Hoffman — proposed by Mrs. Margaret Budd; 
ancestor, Mercereau. 

Rev. Jas. Le Baron Johnson — proposed by Mrs. Lawton; 
ancestors, Le Baron, Bayeux. 

Mrs. Malcolm Macdonald — proposed by Chas. H. Murray; 
ancestors, Ferree, Le Fevre. 

Mrs. Warren Rawson — proposed by Rt. Rev. Boyd Vincent; 
ancester, Petit. 

Rear Admiral Francis A. Roe — proposed by Chas. H. Murray; 
ancestor, La Farge. 

Frederick Wm. S telle — proposed by Irving Brokaw; ancestor, 

On motion, it was resolved : That the thanks of the Society be ten- 
dered to the Ladies' Committee for securing a most encouraging in- 
crease in the membership of the Society ; and that Mr. Schieffelin be 
thanked for medals, and Mr. Du Fais for engravings. 

New York, February 24, 1897. 

The Library Committee reported four gifts to the Library: the 
New Pal tz Records, from Mrs. Lawton; Digest of the S. P. G., 
from Rev. A. V. Wittmeyer; a very valuable translation from the 
part of Rotteck's Histor3' relating to the Huguenots, from Mr. 
Du Fais; and a check of $5, from Mr. Ed. Clinton Lee for the 
purchase of books for the Library. 

The following-named persons were elected Resident Members of 
the Huguenot Society: 

Mrs. Charles F. Roe — proposed by Theodore M. Banta; ancestor 
des Marest. 

Mrs. Benjamin S. Church — proposed by Miss E. M. de Peyster; 
ancestor Provoost. 

Mrs. Frank Tracy Robinson — proposed by Miss Sarah T. Coles; 
ancestor Molines. 


Mrs. C. L. McMurtry — proposed by Ed. Clinton Lee; ancestor, 

Mrs. Charlotte M. S. Gillett, Mrs. Wm. R. Ellis, and Kirke 
Lathrop— proposed by Mrs. Swift; ancestors, Gilet, Byssel. 

Ferdinand F. Du Fais — proposed by the President; ancestor, 
du Fais. 

Henry Cotheal Swords — proposed by Frederic J. de Peyster; 
ancestor, de Cotele. 

Mrs. Lawton's decision that a Huguenot ancestor, simply men- 
tioned as the Walloon wife of , could not be printed in the 

list, was informally sustained. 

The President appointed the following Committee on Nomina- 
tion of Officers for the coming year: Prof. J. K. Rees, Chairman; 
Charles M. Dupuy, Wm. Jay Schieffelin, H. B. Dominick, and 
G. T>. Julien. 

On motion, it was resolved : That Mr. B. K. Neufville be ap- 
pointed Vice-President of the Huguenot Society of America for 
South Carolina. 

On motion, it was resolved: That the President write to Mr. 
Nathaniel Thayer, requesting him to become a member of the 
Society, and also to accept the appointment of Vice-President of 
the Huguenot Society of America for Boston. 

Mrs. Lawton was authorized to reply to Mr. Edward E. Salisbury, 
regarding the erection of a monument in memory of Mrs. Martha J. 
Lamb, as follows: It was the opinion of the Executive Committee 
that the Society as a Society could not comply with the request, but 
that the members of the Society individually might be glad to do so. 

New York, March 12, 1897. 

In the absence of the President, Mr. Frederic J. de Peyster, 
Vice-President for New York, presided. 

Mrs. Lawton, Chairman of the Library Committee, reported 
that she had presented to the Library the " Calendar of Wills" ; 
and received the thanks of the Society. 

The Secretary informally reported: 

1st. That a letter had been received from the President of the 
Huguenot Society, stating that he wished to resign the office of 

2d. The lease for the Office and Library had been renewed for 
one year on the same terms as last year. 


3d. That Mr. Thayer wished to become a member of the 
Huguenot Society aud would accept the Vice-Presidency for 

The following-named persons were elected Resident Members 
of the Huguenot Society: 

Mrs. James Roosevelt — proposed by Mrs. Geraldine Hoyt; 
ancestor, de la Noye. 

Mrs. Allen H. Strong — proposed by Mrs. Eliza de P. Clarkson; 
ancestor, de Rapalje. 

Mrs. Lawton and Mr. Rhinelander were appointed a Com- 
mittee to consider a plan for increasing the membership of the 
Society by sending out invitations to eligible persons of Hugue- 
not descent asking them to become members in the customary 

New York, April 2, 1897. 

President Marquand in the chair. 

The Secretary informally reported a letter from Mr. B. K. Neuf- 
ville, extending to the Committee hearty thanks for his appoint- 
ment as Vice-President for South Carolina. 

The following-named persons were elected Resident Members 
of the Huguenot Society: 

Thatcher T. P. Luquer — proposed by Lea Mcl. Luquer; an- 
cestor, l'Esqu3 7 er. 

Nicholas Luquer — proposed by Lea Mcl. Luquer; ancestor, 

Henry E. Pierrepont, Jr. — proposed by Mrs. Luquer; ancestors 
Jay, Bayard. 

Nathaniel Thayer — proposed by the President; ancestor, 

The Chairman of the Library Committee reported a photograph 
given to the Society by Mr. F. F. Du Fais. 

The following amendment to the Constitution was proposed by 
Prof. Rees and approved : 

Add to Art. III., Sec. 3: 

" Every person elected a Resident Member shall pay the annual 
dues for the first year within sixty days of notification of election. 
Non-payment of the first 3'ear's dues within the time named shall 
be regarded as a non-acceptance of the election." 




New York, April 13, 1897. 

The Society held its Annual Business Meeting on the two hun- 
dred and ninety-ninth Anniversary of the Promulgation of the 
Edict of Nantes, in the Trustees' Room of the United Charities 
Building, 105 East 226. Street, at 4.30 p.m. 

President Marquand in the chair. 

A quorum being present, the minutes of the last General Meet- 
ing, held January 21, 1897, were read and approved. 
President Marquand made a brief address. 

The Annual Report of the Secretary was then read, and on 
motion accepted and ordered placed on file. 

In the absence of the Treasurer, the Secretary read the follow- 
ing summary of the Treasurer's Report: 

April 13, 1897. 

Balance on hand, April 13, 1896 #2303.31 

Cash received : 

Life Members #200.00 

Annual Members, back dues 95-oo 

Annual Members, 1897 dues 940.00 

Annual Members, 1898 dues.. . . . 140.00 

: Publications 40.95 

Badges and Ribbon 6.25 

Diplomas 17.00 

Interest 45.00 

Mr. Laux's Salary 165.00 1649.20 


Cash paid out 1653.46 


Balance on hand, April 13, 1897 : 

Cash in 7th National Bank f 799.05 

Certificate of Deposit, N. Y. Life Ins. and 

Trust Co 1500.00 


Henry M. Lester, Treasurer. 

The Secretary, on behalf of the Executive Committee, then 
read the following proposed amendment to the Constitution which 
had been approved by said Committee: 


" Every person elected a Resident Member shall pay the annual 
dues for the first year within sixty days of notification of election. 
Non-payment of the first year's dues within the time named shall 
be regarded as a non-acceptance of the election." 

This amendment was adopted. 

The election of officers being in order, Professor Rees, Chairman 
of the Committee on Nominations, reported the nominations for 
Officers, approved by the Executive Committee, and the Secretary 
was authorized to cast one ballot for the Society. 

The Secretary having reported that such ballot had been cast, 
the Chairman announced that the gentlemen who had been nomi- 
nated by the Committee on Nominations and approved by the 
Executive Committee were duly elected Officers of the Society for 
the ensuing year, 1897 to 1898.* 

A vote of thanks was given to Mr. Lester for his services as 
Treasurer during the past three years. 

Rev. Dr. Atterbury, as Chairman of the Publication Committee, 
reported for that Committee and the report was accepted and or- 
dered on file. 

The report of the Chairman of the Library Committee was 
accepted and ordered on file. 

New York, May 7, 1897. 
Mr. Frederic J. de Peyster, Vice-President for New York, in 
the chair. 

The Treasurer's report was read by the acting Secretary : 

Deposit in the 7th Nat. Bank $ 827.55 

N. Y. Life Ins. and Trust Co 1500.00 

Total Balance $2327.55 

The Secretary was requested to write a note of acceptance and 
thanks to the Fort Greene Chapter of the Daughters of the Ameri- 
can Revolution. 

The following-named persons were elected Resident Members 
of the Huguenot Society of America: 

Mrs. Wm. Hamilton Moseley — proposed by George F. New- 
comb; ancestor, Molines. 

Rev. Wm. Reed Huntington — proposed by Mrs. Lawton; 
ancestor, Baret. 

* See list on page 5. 


Wm. Watts Stelle— proposed by Elmer Ewing Green; ancestor, 

Mrs. L. Holbrook — proposed by Dr. Ed. H. M. Sell; ancestor, 

Col. Henry A. Du Pont— proposed by Col. Wm. Jay; ancestor, 
Du Pont. 

Mrs. George Perkins Lawton — proposed by J. C. Pumpelly; 
ancestor, de Forest. 

Mrs. Marcellus Hartley— proposed by Mrs. Wm. A. Budd; 
ancestor, de Boncourt. 

Gilbert E. Swope — proposed by Samuel P. Ferree; ancestors, 
Du Bois, Blanshan, Ferree, Jorisse. 

The supplemental of Jorice for Mr. Samuel P. Ferree and Miss 
Annie D. Ferree was accepted. 

The Chairman of the Library Committee reported the following 
gifts to the Library: Two volumes of the South Caroli?ia Society 
Tra?isadions, by D. Ravenal; The Lower Norfolk County, Vir- 
ginia, Antiquary, by Ed. W. James, and The Swope Family, by 
Gilbert E. Swope. 

A letter from Mr. Samuel P. Ferree was read in regard to form- 
* ing a branch Society in Philadelphia. With the approbation of 
the Society, Mr. de Peyster gave the letter to the Vice-President 
for Pennsylvania, with the understanding that Mr. Dupuy is to 
report to the Committee in the fall. 

On motion of Professor Rees, seconded by Mrs. Lawton, it was 
resolved: That the Executive Committee desires to put on record 
its sincere appreciation of the able work carried on during the last 
four years by the Publication Committee and its Chairman, Rev. 
Dr. W. W. Atterbury. 

Rev. A. V. Wittmeyer was appointed Chairman of the Publica- 
tion Committee, and Mrs. James M. Lawton, Chairman of the 
Library Committee, each Chairman to suggest their associates to 
the Executive Committee at a future meeting; also, Mr. Chas. 
Lanier, Chairman of the Finance Committee, with Messrs. Rhine- 
lander and Bowdoin as associates. 

Mrs. Lawton was reappointed Chairman of the Pedigree 

The Ladies' Committee was dissolved, having accomplished the 
work for which it was formed. 

The President announced the appointment of the following 


additional members of the Executive Committee: Prof. J. K. 
Rees, T. J. Oakley Rhinelander, Wm. Jay Schieffelin, Henry 
Cotheal Swords, Theo. M. Banta. 

New York, October 21, 1897. 

President Marquand in the chair. 

The Secretary read a communication from the Empire State So- 
ciety of the Sons of the American Revolution, asking for a confer- 
ence with other patriotic societies to co-operate in securing a Build- 
ing Fund for a permanent home and for the preservation of archives. 

The Secretary was appointed a Committee of one to represent 
the Huguenot Society at said conference and to report. 

The Secretary read a communication from the National Society of 
New England Women, inviting the Huguenot Society of America 
to participate in dramatic and scenic reproductions of American 
history, but the Secretary was requested to decline said invitation. 

The following-named persons were elected Resident Members 
of the Huguenot Society of America: 

Col. Fred. D. Grant — proposed by Mrs. J. M. Lawton; ancestor, 
de la Noye. 

Dr. Pearce Bailey — proposed by Rev. A. V. Wittmeyer; an- 
cestor, Jerauld. 

The supplemental pedigrees of Valleau and Fauconnier of Dr. 
Helff enstein were accepted t>y the Executive Committee ; also that 
of Byssel for Mrs. Hartley. /f 

Rev. Mr. Wittmeyer reported by Mrs. Lawton that he would 
like to have Dr. Bailey and Dr. Sell as additional members of the 
Publication Committee, and these gentlemen were accordingly 
added to that Committee. 

The Chairman of the Library Committee requested that Mr. 
W. D. Barbour be added to said Committee, and this was ac- 
cordingly done. 

The Treasurer informally reported that there was a balance in 
the bank of $235.20; also that the rent for the Library had been 
paid up to the first of November. 

New York, December 1, 1S97. 
Charles M. Dupuy, Vice-President for Pennsylvania, later 
Frederic J. de Peyster, Vice-President for New York, in the 


The Treasurer reported : 

Balance at Seventh Nat. Bank. . . 
New York Life Ins. and Trust Co. 

$ 822.12 
. 1500.00 

Total Balance 


The following motion of May 24, 1894, was rescinded: 

M That Honorary Members be supplied with Certificates of 
Membership without the payment of any fee, but that all other 
members be charged a fee of $1.00, and it was further resolved: 
That the money so collected should be credited on the books of 
the Treasurer to the Library Committee, to be expended by them 
as they saw fit on the Library and Library matters." 

By this action it is understood that all moneys received for 
Diplomas be credited to the General Fund of the Society. 

The report of the Badge Committee, through its Chairman, 
Prof. J. K. Rees, was then submitted, as follows: 

" The Chairman of the Badge Committee has the honor to sub- 
mit to the Society for approval a sketch of the proposed Insignia. 
It is the armorial device of Marguerite de Valois, grandmother of 
Henry IV., from which the Society have taken their emblematic 
flower. Monsieur de Richmond, one of our Honorary Members, 
says, in writing of the marigold: ' The idea is a most beautiful 
and excellent one, of celebrating the approaching Anniversary of 
Nantes by the Huguenots of the entire world under a commas., 
symbol, the marigold, that is, the soul turned towards the God 
who has sustained and blessed the Church throughout all ages. 
The dove was the ordinary emblem of the Huguenots, represent- 
ing the Holy Spirit.' 

' 1 This was also endorsed by one of the most celebrated archae- 
ologists of France. 

1 1 Therefore your Committee has combined the two emblems in 
one, and hopes that these arduous labors have not been in vain." 

Whereupon, on motion, of Rev. Mr. Wittmeyer, it was re- 
solved: That the Executive Committee approve and accept the 
design for the insignia submitted by the Committee in charge of 
the matter; and that the members of the Society be notified of 
this action. And, further, that the insignia be made in either 
gold or silver gilt. 

On motion, it was resolved: That Mrs. Lawton's most generous 


offer to purchase the die for the insignia be accepted, and that 
Mrs. Lawton be heartily thanked by the Executive Committee for 
this most substantial contribution. 

The Secretary reported a communication, received in the sum- 
mer, from the German Huguenot Society, requesting a representa- 
tive and paper at the Berlin meeting in October. An answer was 
sent, saying that the Society would not have a meeting until the 
fall, and that it would therefore be impossible to comply with their 

The Secretary also reported that he had written, during the 
summer, a letter of congratulation to Professor Herminjard of 
Lausanne, on the occasion of his eightieth birthday, and that a 
published account of the celebration had been received. 

The following-named persons were elected Resident Members 
of the Huguenot Society: 

Rev. Wm. H. S. Demarest — proposed by Rev. D. D. Demarest; 
ancestor, des Marest. 

Mrs. Nathaniel Burruss — proposed by Wm. M. Grinnell; an- 
cestor, Perrin. 

Miss Frances D. Booraem — proposed by Mrs. Howard Town- 
send; ancestor, Petit. 

Miss A. S. Williams — proposed by Mrs. K. P. Williams; 
ancestor, Devotion. 

Miss Elizabeth Forney Young, and Mrs. Emilia Forney Young 
— proposed by Gilbert E. Swope; ancestor, Du Bois. 

Mrs. Lawton announced that she wished to resign from the 
"Committee of One to arrange for and receive at the monthly 
meetings of the Society." After a request for Mrs. Lawton to re- 
consider her determination to resign, it was resolved: That Mrs. 
Lawton's resignation be accepted, and that she receive the hearty 
thanks of the Executive Committee for her most valuable services 
rendered in the past. 

The Secretary reported a communication from the Daughters of 
the American Revolution, which the Committee decided should 
be answered by the Secretary informally. 

NEW York, January 6, 1898. 
Mr. Charles Dupuy, Vice-President for Pennsylvania, later, 
Mr. de Peyster, the Vice-President for New York, in the 


The Treasurer reported : 

Library Permanent Fund . . . 

Library Fund (Annual) 

Balance of General Account 

$ 300.00 
. 1920.36 


Amount on Deposit N. Y. Life Ins. and 

Trust Co 

Balance at Seventh National Bank 

■ 838.94 


Mr. Edward F. de Lancey was made an Honorary Member to 
date from January 1, 1894, for distinguished services to the Society. 

The following-named persons were elected Resident Members 
of the Huguenot Society of America: 

James Goelet Du Bois — proposed by John C. Du Bois; ancestor, 
Du Bois. 

Anson Du Bois — proposed by David D. Demarest; ancestor, 
Du Bois. 

Mrs. Wm. F. Coxford — proposed by Theo. M. Banta; ancestor, 

Eugene A. Demonet — proposed by J. C. Pumpelly; ancestor, 

Mrs. Lawton presented this extract from a letter of the Hugue- 
not Society of South Carolina: " In reference to the regrets so 
kindly expressed concerning our not being in union with the 
Huguenot Society of America, let me say that this results not 
from any unwillingness on our part, but from the fact that our 
attention has never been called to the Constitution of your organi- 
zation or the steps necessary to the establishment of such relations. 
We should esteem it a favor to be informed upon this subject." 

Whereupon, the Secretary was requested to send to the South 
Carolina Huguenot Society a copy of the Constitution of the 
Huguenot Society of America, asking a copy of their Constitution 
in return. 

The Life Membership fees were placed in a separate account. 

The Secretary presented the resignation of Rev. A. V. Witt- 
meyer, as Chairman of the Publication Committee, but this resig- 
nation was tabled until the next meeting of the Executive 


Mrs. Lawton offered this resolution, which was carried: 

11 That whereas there seems to be very great ignorance on the 
part of the members of the Society in general as to the history of 
the Promulgation and of the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, 
and whereas it is desired to secure as many papers as possible for 
the week of the celebration: Therefore, resolved, that during 
January, February, and March of this year, the Society, in lieu of 
the addresses at their monthly meetings, have a series of readings 
on Huguenot history and that Monsieur L. Boisse, or someone 
else be selected for this service." 

Whereupon Mrs. Lawtou was asked to write to Mr. Wittmeyer 
on the subject, and the Publication Committee was appointed a 
Committee with full power to arrange for such meetings. 

In order to make a proper official record of the adoption by the 
Society of the Insignia, the Secretary introduced the Proposed 
Amendments to the Constitution, Articles VI. and VII. [These 
amendments to the Constitution were passed by the Executive 
Committee and adopted at the Annual Meeting of April 13, 1898.*] 


New York, February 1, 1898. 

In the absence of the President and all the Vice-Presidents, Mr. 
Theo. M. Banta was elected temporary Chairman. 

The reading of the minutes of the last meeting was, on motion, 
dispensed with. 

Mr. Banta introduced the speaker of the evening, Prof. L. 
Boisse, who gave an interesting talk on " How to Study Huguenot 

New York, February 24, 1898. 

President Marquand in the chair. 

Wm. Jay Schieffelin's resignation as a member of the Execu- 
tive Committee, and Rev. A. V. Wittmeyer's as Chairman of the 
Publication Committee were accepted. 

The Secretary reported that Mr. Edward F. de Lancey had 
accepted his election as an Honorary Member. 

Announcement was also made of the death of Bishop Quintard, 
an Honorary Member of the Society. Whereupon, the Secretary 

• Sec Minutes of the Annual Meeting, April 13, 1898. 


and Mr. Pumpelly were appointed a Committee to take suitable 
action in regard to the Bishop's death. 

The Treasurer's report of $3256.12 cash on hand was presented 
by the Secretary. 

The following-named persons were elected Resident Members 
of the Huguenot Society of America: 

Mrs. Wm. W. Wilcox — proposed by Fred. S. Sellew; ancestor, 

Mrs. James Pardon Snow — proposed by Mrs. F. G. Putnam; 
ancestor, Le Conte. 

Miss Margaret Olivia Slocum — proposed by Mrs. James M. 
L,awton; ancestor, l'Hommedien. 

Mrs. Emma Dey Nash — proposed by Miss Helen M. Fisher; 
ancestor, Perrin. 

New York, March 24, 1898. 
Frederic J. de Peyster, Vice-President for New York, in the 

The Secretary reported for the Treasurer: 

Amount on Deposit N. Y. Life Ins. and 

Trust Co $1500.00 

Balance at the Seventh Nat. Bank 1879.71 

Total 13379-71 

Contributions for the Celebration up to date, $1000 

The resignation of Dr. F. H. M. Sell as a member of the Publi- 
cation Committee was accepted. 

The following-named persons were elected Resident Members 
of the Huguenot Society of America: 

John Balch Blood — proposed by Fd. Clinton Lee; ancestor, 

Theodore Peacock Bogert — proposed by Mrs. F. N. B. Pur- 
don; ancestor, Benezet. 

Nathaniel Charter Burruss — proposed by Wm. M. Grinnell; an- 
cestor, Perrin. 

William C. Burruss — proposed by Wm. M. Grinnell; ancestor, 

Mrs. Sarah Louise Du Bois Kendall — proposed by Hon. A. T. 
Clearwater; ancestor, Du Bois. 


Miss Mary Eliot Lincoln — proposed by Mrs. Charles. H. Alden; 
ancestor, Cazneau. 

Mrs. Charles H. Nicola — proposed by Geo. F. Newcomb; 
ancestor, Pinneo. 

Miss Lucy Caroline Richardson — proposed by Mrs. Wm. H. 
Moseley; ancestor, Gaillard. 

Mrs. Stephen Van Rensselaer Thayer — proposed by Mrs. Mary 
A. Sargent; ancestor, Bernon. 

The Supplemental pedigree of Molines for Mrs. Wm. H. Mose- 
ley, was accepted by the Executive Committee. 

Mrs. Byron Sherman and John J. De Zouche were elected 
members of the Huguenot Society of America, subject to Mrs. 
Lawtou's approval. 

The Secretary was authorized to declare elected all those per- 
sons duly proposed at this or previous meetings as soon as their 
pedigrees have been declared correct by the Chairman of the 
Pedigree Committee. 

It was ordered : That the Library be supplied with awnings; that 
the Secretary be empowered to renew the lease for the Library, 
with the trustees of the building, on the same terms as hereto- 
fore; that a District Messenger call be placed in the Library, if at 
no expense to the Society; that the Annual Business Meeting of 
the Huguenot Society of America be held in Assembly Hall, 105 
East 22d Street, Wednesday, April 13, 1898, at 4 p.m., and on 
motion of Professor Rees, seconded by Mr. Banta, the Secretary 
was empowered to have the ticket of last year printed, with the 
exception of Bayard C. Heyward's name as Vice-President for 
Florida, and Florida as a Huguenot Centre; and that it be offered 
at the Annual Business Meeting as the Regular Ticket of the 
Executive Committee. 


New York, April 13, 1898. 

The Society held its Annual Business Meeting on the three 
hundredth anniversary of the Promulgation of the Edict of 
Nantes, in the Assembly Hall, 105 East 226 Street, at 4 p.m. 

A quorum being present, the meeting was called to order by the 
Vice-President for New York, Mr. de Peyster. 


Mr. Marquand, the President, was present, but resigned the 
chair to Mr. de Peyster. 

There were also present the Delegates and Representatives of 
the Foreign and Domestic Societies. 

The Secretary presented his Report for 1897-98, which, on mo- 
tion, was accepted and ordered on rile. 

The Executive Committee reported through the Secretary as 

11 At the last meeting of the Executive Committee, the said 
Committee, constituting itself a Committee on Nominations, 
nominated for officers for the coming year the gentlemen whose 
names have been printed on the Regular Ticket. 

" Since the printing of this ticket, the Executive Committee 
has been informed by President Henry G. Marquand that it will 
be impossible for him to accept a renomination. 

11 Mr. Marquand has been forced to take this step on account of 
failing health and earnestly desires that his wishes in the matter 
be regarded by the Committee." 

On motion of Rev. Dr. Vermilye, seconded by Messrs. Dupuy 
and Rees, it was resolved: That the Chair appoint a Committee 
to draw up resolutions in reference to Mr. Marquand's retirement 
from the Presidency. 

The Chair appointed on this Committee Rev. Dr. Vermilye, 
Mr. Dupuy, Prof. Rees, Rev. Mr. Wittmeyer, and Prof. Baird. 

On motion of Rev. Dr. Atterbury, it was resolved: That a 
Committee be appointed by the Chair to prepare a note of thanks 
to Mrs. Lawton for her great assistance in preparing for the Ter- 
centenary Celebration. 

The Chair appointed Rev. Dr. Atterbury, Mr. Pumpelly, and 
Mr. Myer on this Committee. 

The election of officers being now in order, Rev. Dr. Atterbury 
nominated Rev. Dr. Vermilye for President, seconded by Mr. 

Prof. Rees nominated Mr. de Peyster for President, seconded 
by Mr. Banta. 

The Chair appointed Messrs. Banta and Clarkson tellers. 

Mr. de Peyster was elected by a ballot of 41 out of 47. 

On motion, the Secretary was authorized to cast one ballot for 
the Regular Ticket, commencing with the Vice-President for 
Long Island. 


The Secretary cast said ballot, and the Chair declared the 
officers nominated thereon elected.* 

A vote for Vice-President for New York was then taken (the 
same gentlemen acting as tellers), with the result that Col. Wm. 
Jay was elected by a vote of 35 out of 43 ballots. 

Prof. Rees moved that the Executive Committee create the po-, 
sitions of Chaplain and Historian. 

Rev. Dr. Darlington moved that the position of Honorary Presi- 
dent be created for Mr. Marquand. 

On motion of Mr. Pumpelly, it was resolved: That the whole 
question of creation of new officers be referred to the Executive 
Committee with power. 

Rev. Dr. Atterbury here reported the following resolution of 
thanks to Mrs. Lawton: 

11 Resolved, That the hearty thanks of the Huguenot Society of 
America be extended to Mrs. James M. Lawton for her valuable 
services in connection with the Library, and for the generous help 
which has contributed so largely to the success of our Tercen- 
tenary Celebration of the Edict of Nantes." 

On motion, the proposed amendments to the Constitution, rela- 
tive to the Insignia of the Society, as approved by the Executive 
Committee, were passed. 

Mr. Browning, on behalf of the English Society, presented the 
Huguenot Society of America with a most valuable set of medals, 
representing those struck to commemorate the Promulgation of 
the Edict of Nantes and the massacre of St. Bartholomew. Mr. 
Browning also asked the Society to advise him in what form the 
Society would prefer to have the medals mounted. 

Mr. de Peyster accepted this most generous gift on behalf of the 

Monsieur Weiss, from the French Society, presented the Hu- 
guenot Society of America with an interesting Paris poster. 

New York, May 5, 1898. 

President de Peyster, in the chair. 

Our Honorary Member, Mr. A. Giraud Browning, Vice- 
President London Society, and delegate from that Society, was 
present by invitation. 

The S ecretary reported for the Treasurer : 

•See list on p. 6. 


Amount on Deposit at N. Y. Life Ins. 

and Trust Co $1500.00 

Balance at Seventh Nat. Bank i375-6o 


Annual Library Account $ 203.28 

Permanent Library Fund 300.00 

Celebration Fund 459-oo 

Life Membership Fund 150.00 

General Account.. 1763.32 


Mrs. Lawton reported Delmonico's bill as sent to the Treasurer 
of the Stewards, $1220.60 : 

Dinners $1140.00 

Wine Card 70.60 

Dais Wreath 10.00 


Tickets sold at $5 each 1040.00 

Deficit $ 180.60 

On motion, it was resolved : That Delmonico's bill of $1220.60 
be paid by the Treasurer of the Stewards, Mr. Wm. D. Barbour. 

On motion, it w 7 as resolved : That Mr. Bowdoin (the Treasurer 
of the Society) be authorized to pay the deficit of the dinner 
account ($180.60) from the Celebration Fund to Mr. Wm. D. 
Barbour, Treasurer of the Stewards. 

On motion of Professor Rees, it was resolved : That after all 
proper bills have been paid, the balance of the Celebration Fund, 
in the hands of the Treasurer of the Society, be turned over by 
the Celebration Committee to the Permanent Fund of the Society. 

The following was read by Mrs. Lawton, for Mr. Rhinelander : 

11 Colonel Jay has been kind enough to state that his subscrip- 
tion for the Celebration would be given to any object desired by the 
Stewards. I therefore suggest that his money be applied towards 
the purchase of the two flags of the Society, and I also suggest 
that the balance of the money for such payment be raised by sub- 
scription among the members of the Society, and that someone be 
authorized to attend to such notices." 


Mr. Rhinelander, to show his good faith in offering this sug- 
gestion, subscribed $10.00 ; Mr. de Peyster, $50.00. 

Mrs. Lawton was given entire charge of this subscription list 
and of sending out the notices. 

On motion of Mrs. Lawton, the thanks of the Executive Com- 
mittee were extended to Messrs. Banta, Du Fais, and Helfenstein, - 
for their valuable services in connection with the Celebration, and 
also to the gentlemen who prepared papers. 

On motion of Mrs. Lawton, it was resolved : That the records 
of the French Church, now in the hands of Mr. Wittmeyer, be 
published as Volume II. of the Collection of the Huguenot 
Society of America. 

The President appointed Mr. Rhinelander and Mr. Barbour a 
Committee to audit the Treasurer's acounts. 

The following supplemental of Mrs. Chas. F. Roe, were ac- 
cepted by the Executive Committee : Le Sueur, Cresson, Sohier, 
Mandeville, and Byssel. 

On motion, it was resolved : That Mrs. Lawton be authorized 
to pass upon Mrs. John L. Jerome's application papers (three 
names), and that Mrs. Jerome be declared a Resident Member of 
the Huguenot Society of America. 

The Secretary reported an acknowledgment of the receipt of the 
Resolution sent by the Executive Committee to Bishop Quintard's 

The Secretary presented a note from the Rev. A. V. Wittmeyer, 
stating that it was impossible for him to serve on the Publication 

Mr. Browning stated that the medals, presented to the Hugue- 
not Society of America on April 13, 1898, would be appropriately 
mounted by Tiffany & Co., and that he hoped they would be 

The following letter to the President of the Huguenot Society 
of America was read by Mr. Browning : 

" 37 Fifth Avenue, New York, April 13, 1898. 
" To the President of the 

Huguenot Society of America, New York. , 
M Dear Sir : 

4 'The President and the Council of the Huguenot Society of 
London desire me to offer for the acceptance of your Society the 


accompanying case of Bronze Medals commemorating two cardinal 
events in Huguenot history — the massacre of Protestants on St. 
Bartholomew's Day, 1572, and the Revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes, 16S5. 

' 1 These medals were struck at the mint in Paris from the 
original dies, which are there preserved. They are offered, a 
souvenir of the International Congress inaugurated by your 
Society to celebrate the tercentenary of the promulgation of the 
Edict of Nantes. 

" I regret exceedingly that our President, Sir Henry Peek, was 
unable to accept the cordial invitation of your Committee to join 
in this celebration and that the Huguenot Society of London was 
only represented by myself as one of its Vice-Presidents, with Mr. 
Hovenden, a member of the Council, and Mr. Belleroche. 

"But I am commissioned to express Sir Henry's appreciation 
of your courtesy and to bring warm greetings from the Eng- 
lish Branch of the great family of Huguenot descendants with 
an assurance of their entire sympathy in the purpose of your 

" We hear much of the ties which s/iould bind together the two 
Saxon nations of the world. I venture to think that the intelli- 
gent appreciation of common descent from a noble race does bind 
together very large and important sections of people whose homes 
are divided by the Atlantic. 

I am very faithfully yours, 

"A. Giraud Browning, 
" Vice-President Huguenot Society of Londo?i." 

On motion, it was resolved : That the letter be placed on file, 
and that a suitable answer be prepared by the Executive Com- 

Mr. Browning presented the design of a book-plate for the 
Library of the Huguenot Society of America, and the same was 
accepted with thanks. 

On motion, it was resolved: That the Chairman of the Library, 
Finance, and Publication Committees be re-appointed, and that 
the Chairman suggest their associates at a future meeting. 

The President reappointed the Executive Committee, with the 
exception of the Rev. Wm. R. Huntington, D.D., who was ap- 
pointed to take the place of Mr. Schieffelin, resigned: Prof. J. K. 


Recs, Mr. Win. Cary Sanger, Rev. Wm. R. Huntington, Mr. H. 
Cotheal Swords, Mr. F. J. Oakley Rhinelander. 

New York, May 20, 1898. 

President de Peyster in the chair. 

The Secretary reported a communication from Rev. Dr. Hunt- 
ington, begging to be excused from serving on the Executive 
Committee, as his health would not permit him to undertake any 
new obligations. 

The Secretary reported a letter from Rev. Mr. Wittmeyer, say- 
ing that on account of ill-health he could not accept the appoint- 
ment as Chairman of the Publication Committee. 

The President was empowered to appoint the Chairman of the 
Publication Committee, said Chairman to suggest his associates 
on the Committee. 

The following-named person was elected a Resident Member of 
the Huguenot Society: 

Very Rev. Eugene Augustus Hoffman, D.D. — proposed by 
Henry G. Marquand ; ancestor — Crepel. 

The Secretary w T as empowered to declare Mr. Bowdoin elected 
on receipt of an official approval of his pedigree. 

The Chairman of the Library Committee reported since April 
*3> 1897, 47 gifts, 17 exchanges, $26.81 spent for records, and 
$10.85 received from Bangs & Co. for books weeded from the 
Library and sold at auction by authority of the Executive Com- 

New York, October 27, 1898. 
In the absence of the Treasurer, the Secretary read the following 
report : 

On Deposit at N. Y. Life Ins. and Trust Co. $2000.00 
Balance at Seventh National Bank 680.76 


George S. Bowdoin, Treasurer. 

October 20, 1898. 

The Chairman of the Library Committee reported as follows : 
" That during the summer new shelves had been made ; the cat- 
alogue of the Library thoroughly revised ; the old card catalogues, 
which had never been used, corrected and amplified, and new 
cards made for about five hundred books. It is a great gratifica- 


tion that two of the staff of the Astor Library have examined the 
indexing and accessioning made by the Chairman, and have pro- 
nounced the work perfect, but almost too much in detail." 

The Chairman asked the Committee to allow her the privilege 
of selecting someone who thoroughly understands pedigree and 
library work and who, knowing the books in the Library and 
having searched a great many Huguenot pedigrees, could answer 
intelligently any questions asked, and help the Chairman to make 
the very most out of the Library. The Chairman also reported 
many gifts of books, and loan of cabinet from Mrs. Louise Du Bois 

On motion of Mrs. Lawton, the Secretary, on behalf of the So- 
ciety, was requested to thank Mrs. Kendall for her valuable loan 
to the Library. 

On motion of the Secretary, it was resolved: That Mrs. Lawton 
be appointed a Committee of one with power to arrange for secur- 
ing a clerk and an assistant in the Library. 

The Executive Committee having learned with great regret 
of the death of Sir Henry William Peek, Bart., President of the 
London Society and an Honorary Member of the American So- 
ciety, and of the death of three of our Vice-Presidents, the Hon. 
Thomas F. Bayard, Mr. Charles M. Dupuy, and the Rev. D. D. 
Demarest, D.D., resolved : 

" That the Secretary and Professor Rees be appointed a Com- 
mittee to prepare a proper minute in regard to the death of our 
three Vice-Presidents, and our Honorary Member, Sir Henry 
William Peek, Bart. 

New York, November 25, 1898. 
President de Peyster in the chair. 

The President reported that he had received another letter from 
Mr. Wittmeyer definitely declining the chairmanship of the Pub- 
lication Committee on account of his health. 

The Secretary reported that, according to the resolution passed 
at the last meeting, he and Professor Rees had prepared proper 
minutes in regard to the death of the three Vice-Presidents and 
Sir Henry William Peek, Bart., an Honorary Member of the 

The Secretary also reported that he had thanked Mrs. Kendall 
for her valuable loan of the Huguenot cabinet to the Library. 


In the absence of the Treasurer, the Secretary read the following 

On Deposit at N. Y. Life Ins. and Trust Co. $2000.00 
Balance at Seventh Nat. Bank 980.24 


George S. Bowdoin, Treasurer. 

November 25, 189S. 

The Chairman of the Pedigree Committee reported, that at the 
meeting. held March 24, 1898, it was resolved: That the pedigrees 
of Mr. Egle, Mr. Falconer, Mrs. Newcomb, Mrs. Peets (entered 
as Mrs. Petts by mistake), and Mr. Richardson should await 
further information. Of these pedigrees, Mrs. Peets's is now cor- 
rect. Also, at the same meeting, it was resolved: That Mr. De 
Zouche be elected a member, subject to Mrs. Lawton's approval. 
As the case would be a precedent, Mrs. Lawton declines action, 
and now desires instructions from the Executive Committee. 

On motion, it was resolved : That Mr. De Zouche, proposed by 
Joseph S. Perot, ancestor, de Zouche, be elected a Resident 
Member of the Society. 

For convenience in the matter of record, the Secretary reported 
that the following-named persons had been notified of their elec- 
tion to the Society, as per the power conferred on the Secretary 
by resolutions of March 24, and May 20, 1898: 

Mrs. Byron Sherman — proposed by Mrs. Howard Townsend ; 
ancestor, Molines. 

H. Rieman Duval — proposed by Wm. D. Cutting; ancestor, 

Julian Henry Lee — proposed by William Graham Bowdoin; 
ancestor, Mallet. 

Mrs. Richard M. Bent— proposed by Rev. A. V. Wittmeyer ; 
ancestor, Dombois. 

Mrs. Van Campen Taylor — proposed by Miss Emma G. La- 
throp; ancestor, de Rapelje. 

William F. Hasslock— proposed by Rev. A. V. Wittmeyer ; 
ancestor, Dombois. 

Temple Bowdoin — proposed by George S. Bowdoin; ancestor, 

Mrs. Lawton reported that, according to the resolution at the 


last meeting, she bad secured Miss Livingston to be at the office 
from nine until one o'clock at a salary of twenty dollars per month, 
and Fred. T. Ealand to be at the office from one until five o'clock 
at a salary of twenty dollars per month. 

Mrs. Lawton was authorized by the Executive Committee to 
confer with Mr. Samuel Macauley Jackson, relative to the publi- 
cation of the Commemorative Volume of the Tercentenary Cele- 
bration of last spring, and report to the Executive Committee. 

Mrs. Lawton w r as also authorized to write to Rev. Dr. De Costa 
that the Society would be glad to have a paper from him during 
the winter. 

On motion of the President, the following members were ap- 
pointed by the Executive Committee to fill vacancies as Vice- 
Presidents of the Huguenot Society of America : 

Prof. Allan Marquand, for New Jersey. 

H. Rieman Duval, for Florida. 

Col. H. A. Dupont, for Delaware. 

A Vice-President for Pennsylvania, to take the place of Charles 
M. Dupuy, deceased, was not decided upon. The President was 
asked to report in regard to this matter at the next meeting. 

On motion of Mrs. Lawton, seconded by the President, Mr. 
Weiss, Secretary of the French Society, was elected an Honorary 

The following-named persons were elected Resident Members of 
the Huguenot Society of America, their pedigrees having been 
reported correct by the Chairman of the Pedigree Committee : 

Mrs. Bayard Stockton — proposed by Mrs. Sarah de Lancey 
Strong ; ancestor, Boudinot. 

Mrs. Louise V. B. Spencer— proposed by Mrs. Julia A. Stim- 
son ; ancestor, Benin. 

Mrs. Cyrus Berry Peets — proposed by Mrs. Wm. H. Moseley ; 
ancestor, Harger. 

Benjamin Aymar — proposed by Wm. J. Schieffelin ; ancestor, 

Mrs. Nancy A. Morse Foote — proposed by Mrs. Florence C. 
Moseley; ancestor, Gilet. 

Henry Rutgers Coles — proposed by Samuel P. Ferree ; ances- 
tor, de Rapalie. 

Mrs. Eliza Chandler White — proposed by Samuel P. Ferree ; 
ancestor, de la Noye. 


New York, December 16, 1898. 
President de Peyster in the chair. 

In the absence of the Treasurer, the Secretary read the follow, 
ing report : 

Amount on Deposit at N. Y. Life Ins. and 

Trust Co $2000.00 

Balance at Seventh Nat. Bank 1038.00 


Permanent Library Fund $ 300.00 

Life Membership Fund 250.00 

Annual Library Account 65.56 

General Account 2422.44 


Geo. S. Bowdoin, Treasurer. 

New York, December 15, 1S98. 

An informal discussion was held with regard to the funds for 
the publication of the Commemorative Volume, but, owing to the 
absence of Mrs. Lawton, no action was taken. 

Mr. Samuel Macauley Jackson — proposed by Mr. de Peyster, 
seconded by Mrs. Lawton — was elected a Resident Member of the 
Huguenot Society of America, as per Art. III., Sec. 1, Fourthly, 
of the Constitution. 

On motion of Mr. de Peyster, seconded by Mr. Rhinelander, 
Mr. Samuel Macauley Jackson was elected Chairman of the Pub- 
lication Committee. 

The following-named persons were elected Resident Members 
of the Huguenot Society: 

Charles S. Richards — proposed by J. W. Clark ; ancestor, 

Mrs. Thomas Alexander Reilly — proposed by Edward Clinton 
Lee'; ancestor, Molines. 

Mrs. Emma Augusta G. Hopkins — proposed by Henry W. 
Bookstaver ; ancestor, de Vaux. 

Miss Eleanor G. Dupuy — proposed by Herbert Dupuy ; ances- 
tor, Du Puy. 

Mrs. George Wellman Wright — proposed by Mrs. Van Campan 
Taylor; ancestor, de Rapelje. 

Miss Florence Russel Wright— proposed by Mrs. Van Campan 
Taylor ; ancestor, de Rapelje. 


Cornelius Berrien Mitchell — proposed by Frederic J. dePeyster ; 
ancestor, Berrien. 

On motion, it was resolved : That Miss Livingston be hereafter 
granted $25.00 per month. 

Mr. Herbert Dupuy of Pittsburg, Pa., presented to the So- 
ciety a medal, dated 1572, containing on its face a bust of Pope 
Gregory XIII., and on its reverse an illustration of the massacre 
of the Huguenots. 

On motion, the Society accepted with great pleasure the gift of 
the medal from Mr. Dupuy, and the Secretary was requested to 
send a suitable acknowledgment. 

New York, January 26, 1899. 

In the absence of the President, Prof. J. K. Rees was elected 
temporary Chairman. 

In the absence of the Treasurer, the Secretary read the follow- 
ing report : 

On Deposit at N. Y. Life Ins. and Trust Co. $2000.00 
Balance at Seventh Nat. Bank 93i«53 

GEO. S. Bowdoin, Treasurer. 

January 25, 1899. 

The Secretary reported further, that H. Rieman Duval had 
declined his appointment as Vice-President for Florida, and that 
a letter had been received from the London Huguenot Society, 
thanking the American Society for the obituary minute in refer- 
ence to the late Sir Henry William Peek, Bart ; and that Mr. 
Jackson had accepted the appointment as Chairman of the Publi- 
cation Committee: 

Mr. Jackson read his report as Chairman of the Publication 

Mrs. Lawton and Robert W. de Forest were added to the Com- 
mittee on Publication. 

Further, that in addition to the Publication Committee, the 
President, the Secretary, and Prof. J. K. Rees shall constitute a 
Committee with full power to make all arrangements relative to 
the publication of the proposed Commemorative Volume, provided 
financial obligations incurred shall not exceed one thousand 
($1000.00) dollars. 


It was understood by the Executive Committee that a large 
proportion of this one thousand dollars would be raised by sub- 
scriptions for the proposed Commemorative Volume. 

A letter from the Architectural League of New York, relative 
to municipal monuments, was referred to the President and Secre- 
tary, with power. 

New York, February 23, 1899. 

President de Peyster in the chair. 

A meeting of the Society was ordered to be held on Tuesday, 
February 2S, 1S99, and Mrs. Lawton authorized to select a Com- 
mittee of Ladies to attend to the social side of the General Meet- 
ing, said Committee to be in power for one month only. 

Mr. Jackson reported that the copy of the Commemorative 
Volume was now in the hands of the printer, and that he expected 
a proof about March 4th. 

The following-named persons were appointed by the President 
a Nominating Committee : Professor Rees and Messrs. Swords, 
Dominick, Barbour, and Rhinelander. 

The report of the Committee in charge of the Tercentenary 
Celebration was formally presented to the Executive Committee. 

On motion, it was resolved : That this report be accepted and 
ordered placed on permanent record as part of the Commemorative 
Volume about to be issued, and also that the Committee be dis- 
charged with the hearty thanks of the Executive Committee for 
the faithful and efficient work rendered. 


A meeting of the Society was held in the Trustees' Room, 105 
East 22d Street, on Tuesday, February 28, 1899, at 8 p.m. 
President de Peyster in the chair. 

Owing to the absence of the Secretary, Mrs. Lawton acted as 
temporary Secretary. About forty members were present. 

The President introduced Prof. Samuel Macauley Jackson, who, 
at the earnest request of the Executive Committee, read again his 
paper on the Edict of Nantes [originally read at the celebration 
and later printed in the Commemorative Volume]. 

Mr. de Peyster, on behalf of the Hon. A. T. Clearwater, pre- 
sented to the Society the set of Huguenot medals, which, accepted 
by the Executive Committee, in 1895, have been in charge of the 


Library Committee, awaiting Judge Clearwater's leisure to make 
the formal presentation. 

A resolution of thanks to Judge Clearwater for his princely gift 
was passed, and it was ordered that the full description of all the 
medals prepared by Judge Clearwater be printed in the Proceedings. 

The motion, offered by Mr. Charles F. Darlington, seconded by 
Mrs. Montgomery Schuyler, that the Society give a banquet this 
year, was passed unanimously and referred to the Executive Com- 
mittee for action. 

New York, March 14, 1899. 

President de Peyster in the chair. 

The desire of the Society, expressed at the last meeting, held 
February 28th, to have a dinner, was reported to the Executive 
Committee; after much discussion, it was moved by Mr. Bowdoin 
that the Executive Committee does not consider it expedient to 
have the banquet this year, which motion was seconded by Mr. 
Rhinelander, and carried. 

The Treasurer reported as follows : 

Amount on Deposit N. Y. Life Ins. and 

Trust Co $2000.00 

Balance at Seventh Nat. Bank 744. 11 


Mr. Jackson reported on the Commemorative Volume. His 
request — for authority to modify somewhat the contract regarding 
the printing of the volume, so as to have : 125 copies on book 
paper (100 bound) ; 50 copies on Vangelder paper (30 bound) — 
was granted. He reported further in reference to the missing 
package containing Proceedings, Part I. of Vol. I. Whereupon 
he was authorized to look up, and secure, if possible, these miss- 
ing publications ; and in case this could not be done the Pub- 
lication Committee was authorized to reprint Part I. of Volume I., 
so as to be able to make up complete sets of the Proceedings. 

On motion of Mr. Banta, Rev. Dr. Charles S. Vedder of Charles- 
ton, South Carolina, was elected an Honorary Member of the 

The following-named persons were elected Resident Members of 
the Huguenot Society of America. 

Mrs. Louise Aymar Van Buren — proposed by Benjamin Aymar; 
ancestor, Aymar. 


Miss Mary Van Buren Vanderpoel — proposed by Henry W. 
Bookstaver; ancestor, Le Baron. 

Mrs. Lydia Williams B. Newcomb — proposed by George F. 
Newconib; ancestor, Bailey. 

Mrs. Eliza Warren Hook — proposed by Miss Mary S. Atter- 
bury; ancestor, Le Maistre. 

Mrs. Washington A. Roebling — proposed by Mrs. William S. 
Livingston; ancestor, Le Maistre. 

Mrs. Elliot Danforth— proposed by Mrs. Frank T. Robinson ; 
ancestor, Mesereau. 

New York, March 21, 1899. 

President de Peyster in the chair. 

The Secretary being absent, Mrs. Lawton was appointed tem- 
porary Secretary. 

The following-named persons were elected Resident Members of 
the Huguenot Society of America, Edward De F. Shelton — pro- 
posed by Miss Jane De F. Shelton ; ancestor, De Forest. 

Miss Phebe Caroline Swords — proposed by Henry Cotheal 
Swords ; ancestor, de Cotele. 

Mrs. Henry C. Payne — proposed by Rear-Admiral Roe ; an- 
cestor, l'Estrange. 

Miss Dorothy Lord Maltby — proposed by Theo. M. Banta ; an- 
cestor, Rapalje. 

Miss Helen Van C. de Peyster — proposed by Fred J. de Peyster; 
ancestor, de Peyster. 

Miss Frances Goodhue de Peyster — proposed by F. J. de 
Peyster; ancestor, de Peyster. 

Miss Augusta Morris de Peyster — proposed by F. J. de 
Peyster ; ancestor, de Peyster. 

Frederic Ashton de Peyster — proposed by F. J. de Peyster; 
ancestor, de Peyster. 

In answer to a communication from Herr Tollin, President of 
the German Huguenot Society, it was resolved that a note be 
written to him, that the Huguenot Society of America cannot at 
the present time see its way clearly towards publishing any 
Proceedings except their own, but, appreciating the courtesy of 
Herr Tollin in allowing them the privilege of translation, they 
hope at some day not far distant to undertake the work. 

In answer to Mrs. Edward E. Salisbury's communication in re- 

4 6 

gard to Mrs. Martha J. Lamb's monument, the same answer was 
authorized to be returned as was sent two years ago, viz. : that 
11 The Society, as a society, cannot send a subscription, but that 
the project will be commended to individual members." 

New York, March 21, 1899. 

The Society met at 8.30 p.m. in the Assembly Hall, United 
Charities Building, President de Peyster in the chair. 

Owing to the absence of the Secretary, Professor Rees acted as 
temporary Secretary. 

The minutes of the last meeting of the Society, held February 
28, 1899, were read and approved. 

The President announced that the Executive Committee has 
decided, for reasons of weight, not to have a dinner this year. 

There being no business before the Society, Prof. J. K. Rees 
read a paper by Miss Mary Duval, entitled, M Huguenots in Mary- 
land." A paper by Col. Richard L. Maury, of Virginia, entitled 
11 The Fourteen of Meaux," was read by Prof. Samuel Macauley 

It was voted that the thanks of the Society be sent to Miss Du- 
val and Col. Richard L. Maury for their interesting papers, and 
that the papers read be published in the Proceedings of the Society. 

After the meeting adjourned, the Society had a social gathering, 
when refreshments were served. 

New York, April 5, 1899. 

President de Peyster in the chair. 

In the absence of the Secretary, Mrs. Lawton acted as Secre- 
tary. The following-named persons were elected Resident Mem- 
bers of the Huguenot Society of America : 

Miss Harriet Aymar — proposed by Benjamin Aymar ; an- 
cestor, Aymar. 

Aymar Embury — proposed by Benjamin Aymar ; ancestor, 

The following supplemental of Mr. Aymar were accepted by 
the Executive Committee : Guerry, Quantin, Vincent, Many, 
Quereau, Le Brun, Belon. 

The pedigree and supplemental of Judge Clearwater, never 


before presented, were accepted : Baudoin, Bridon, Corquet, Doiau, 
Nicol, Seguine, Ver Nooy. 

The supplementals of Miss Margaret Jackson were accepted: de 
Caileux, de la Borde. 

Mrs. Lawton reported the names of the ladies chosen by her 
as an Entertainment Committee under authority given her at a 
previous meeting: Mrs. Clarkson, Miss Emily de Peyster, Mrs. 
Luquer, Mrs. Anson P. Atterbury, Mrs. Charles Roe, Mrs. I. 
Kress, Mrs. L. Holbrook. 


New York, April 13, 1899. 

The Annual Business Meeting was held in Assembly Hall, at 
8.30 p.m. A quorum being present, the meeting was called to 
order by the President, Mr. de Peyster. 

On motion of Mr. Swords, it was resolved: That the usual order 
of business be suspended, and that the Society proceed to the elec- 
tion of officers. The President appointed Messrs. Swords and 
Elting tellers, who announced, as the result of the balloting, the 
election of all the candidates for office appearing on the regular 
ticket, approved by the Executive Committee.* 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. Re- 
ports of the President, Secretary, Treasurer, and the Chairmen of 
the Library and of the Publication Committees, were read and or- 
dered placed on file. 

Treasurer's account: 

Amount on Deposit at N. Y. Life Ins. and 

Trust Co .$2000.00 

Balance at Seventh National Bank : . . 854.94 

Expenses in relation to Commemorative 

Volume 6.75 


General Account $2135.63 

Permanent Library Fund 300.00 

Annual Library Account 166.06 

Life Membership Fund 250.00 

Subscriptions received for Commemora- 
tive Volume of the Celebration of 

1898 10.00 


E. & O. B. 

G. S. Bowdoin, Treasurer. 

New Y ork, April 13, 1899. 
* See list on p. 7. 

4 8 

The following-named persons were elected Resident Members 
of the Huguenot Society of America : 

Henry Chauucey Ward — proposer, Mrs. F. C. Moseley ; an- 
cestor, Gaillard. 

Jose* Ay mar — proposer, Benjamin Aymar; ancestor, Aymar. 

By unanimous consent, the first reading of the application of 
Rev. Robert Wilson, D.D., President of the South Carolina 
Huguenot Society, was dispensed with, and he was elected a Resi- 
dent Member of the Huguenot Society of America. 

On motion, it was resolved that Rev. Robert Wilson, D.D., be 
elected Vice-President of the Huguenot Society of America for 
South Carolina. 

There being no further business, the speaker of the evening, 
Rev. Dr. de Costa, was introduced, and read a most interesting 
paper on the " First French Settlers on the Hudson." 

On motion, the thanks of the Society were tendered to Dr. de 
Costa, and he w T as requested to furnish a copy of his paper to the 
Publication Committee. 

After the meeting adjourned, refreshments were served. 

New York, May 18, 1899. 

President de Peyster in the chair. 
Mrs. Law ton acted as Secretary. 

Mr. Geo. S. Bowdoin offered his resignation as Treasurer, 
which, on motion, was accepted w r ith great regret and the hope 
that the same interest he has shown in the past would be con- 
tinued in the future. 

On motion of Mr. de Peyster, Mr. Swords was unanimously 
elected Treasurer of the Huguenot Society of America, in place of 
Mr. Bowdoin. 

The President reported that an auditing Committee had been 
appointed, at the request of Mr. Bow T doin. 

The resignation of Mr. Luquer as Secretary of the Society was, 
on motion, accepted, and Mrs. Lawton elected in his stead. 

The Chairman of the Publication Committee reported as follows: 

" The Committee on Publication would respectfully report that 
the volume in Commemoration of the 300th Anniversary of the 
Promulgation of the Edict of Nantes is proceeding steadily, but 
slowly, through the press. The illness of the chief proofreader of 
The Knickerbocker Press has, however, seriously interfered with 


it, and so it may not be finished before the end of June. Twenty- 
five copies in morocco, ninety-three in cloth, and six unbound 
have been ordered, but, from present appearances, the deficit will 
be about $300. 

11 The Committee are collecting materials for another volume of 
Collections and Papers. They propose to include tw T o very valu- 
able MSS. — a History of the Huguenot Church of Charleston, 
which, although utilized by historians, has never been published 
in full, and one of the Narragansett Church. The volume cannot, 
however, be taken up before fall. The Society will also publish 
the minutes of the Society and its committees from April 3, 1896, 
to April 13, 1898, inclusive, and in the same volume, which will 
be distinct from the above, all papers read before the Society 
during that time, exclusive of those of the Commemorative 

The report was accepted and ordered placed on file. 

The election of members being in order, the following-named 
person was elected a Resident Member of the Huguenot Society 
of America : 

Barr Ferree — proposed by Samuel P. Ferree ; ancestors, Fer- 
ree, Blancon, Deyo, Jorice, and Du Bois. 

The following supplemental of Mrs. Roebling and Mrs. Hook 
were accepted by the Executive Committee: Le Conte, Du Bois, 

The following supplemental of Miss Dorothy Lord Maltby were 
accepted: Lozier, De Ruine, De Baum. 

The supplemental of Mrs. Van Dyke was accepted : Le Maitre. 

Supplemental of Mr. Rhinelander were accepted : Marcier or 
Mercier, Robert, Reneaud or Renaud. 

Rules of admittance of members were w 7 aived in regard to the 
following-named persons, who had been proposed more than a year 
ago. The Chairman of the Pedigree Committee could not verify 
their pedigrees, but the Executive Committee had all the investi- 
gation proofs laid before them and were convinced of the eligibil- 
ity of same and the desirability of their names appearing on the 
new list ; and the Chairman of the Pedigree Committee was 
empowered to inform them of their election as Resident Members 
of the Huguenot Society of America : 

Francis Edward Dodge — proposed by Mr. Luquer; ancestor, 


Mrs. Fletcher Bangs — proposed by Mrs. Lawton ; ancestor, 

William Falconer — proposed by Isaac Brokaw ; ancestor, 

Edwin Marschalk — proposed by A. E. Helffenstein ; ancestor, 

The following were appointed to serve on the Executive Com- 
mittee for the year 1899-1900 : 

Secretary, Mrs. James M. Lawton ; Treasurer, Mr. Henry 
Cotheal Swords; Chairman of the Publication Committee, Prof. 
Samuel Macauley Jackson ; Prof. John K. Rees, Mr. Theo. M. 
Banta, Mr. T. Oakley Rhinelander, Rev. A. V. Wittmeyer, Mr. 
Geo. S. Bowdoin. 

The Secretary and the Treasurer were given power to execute 
the lease at the same terms as last year. 

Mrs. Lawton, on behalf of the Pedigree Committee, stated that 
they w r ere preparing a new list of members, with the Huguenot 
Ancestors, and that they found in some cases supplemental claims 
for some of these ancestors had not been written on the regular 
blanks and passed upon by the Executive Committee. But this 
was before the rule about supplemental was made. 

On motion of Mr. Banta, it was voted that the Chairman of 
the Pedigree Committee be authorized to include in the new 
list of members the names of all the Huguenot Ancestors even 
where the formal supplemental have not been furnished, pro- 
vided that the Committee is satisfied that the claims are duly 

A Committee w T as appointed, consisting of the Chairman of the 
Publication Committee, Secretary, and Treasurer, to see about 
closing the Library; date at discretion of said Committee, which 
was also authorized to appoint an assistant at the Library for 
next winter. 

Mr. Ferree's communication in regard to forming a branch So- 
ciety in Philadelphia was reported to be in the hands of the Vice- 
President from Pennsylvania, and that the other Vice-Presidents 
were being written to in regard to the matter. 

New York, October 19, 1899. 

In the absence of the President and of the Vice-President for 
New York, Mr. Jackson took the chair. 


The Treasurer reported as follows : 


Amount on Deposit at the New York Life Ins. and 

Trust Co $2000.00 

Balance, Seventh National Bank 459-04 

Expenses relating to the Commemorative Volume 304.55 



General Account $2009.58 

Permanent Library Fund 300.00 

Annual Library Account 154.01 

Life Membership Fund 300.00 $2763.59 


Amount received from Geo. S. Bowdoin $2684.73 

Amount received from Annual Dues 325.00 

Life Membership 50.00 

Library Account 1.25 



Rent for four months at $43.66 $ 174.64 

Stationery 25.60 

Indexing Library 8.30 

Postage 2.30 

American District Telegraph Co 4.20 

W.J. Knott, one and one-half months' salary 52.50 

Samuel M. Jackson, Chairman Pub. Com 300.00 

Mrs. Lawton, stamps, etc 25.00 

Copying Records 5.00 

Lettering Library Door 3.00 

Awnings 1.00 

Check Collections .40 

Balance in N. Y. Life Ins. and Trust Co $2000.00 

Seventh National Bank 459.04 $2459.04 

Henry C. Swords, Treasurer. 

The following deaths occurred during the summer : Messrs. A. 
E. Quintard, Charles B. Allen, and Gilbert T. Swope. 

The Secretary reported 248 letters written during the summer. 

The Publication Committee reported that the publishing of the 
Commemorative Volume was progressing very slowly. 

On nomination of Mr. Jackson, seconded by Mrs. Lawton, Mr. 


Moens, President of the Huguenot Society of London, was unani- 
mously elected an Honorary Member of the Huguenot Society of 

Mr. Jackson reported a meeting at Mrs. Lawton's house last 
spring, at which were present Mrs. Lawton, Rev. A. V. Witt- 
meyer, Prof. H. M. Baird, and Mr. Jackson. At this meeting 
the following resolution was adopted: " That the Secretary be re- 
quested to communicate with the Foreign Societies, asking their 
co-operation in the following plan, subject to ratification by the 
Executive Committee: That each Society, beginning with the 
American, contribute one fifth of the annual dues of their mem- 
bers ; first, for the completion of La France Protestante, and after 
that to any work of research, translation, or publication of para- 
mount interest to all the Huguenot Societies. That a Committee 
be formed of a member from each Society, to be called the Inter- 
national Publication Fund Committee." 

This meeting being approved by the Executive Committee, the 
resolution was ordered to be reported to the Society at their meet- 
ing for final action. 

The Secretary reported letters from the French, English, Wal- 
loon, and Vaudois Societies, endorsing most warmly the plan. 

On motion of Mrs. Lawton, Mr. Jackson was made the American 
member of the new Committee. 

The main business of the meeting was now taken up — that of 
forming Branch Societies of the Huguenot Society of America, 
according to the plan proposed by Mr. Samuel P. Ferree. [See 
plan, as finally adopted, in Minutes of May 10, 1901.] 

Mr. Lester, Vice-President for New Rochelle, stated that he 
would bring up at their next meeting the matter of an amalga- 
mation of the New Rochelle Society with the Huguenot Society 
of America, and would report at the next Executive Committee 

The following resolution was adopted : 

" Whereas, the Huguenot Society of America has not only been 
much increased in numbers, but also in the scope of its work and 
plans, it has been deemed advisable by the Executive Committee 
to change the Constitution to meet the needs of the Society, 
report of changes to be made at the next Executive Committee 
meeting, to be acted upon at the next meeting of the Society." 

On motion of Mr. Dupuy, seconded by Colonel DuPont, it was 


decided that an initiation fee of $5.00 be charged, subject to the 
approval of the Society at their next meeting. 

The following resolution in regard to a Committee on Heraldry, 
was read by the Secretary : 

" That a Committee be formed to collect, and to aid the mem- 
bers in looking up, coats-of-arms to which their Huguenot an- 
cestors were entitled. These arms to be properly framed and 
placed on the walls of the Society's Library. 

" That such a Committee be appointed, and that the President 
and Secretary appoint the members." 

The Executive Committee approving of the plan to have a 
course of Huguenot studies or lectures, the matter was placed in 
the hands of the President and Secretary. 

The Secretary reporting correspondence in regard to searching 
for records of Huguenot churches and settlements in the United 
States, Mr. Banta moved that a Record Committee be appointed. 

On motion, the following were appointed to serve on said Com- 
mittee : Mr. Banta, Rev. Dr. Demarest, Mr. Lester, and Miss 

Resolved : That a House Committee of about twenty-four be 
appointed to take turns in receiving members who may call at the 
Library — the Secretary to be at the Library at stated hours each 

The Treasurer was authorized to pay for having the floor pol- 
ished, for a telephone, w r ater-cooler, drop-light, and six chairs. 

The Secretary was authorized to have printed any stationery 
required at the Library. 

Mrs. Lawton presented the Society with a piece of stone from 
the Canterbury Cathedral which fell during a fire in the seven- 
teenth century, and which was dug up near the door of the 
Huguenot crypt while she was there, in 1894. 

Dr. Stapleton presented a book to the Library. 

The Chairman of the Library Committee was authorized to 
acknowledge the receipt of both gifts with thanks. 

New York, November 25, 1S99. 
President de Peyster in the chair. 

The following-named persons were elected Resident Members 
of the Huguenot Society of America : 


Morgan H. Seacord — proposed by Henry M. Lester ; ancestors, 
— Sicard, Arneau, Bonnet, Coutant. 

Mrs. Grace Le Baron Uphatn — proposed by Fred. J. dePeyster; 
ancestor, Le Baron. 

Edmund Janes James — proposed by Prof. Joseph Le Conte ; 
ancestor, Cossart. 

Miss Margaret Sophia Remsen — proposed by Miss Emily M. 
de Peyster ; ancestor, de Peyster. 

Wm. Hart Boughton — ancestor, Bouton; proposer, Herbert 

Mrs. Francis Wayland Goddard — ancestor, Cortelyou ; proposed 
by Mrs. Lucy Jerome. 

The pedigrees of Maxwell B. Richardson, ancestor, Pardier, and 
Wm. H. Egle, ancestor, Beauvier, were allowed, and the Execu- 
tive Committee declared them elected. 

Mr. Banta moved that the Chairman of the Pedigree Committee 
send to the members of the Executive Committee, a few days 
before a meeting, a notice with the names of the candidates for 
membership thereon. Motion carried. 

The Secretary reported : 

A letter from Mr. Reginald S. Faber, acknowledging receipt of 
the notification of Mr. Moens's election as an Honorary Member 
of the Huguenot Society of America. 

One from Mr. J. L. Dean, in regard to a legacy which had been 
left to the Society by Mrs. C. R. Badeau. The President ap- 
pointed Colonel Jay to act in the matter. 

One from Mr. Du Bois in regard to an old Bible. The Secre- 
tary asked to answer. 

One from Mr. Samuel P. Ferree, in regard to Branch Societies. 
Also, one from Connecticut. 

Mr. Banta moved that a committee be formed to consider 
the question of Branch Societies, and also changes in the Con- 
stitution, and report to the Executive Committee at their next 

The following were appointed on that Committee : Mr. Banta, 
Chairman, Rev. A. V. Wittmeyer, and Professor Rees. 

The Chairman of the Publication Committee reported that the 
Commemorative Volume would be finished about the first of 
the year, and that they were also reprinting Vol. L, Part i., of 
the Proceedings, which would be finished shortly. 


Mr. Jackson reported the following deaths : Bishop Neely, on 
the 31st of October, and Mr. Brez at Clarens, Switzerland. 

It was resolved: That the action of the Executive Committee, 
on October 19, 1S99, in voting twenty per cent, of our annual 
dues for the International Publication Fund be laid aside. 


Assembly Hall, 105 East 226 St., New York, 

November 25, 1899. 

The Society met, President de Peyster in the chair. 
The minutes of the last General Meeting were read and ap- 

The Chairman of the Publication Committee reported progress 
in regard to the Commemorative Volume, and also that Vol. I., 
Part 1., of the Proceedings of the Society had been ordered printed 
by the Executive Committee, and would be ready by the first of 
the year. 

He reported that at the last meeting of the Executive Commit- 
tee the following committees had been appointed : Committee on 
Heraldry, a Record Committee, an International Publication 
Fund Committee, a Lecture Committee, a Committee for the 
Formation of Branch Societies. He explained the intention of 
all these committees, and what the Society hoped from them. 

Report accepted and ordered to be placed on file. 

The following resolution, which had been passed at the Execu- 
tive Committee Meeting, was approved by the Society: 

That an initiation fee of $5 be added to Life Memberships and 
Annual Dues. 

The speaker of the evening, Mr. Benjamin Aymar, being un- 
avoidably absent, the Chairman of the Publication Committee read 
his paper for him: "Aymar of New York." 

At the conclusion of the address, Mr. Aymar was, by unani- 
mous vote, thanked for his most interesting paper, and requested 
to furnish a copy for publication by the Society. 

New York, January 22, 1900. 

President de Peyster in the chair. 

The Chairman of the Pedigree Committee reported, in ac- 
cordance with a resolution passed at the last meeting, V that the 


Chairman of the Pedigree Committee send to the members of the 
Executive Committee, a few days before a meeting, a notice with 
the names of the candidates for membership thereon," she had 
sent a list of names to be acted upon at this meeting and also of 
those to be proposed. 

The election of new members being in order, the Chairman of 
the Pedigree Committee requested action by the Executive Com- 
mittee on a paper wanting in marriage dates, and in some cases 
in marriages, owing to records which cannot be found in New 
Rochelle : 

Oscar Brown Ireland — proposer, Fred. J. de Peyster ; ancestor, 

Most of the Executive Committee knowing Mr. Ireland per- 
sonally, and being convinced of his Huguenot descent, he was 
elected by order of the Committee. The Chairman of the Pedi- 
gree Committee was requested to notify him of his election and 
ask for missing dates as soon as New Rochelle records are found. 

The following-named persons were elected Resident Members 
of the Huguenot Society of America : 

Philip Schuyler De Luze — proposer, Mrs. Jas. M. Lawton ; an- 
cestor, De Luze. 

Herbert Hart Boyd — proposer, T. W. Balch; ancestor, 

The Chairman of the Publication Committee reported that he 
had received the last of the proofs of the Commemorative Volume 
that day. The index only remains to be finished and the volume 
will be printed about the first of March. 

The Treasurer reported that Mrs. C. R. Badeau had left a 
legacy to the Society. 

It was proposed that the Secretary and Treasurer sign the 
paper, and, if necessary, the seal of the Society be affixed. Mo- 
tion carried. 

Treasurer reported bill for reprinting the first volume of the 
Proceedings. He was authorized to pay same. 

Treasurer's report accepted and ordered placed on file. 

After discussion, it was decided that no action be taken in 
regard to the International Publication Fund for the present. 

The matter of forming Banch Societies was now taken up, and, 
after much discussion, on motion of Professor Rees, it was decided: 

" That the report of the Committee be accepted, and that their 


report be referred to a new Committee, consisting of the Chair- 
man, the Secretary, and Mr. Jackson." 

New York, February 27, 1900. 

President de Peyster in the chair. 

Treasurer reported letter from Messrs. Candler and Jay in regard 
to the Badeau legacy. The paper will be executed by Mrs. 
Lawton and the Treasurer, and the net amount of $98.71 col- 
lected on the legacy. 

The Treasurer offered a resolution, seconded by Mr. Rhine- 
lander, that the thanks of the Society be given to Messrs. Candler 
& Jay for their services in passing upon the Badeau legacy and 
that the Secretary be requested to send them a copy of same. 
Motion carried. 

Treasurer's report accepted and ordered placed on file. 

The following- named persons were elected Resident Members 
of the Huguenot Society of America: 

Mrs. Wm. Rumsey — proposed by Gen. J. Watts de Peyster; 
ancestor, DeKay. 

Howard Crosbj^ Brokaw — proposed by Isaac V. Brokaw ; an- 
cestors, Bourgon, Broucard. 

Alden Freeman — proposed by Benj. Aymar; ancestor, Molines. 

Wm. Easton English— proposed by Samuel E. Gross ; ances- 
tors, Du Bois, Blaushan. 

Linus E. Fuller — proposed by George F. Newcomb ; ancestor, 

Mrs. A. H. Fowler — proposed by Henry VanKleeck ; ancestor, 

Mrs. W T m. Bishop — proposed by Mrs. James M. Lawton ; 
ancestor, Gratiot. 

Saml. D. Brewster — proposed by James W. Clarke ; ancestor, 

Rufus Adams — proposed by Wm. D. Barbour ; ancestor, de la 

Mrs F. J. Blodgett— proposed by Benj. Aymar ; ancestors, 
Magny, Belon. 

Mrs. Helen E. War dwell— ancestors, Aymar, Magny, Belon ; 
proposed by Aymar Embury. 

Pierre L. Boucher — ancestor, Cantin ; proposed by Mrs. Le- 


The President reported as Chairman of the sub-committee on 
Branch Societies, that they held a meeting at 3.30, the same day 
(Feb. 27), when the several letters from the Vice-Presidents were 
read, namely: Colonel Maury, Judge Clearwater, and Dr. Wil- 
son; that the w T ork was progressing toward a successful termina- 
tion, and that the Committee would soon be able to give in a 
report, to be acted upon by the Executive Committee. 

After discussion as to the advisability of having a dinner this 
year, it was unanimously voted that, as the 13th of April falls this 
year on Good Friday, that the dinner be given the first possible 
day after Easter. 

Mr. de Peyster appointed Committee for Dinner : Messrs. 
Rhinelander, Barbour, Dominick, and Stelle, with power to 
select any other members. 

Mr. Rhinelander was requested to secure the rooms at Delmon- 
ico's for the 19th or 24th of April, and to report same to the 

New York, March 30, 1900. 

President de Peyster in the chair. 
Treasurer's Report was read. 

On motion, it w r as decided to transfer $500.00 from the Seventh 
National Bank to the New York Life Insurance and Trust Com- 

The Chairman of the Publication Committee reported that he 
would need about $400.00 more for the expenses of the Com- 
memorative Volume. 

Mr. Rhinelander reported that he had engaged the rooms at 
Delmonico's for the night of the 26th of April, for the Dinner of 
the Society. 

Mr. Rhinelander, as Chairman of the Dinner Committee, asked 
what appropriation could be made from the funds of the Society 
for the expenses of the Dinner ? 

It was decided, after much discussion, to appropriate $350.00 
for the expenses of the Dinner. 

The following gentlemen subscribed $20.00 each toward that 
amount: Messrs. de Peyster, Swords, Rhinelander, and Bowdoin. 

It was decided that at the first winter meeting preceding the 
next Dinner, the Executive Committee decide upon the price to 
be charged for the Dinner, and notify the Stewards to that effect. 


The Nomination Committee that served last year was re- 
appointed, and the Secretary was instructed to send the names of 
those who served on said Committee to the President. 

New York, April 12, 1900. 

President de Peyster in the chair. 

The Treasurer's report was read and ordered placed on file. 
The President and Treasurer were authorized to sign the lease 
for the Library. 

The following-named persons were elected Resident Members 
of the Huguenot Society of America : 

Mrs. Letitia Flournoy Van De Venter — proposed by Mrs. 
Fletcher Bangs ; ancestor, Flournoy. 

Mrs. Katherine Norwood — proposed by Mrs. Benjamin Church ; 
ancestor, Stelle. 

Miss Dotha Stone Pinneo — proposed by Geo. F. Newcomb ; 
ancestor, Pinneo. 

The matter of Branch Societies was now taken up and the 
following resolution was made, to be presented at the Society 
meeting : 

" The Executive Committee reports to the Society that they are 
in favor of the formation of Branch Societies, under such condi- 
tions as may be prescribed by the Executive Committee." 


New York, April 13, 1900. 
A meeting of the Society was held in the Trustees' Room, 
United Charities Building, Friday evening, April 13, at 8 p.m. 
President de Peyster in the chair. 

Minutes of the last annual meeting read and approved. 

President made an interesting address showing the progress of 
the Society for the past year, expressing the opinion that the last 
year had been the most successful in our history. 

Mr. Jackson, Chairman of the Publication Committee, not 
being able to be present, Mr. de Peyster made a statement on his 
behalf, submitting an unbound copy of the Commemorative 
Volume, which is now about ready for distribution. 

Mrs. Eawton presented the Secretary's Report of the proceedings 
of the Society, which was accepted and ordered placed on file. 


Mr. Swords presented the Treasurer's Report ; accepted and 
ordered placed on file. 

He suggested that a Nominating Committee be appointed, 
which was done (b}- the President). 

A letter was read by the Secretary from Colonel Maury to 
Hon. Chauncey Depew, setting forth the needs of the Church in 
Charleston. No action was taken. 

The Secretary reported that Vol. I., Part I., of the Proceedings 
of the Society had been reprinted, and was ready for sale at $1.00 
per copy. 

Prof. Rees, on behalf of the Nominating Committee, presented 
a ticket for the election of officers, which was distributed. The 
Tellers were Messrs. Ireland and De Luze, who declared the 
ticket * presented was elected unanimously. 

Executive Committee presented a report that they were prepar- 
ing a plan for Branch Societies. 

On motion, the resolution was passed that the Society is in 
favor of the formation of Branch Societies, under such conditions 
as may be prescribed by the Executive Committee hereafter. 

New York, May 10, 1900. 

President de Peyster in the chair. 

Besides the members of the Executive Committee, Mr. Barr 
Ferree was present after five o'clock, by special invitation, to 
represent Mr. Samuel P. Ferree, to discuss the Branch Societies, 
in conformity with a resolution passed at the special meeting of 
Branch Societies Committee. 

The President presented the following as members of the Execu- 
tive Committee to serve for 1900-1901 : Rev. A. V. Wittmeyer, 
Prof. J. K. Rees, Mr. Theo. M. Banta, and Mr. T. J. O. Rhine- 
lander. The fifth member not to be appointed until the fall. 

The following persons were elected Resident Members of the 
Huguenot Society of America : 

Mrs. Chas. E. Rice and Mrs. Benj. Reynolds, proposed by Gen. 
Paul A. Oliver ; ancestor, William Gaylord. (Gaillard). 

Mr. Rhinelander, Chairman of the Dinner Committee, reported 
that the banquet had been a great success. He moved that the 
ceremony of the Loving Cup be adopted as a feature of all subse- 

* See list, p. 8. 


quent banquets of the Society. Seconded by Mrs. Lawton, and 
passed, after the form had been read to the Committee. 

Treasurer of the Dinner Committee not being present, his report 
was read by the Secretary, accepted, and ordered placed on file. 
The Executive Committee expressed gratification that a surplus 
of $58.50 had been returned to the Treasury. A vote was passed 
thanking the Stewards for their good work on the Committee. 

The Secretary handed in an estimate for printing the revised 
list of members, and was authorized to print the same. 

The Secretary reported from the Chairman of the Lecture Com- 
mittee, Mrs. Sangford Bissell, a balance of $48.97, leftover from the 
lectures, wmich by a former resolution is to be devoted to this print- 
ing, and presented the following itemized account of the lectures: 

Money received from Sale of Tickets $214.00 

Circular, Envelopes, and Printing $ 15.40 

Stamps for Mailing 14-93 

Incidental Expenses 1.15 

Advertising in Newspapers 33-55 

As per agreement with Mons. Boisse. . . 100.00 
Balance 48.97 


Mr. Banta presented a form of notice to be sent to members 
notifying them of their election, and the same was adopted. 

Mr. Lester reported that the old Guion house at New Rochelle 
had been offered to the Society for a museum, the owner paying 
for the moving of it from its present site. Offer declined, as the 
Committee could not see their way toward meeting the expense. 

Mr. Lester also reported that the Rev. Mr. Canedy had inform- 
ally offered the MSS. of the New Rochelle Records to the Society. 
It was decided to await a formal written proposal from him. 

Mrs. Lawton and Mr. De Luze were appointed on the Commit- 
tee on Heraldry. 

Authonty given to the Chairman of the Library Committee to 
have the summer cleaning done. Committee appointed for closing 
and reopening the Library : the Chairman of the Library Com- 
mittee, the President, and Treasurer. 

The business for which the meeting was called was now taken 
up, section by section, and discussed. Section VI., as presented, 
— " that the Vice-President of the Huguenot Society of America 



for the State in which the Branch Society is formed, shall be the 
President of said Branch Society," — was changed, on Mr. Ferree's 
objection, to read thus : M That the Branch Society shall choose 
its own President, and, subject to the approval of the Executive 
Committee of the Parent Society, he shall be one of the Vice- 
Presidents of said Parent Society." 

The final decision in regard to Branch Societies having been 
given by resolution passed at the Annual Meeting to the Ex- 
ecutive Committee, the following plan was adopted and the 
Secretary directed to have it printed and sent to all members 
of the Society : 

At a meeting of the Executive Committee, held May 10, 1900, 
the following resolution was adopted, and the Secretary was 
directed to notify the members of the Society of its adoption. 

1. Resolved, That, when ten or more members of the Huguenot 
Society of America residing outside the limits of the City of New 
York — as at present constituted — desire to form themselves into 
a Branch Society of the said Society, they shall make application 
to the Executive Committee for authority to form such a Branch. 

2. When ten or more descendants of Huguenot families which 
emigrated to America prior to the promulgation of the Edict of 
Toleration, November 28, 1787, who are eligible to membership 
in the Huguenot Society of America, desire to form themselves 
into a Branch Society (as above), they can only do so by becoming 
members of the Parent Society, and then making application to 
the Executive Committee to form said Branch Society. 

3. That all Branch Societies may adopt By-Laws for their 
government not inconsistent with the Constitution of the Hugue- 
not Society of America. 

4. That the initiation Fees of those who shall hereafter become 
members of the Branch Societies shall be paid into the Treasury 
of the Parent Society. 

5. That the annual dues of all members of Branch Societies shall 
be the same as those of the Parent Society, and shall be remitted 
to the said Parent Society, but that twenty per cent, thereof shall 
be returned to the Branch Society. 

6. That the Branch Society shall elect its own President, and, 
subject to the approval of the Executive Committee of the Parent 
Society, he shall be one of the Vice-Presidents of said Parent 



By a Resolution, passed at a Special Meeting of the Executive 
Committee, held on April 25, 1901, the last clause of Section 5, 
on Branch Societies, was changed to read: " but that fifty per 
cent, thereof shall be returned to the Branch Society." [This 
change was submitted to the Society for action at its next meeting 
and adopted.] 

New York, June 15, 1900. 

The following-named persons were elected Resident Members 
of the Huguenot Society of America : 

Mrs. Geo. F. Adams — ancestor, Demarest; proposer, Mrs. Sand- 
ford Bissell. 

Richard B. Faulkner — proposer, Herbert Dupuy ; ancestor, 
Nicholas Du Puy. 

The Treasurer's Report was read and ordered placed on file. 

Authority was given the Treasurer to pay in to the Library Fund 
the annual $100.00. 

New York, November 27, 1900. 
President de Peyster in the chair. 

Mrs. Lawton presented a diploma engrossed by Messrs. Ames 
& Rollinson. She w T as authorized to give the Society's work to 
this firm, who agreed to do the work for twenty cents for each 

The draft of the new Constitution was considered and amended. 

There being a vacancy on the Executive Committee, the Presi- 
dent appointed Mr. Alden Freeman member of the Executive 
Committee to serve for 1900-1901. 

The following Standing Committees were appointed by the 

Publication Committee : Mr. Jackson, Mr. Aymar, Mr. Fuller. 

Library Committee : Mrs. Lawton, Miss Helen de Peyster, 
Miss M. N. B. Cooper. 

Finance Committee : Mr. Dominick, Mr. Barbour, Mr. Stelle. 

The following Committees were appointed, subject to the ap- 
proval of the Executive Committee at their next meeting : 

Pedigree Committee : Mrs. James M. Lawton. 

International Publication Fund : Mr. Samuel M. Jackson. 



The Secretary' asked that a new office be appointed — that of 
Assistant Secretary. On motion, the request was granted and 
Mr. Benj. Aymar was appointed Assistant Secretary. 

New York, December 18, 1900. 
President de Peyster in the chair. 

The Treasurer's Report was read and ordered placed on file. 

The Secretary- was requested to write the Treasurer, asking him 
to examine the lease of the Library of the Society, and find out 
how much we were paying for the rooms. 

The Secretary reported that a letter had been received from Mr. 
Samuel P. Ferree in regard to Branch Societies. In this letter 
he claimed that the amount (one fifth of the annual dues) allowed 
in the Resolution on Branches for current expenses of a Branch 
was not enough. The Secretary was requested to write him, say- 
ing that the question of Branch Societies would be settled at the 
next Annual Meeting in April. Till then, this resolution would 
be followed. 

Mr. Aymar declined appointment of Assistant Secretary. 

The following persons were elected Resident Members of the 
Huguenot Society of America : 

Mrs. John Stanton — ancestors, de Marest, Sohier, Cresson, 
Rapalie ; proposer, Miss Emma G. Lathrop. 

Paul M. La Bach — ancestors, des Marest, Sohier, de Ruine ; 
proposer, Bishop Boyd Vincent. 

Mrs. P. M. Shannon — ancestor, Molines ; proposer, Mrs. M. F. 

Elijah S. Faruham — ancestor, Molines ; proposer, Alden Free- 

Mrs. Edmund C. Pechin — ancestor, Gaylord (Gaillard) ; pro- 
poser, Miss Ada B. Nicola. 

Miss Amanda M. Smith — ancestor, Rapalie; proposer, Mrs. M. 
F. Rice. 

James W. Hunter — ancestor, Thelaball ; proposer, E. W. 

George P. Hall— ancestor, de Rapalie ; proposer, Henry C. 

Mrs. Joseph J. Casey — proposer, Mrs. V. V. Holbrook ; an- 
cestor, Venables. 

On motion, it was decided that the bill of The Knickerbocker 



Press for the reprint of the separate addresses of the Commemora- 
tive Volume, amounting to 573.37, be paid by the Treasurer. 

Mr. Jackson was appointed Chairman of the Publication Com- 
mittee, with power to appoint additional members. 

Mrs. Lawton was appointed Chairman of the Library Commit- 
tee, with the same power. 

Mr. Dominick was appointed Chairman of the Finance Commit- 
tee, with Messrs. Barbour and Stelle as additional members. 

Mrs. Lawton was appointed Chairman of the Pedigree Commit- 
tee, with the usual understanding that all reports go through the 
Executive Committee. 

On motion of Prof. Rees it was ordered that a meeting of the 
Society be held January 7th, in the evening, to discuss certain 
proposed changes in the Constitution. 

On motion of Mr. Banta it was ordered that a meeting of the 
Executive Committee be held in the afternoon of January 7th, at 
185 Madison Avenue, at 4.30 o'clock. 

The Executive Committee decided that the final action on Sec- 
tion 9 of the Constitution, relating to Branch Societies be taken up 
at the next meeting of the Committee. 

On motion, it was decided that the new Constitution be printed 
in galley-proof and sent to all members of the Committee before 
the next meeting. 

The Secretary was requested to turn over all papers now in her 
hands to the Chairman of the Publication Committee, and have 
him report at the next meeting what papers are ready to go to the 

New York, January 7, 1901. 

President de Peyster in the chair. 

In the absence of the Secretary, Mr. Freeman acted as Secre- 

The Treasurer's Report was read and ordered placed on file. 

The Secretary was requested to write the Treasurer that the 
Executive Committee desired information as to whether there is 
not some rebate that the Society is entitled to, on the lease of the 

The following were elected Resident Members of the Huguenot 
Society of America: 

Mrs. Maria Watson Pinney — ancestor, Gay lord ; proposer, 
George F. Newcomb. 



Mrs. John C. Cattus — ancestor, Ayniar ; proposer, Aymar 

On motion of Professor Rees, the introduction and certificate of 
Organization of the new Constitution were referred to the chair- 
man of the Publication Committee, and the new Constitution, 
having been approved by the Executive Committee, was recom : 
mended to the Society for final action. 


New York, January 7, 1901. 
A meeting of the Societ}*- was held in Assembly Hall, on the 
evening of January 7th. 

President de Pej-ster in the chair. 

In the absence of the Secretary, Mr. Jackson acted as Secretary'. 
The minutes of the last Society meeting were read and ap- 

Mr. Robert S. Talmage was introduced, who read a paper by 
Rev. Stanley Waters, entitled " Notes on some Huguenot 

It was moved, seconded, and carried unanimously, that a vote 
of thanks be given Mr. Talmage for his most interesting paper, 
and that a copy be requested for publication in the Proceedings of 
the Society. 

The President spoke of the prosperity of the Society, and said 
the past year had been the most successful one in its history. 

The new Constitution was now taken up, and Mr. Jackson read 
it to the Society. On motion of Mrs. Holbrook, seconded by Mrs. 
Schuyler, it was adopted by the Society. 

New York, March 20, 1901. 

President de Peyster in the chair. 

In the absence of the Secretary, Mr. Freeman acted as Secretary. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. 

The Secretary reported the deaths of Dr. Wm. H. Egle and 
Prof. Edward E. Salisbury. 

The Treasurer's Report was read and ordered placed on file. 

On motion, it was decided that the amount of $850.78, charged 
against the Commemorative Volume, be transferred to the Expense 
Account of the Society. 


6 7 

The following- person, proposed at the last meeting-, was elected 
a Resident Member of the Huguenot Society of America, subject 
to the filing of his paper : 

John Murray Mitchell — proposed by Fred. J. de Peyster ; an- 
cestor, Berrien. 

Mr. Banta reported that the new Constitution and List of Mem- 
bers was nearly printed and would be in the hands of the members 
in a few days. 

New York, April 9, 1901. 

President de Peyster in the chair. 

The Secretary presented the Annual Report, the reading of 
which was waived until the Annual Meeting. 

The Treasurer's Report was read and ordered placed on 

On motion, it was decided that the total amount of legacies re- 
ceived during the past year be transferred to the New York Life 
Insurance and Trust Company. And also $600.00 more. 

The Chairman of the Pedigree Committee presented the pedi- 
gree of Mr. Cornelius B. Mitchell, submitted two years ago ; the 
pedigree was not made out in full, but during her absence it was 
passed by the Committee. She copied Mr. John Murray Mitchell's 
paper from it and asked the sense of the Committee in regard to 

The Committee decided that Mr. John Murray Mitchell be 

The following candidate, proposed at the last meeting of the 
Executive Committee, w 7 as elected a Resident Member of the 
Huguenot Society of America : 

Alfred Hodges — ancestor, Provoost ; proposer, Rev. James H. 

The following supplemental were presented and passed by the 

Miss Dorothy Lord Maltby — two Sohier descents, one other De 
Baun, Sanse, one other Des Marest, Fabrique, Taibaut, or Le 
Bow, Batton, Berthol, and Bogert. 

Alden Freeman — Jean Vassell, Elizabeth Bonne. 

In the absence of the Chairman on Publications, the Secretary 
reported that only eight of the subscriptions for the Commemora- 
tive Volume in the leather binding had not been taken up. She 


also reported that a great many of the Libraries are applying 
for the book. She asked that a circular be sent to the different 
Libraries as well as to the members of the Society, giving price- 
list of publications. 

The following bill from the printer for extra copies of the dif- 
ferent papers in the Commemorative Volume sent to their authors 
respectively, was rendered : 

Bill for reprints $63.85 

Edict of Nantes 47.65 


Less that paid by Mrs. Lawton and Mr. Jackson for 

copies sent to the foreign authors 38.13 

To be paid by the Society $73-37 

It was decided that a publication price-list be sent out. 

It was decided that a supplement to the present list of members 
be sent out, giving the officers and committees for the coming 
year, and deceased members, along with errata and addenda. 

Mrs. Lawton also reported that Mr. Morgan H. Seacord pro- 
posed to copy the New Rochelle Records from 1699 to the Revo- 
lutionary War for $100.00. 

The Committee decided that this be left to Mrs. Lawton to re- 
port on at the next meeting. 

Mrs. Lawton translated several years ago the Narragansett 
Records from the Original French Church Records. These have 
been waiting to have some other matter added to them. She 
asked if the Records of New Paltz, from the New Paltz Indepen- 
dent y should be printed with them. The matter was left in her 
hands to report at the next meeting. 

Mr. Swords said that he found business at the Trust Company 
so pressing that he would be unable to do his work as Treasurer 
another year. He suggested that Mr. Ashton de Peyster be ap- 
pointed in his place, and this was done. 

The Stewards of the Dinner of 1900 thus reported: 

New York, April 13, 1901. 
" The dinner of the Huguenot Society of America for the year 
1900 was held at Delmonico's, New York City, on April 26th. 
About 175 members of the Society were present. The President 


of the Society, Frederic J. de Peyster, presided, and seated with 
him, on the dais, were the speakers of the evening, Rev. Donald 
Sage Mackay, and Hamilton W. Mabie, Esq., and the representa- 
tives of the St. Nicholas Society, the Society of Colonial Wars, 
the Holland Society, the New England Society, the Society of 
Mayflower Descendants, and the St. George and St. Andrew's 

"The solo boys of Grace Church choir, under the direction of Mr. 
Helfenstein, sang several songs during the dinner, a feature which 
added much to the enjoyment of the occasion. 

"Another interesting feature, borrowed from a ceremonial used 
at the dinner of the Directors of the French Hospital in London, 
dating from 1718, was the ceremony of the Loving Cup. 

"Before the toasts were called, two of the Stewards of the Society 
entered the banqueting hall bearing two silver Loving Cups ; they 
were followed by the other Stewards carrying the flags, the white 
Bourbon flag of France, the American, English, and Dutch flags, 
representing the countries to which the Huguenots made notable 
emigrations. The Secretary of the Society, Mrs. Lawton, joined 
the group before the President's chair, and a Ritual was recited 
which has now been adopted as a regular feature of the dinners of 
the Society in New York. 

"The speeches of Dr. Mackay and Mr. Mabie were full of inter- 
est, touching upon the influence of the French refugees upon the 
life and manners of every country to which they had emigrated. 

" 1 The Huguenots,' said Dr. Mackay, ' gave the wealth of their 
blood and lineage to the land of their adoption. The Huguenot 
influence brought warmth and brightness to the cold hardihood of 
our Puritan ancestry.' 

"Silver and enamel souvenirs of the Dinner were distributed to 
those present. 

" The report of Mr. Wm. D. Barbour, the Treasurer of the Stew- 
ards, showed receipts from the sale of tickets, etc., of $737.10; 
from special contributions, $193.00 — making a total of $1202.10. 
The expenses of the Dinner amounted to $1124.40, leaving a bal- 
ance on hand of $77.70 (from individual contributions), which was 
turned over to the Society." 

Respectfully submitted, 

Frederick W. Stelle, 

Secretary of the Stewards. 


New York, April 13, 1901. 
The Annual Meeting of the Huguenot Society of America' was 
held in the Trustees' Room, Saturday, April 13, 1901, at 8.30 p.m. 
President de Peyster in the chair. 

The minutes of the last annual meeting were read, and, on 
motion, they were accepted as read. 
The Secretary reported: 

Number of Annual Members, including 20 elected this year, 
344 ; Life Members, 53 ; Corresponding Members, 3 ; Honorary 
Members, 11 — total 411. 

There have been four deaths since last April: Miss Candace 
Allen, Prof. E. E. Salisbury, Dr. Wm. H. Egle, Mrs. Wm. 

Three resignations, which were accepted with regret. 

Seven Executive Committee meetings, one Society, and the 
Annual Meeting. 

At the Society meeting held on Jan. 7, 1901, Mr. Robert S. Tal- 
mage read Rev. Stanley Waters' most interesting and instructive 
paper entitled, c< Notes on some Huguenot Families," which, 
with references to church records of baptisms, marriages, and 
deaths, makes it a most valuable addition to our " genealogical 
mine of wealth." 

Insignia sold to members during the year, 20 ; Certificates of 
Membership, 8; Marigold buttons and pins, 12. 

The Chairman of the Pedigree Committee has sent out to mem- 
bers the List of Members revised and corrected up to April 13, 
1900, and " Family Names of Huguenot Refugees to America." 
Three Huguenot names have been added to this list: Venables, 
from near Rouen ; Pechin, from Lorraine ; and Jaudon, from 
l'lsle-de-Re. To this pamphlet has been added the revised 
Constitution and By-Laws. 

The Treasurer reported as follows : 


Huguenot Society of America in account with Henry C. Swords, Treasurer 
April 13, 1900, to April 13, 1901 


Expenses of Library- and Secretary's office $ 148.14 

Salary of Clerk in Secretary's office 157.20 

Printing and Stationery 97-95 

Annual Dinner of May, 1900, paid Treasurer of Stewards. . 350.00 
Rent 13 months at 143-66 per month, from April, 1900, to 

April, 1901, both inclusive 567.58 

New York Telephone Company 84.55 

American District Telegraph Company 10.40 

Knickerbocker Press, Commemorative Volume. .$1217.91 
" " Reprint of the Separate 

Addresses 76.35 1294.26 

N. Y. Produce Exchange Safe Deposit Company 6.25 

Books purchased for Library 80.45 

Refreshments for meeting 30.00 

Rent Assembly Room, January 7, 1901 15.00 

April 13, Balance on hand as follows : 

New York Life Insurance and Trust Company, 

at 3 % Interest $3500.00 

Seventh National Bank 663.64 4163.64 



April 12, Balance as per last report as follows : 

New York Life Insurance and Trust Company,$2500.oo 

Seventh National Bank 1189.05 $3689.05 

From Dues 1590.00 

From Initiation Fees 120.00 

From Life Members 200.00 

From Library Fund 43.24 

From Diplomas 5.00 

From Commemorative Volume, sales 753-°° 

From Reprint of Volume 1 2.00 

From Annual Dinner of May, 1900, returned by Treasurer 

of Stewards 77*7° 

Legacy from the Estate of J. D. Brez 450.00 

Interest on Certificates of Deposit 74.96 

Profit in collection charges .47 


By balance brought down : 

New York Life Insurance and Trust Company $3500.00 

Seventh National Bank 663.64 


Examined and found correct : Henry C. Swords, 

Frederick \V. Steele, Treasurer. 
Bayard Dominick, 

Auditing Committee. 


Both these reports were on motion accepted and ordered on file. 

A vote of thanks to the Treasurer was passed, which the Secre- 
tary was requested to convey to hirn. 

The Chairman of the Publication Committee reported that he 
had no report to make, as he had been unable to take up the mat- 
ter of the Proceedings. He reported from the International Pub- 
lication Fund Committee, that Mrs. Lawton had sent $50.00 to 
the French Society towards the indexing of the Bulletin. 

Mr. de Luze, Chairman of the Committee on Heraldry, reported 
that no work had yet been begun in this Committee, but that they 
had received a great manj r coats-of-arms, and enquiries are con- 
tinually coming in, in regard to the work. 

From the Record Committee, the Secretary reported that Mr. 
Lester had received an offer for copying the New Rochelle Records, 
which had been reported to the Executive Committee ; also, that 
the Secretary had found some valuable Huguenot records in 
Alexandria, Va. 

The Secretary then asked to read the report of the Secretary of 
the Dinner Committee for last year. The President, owing to the 
lateness of the hour, asked the sense of the Society as to waiving 
the reading of this report, and to have an abstract of it printed, 
and sent to all members. Motion made and carried. 

Moved by Mrs. Holbrook, that a circular of information be 
printed, and sent to all asking information in regard to the So- 
ciety. This was seconded by Miss Emily de Peyster and carried. 

The Chairman of the Library Committee read the Report of the 
Committee, and this was ordered placed on file. 

The President reported to the Society that the Treasurer, Mr. 
Swords, and the Chairman of the Publication Committee had 
tendered their resignations to the Executive Committee. These 
resignations had been accepted with very great regret. A letter 
of thanks had been sent to the Chairman of the Publication Com- 
mittee by the Executive Committee. 

Meeting adjourned after the election of officers.* 

New York, April 25, 1901. 

President de Peyster in the chair. 

The Secretary reported that she had consulted persons who 
knew of the value of the New Rochelle Records, and it was 

* See list, p. 9. 


thought best, in the present state of the finances of the Society, 
not to have these records copied. 

In relation to the Records of New Paltz, parts of which had 
been published in the New Paltz Independent, and were now 
offered to the society for publication by Mr. Le Fevre, it seemed 
best to wait until the Proceedings of the Society were published. 

The following-named persons were duly elected members of the 
Huguenot Society of America: 

Mrs. Henry C. Lea — ancestor, Jaudon ; proposer, Joseph S. Perot. 

Mrs. Charles Dod Ward — ancestor, Luquer ; proposer, Mrs. 

Dr. Guy C. Boughton — ancestor, Bouton ; proposer, Mr. Wm. 
H. Boughton. 

C. V. Boughton — ancestor, Bouton ; proposer, Wm. H. 

James O. La Bach — ancestor, Des Marest ; proposer, Bishop 
Boyd Vincent. 

Mrs. Henry Tilden Swan — ancestor, Molines : proposer, Miss 

Miss Lilla S. Pechiu — ancestor, Pechin: proposer, Mrs. E. C. 

An informal discussion was held in regard to the question of 
erecting tablets. As the Executive Committee thought of 
the project, Mrs. Lawton offered the following resolution, which 
was adopted : 

" First, that a committee of five, of which the president shall 
be one, be appointed to take the necessary steps to place a com- 
memorative tablet in or on the building now occupying the site 
where the First French Church of New Amsterdam was built ; 
and, secondly, to address a communication to the members of the 
Society, soliciting subscriptions to defray the expenses of the pro- 
posed tablet." 

The committee was made up as follows: Rev. A. V. Wittmeyer, 
Frederic J. de Peyster, Alden Freeman, Theodore M. Banta, and 
Mrs. J. M. Lawton. 

NEW York, November 20, 1901. 
President de Peyster in the chair. 

Mr. Freeman reported that a place for the tablet had been 
selected on the east wall of the Produce Exchange ; $103.00 had 
been raised toward erecting the tablet, and he hoped that a few 


more subscriptions would be sent in; $193.00 had been raised for 
the tablet in the Church du St. Esprit; and that Mr. A. G. 
Browning had contributed ,£50 sterling towards the tablets and 
the French Hospital for old French people, which Mr. Wittmeyer 
is founding on the lines of " La Providence" in London. 

The Secretary read a letter from Monsieur de Richemond, ex- 
pressing his admiration for the late President of the United States, 
William McKinley, and his deep sympathy for us in our national 

Mrs. Lawton proposed that Miss Ida Layard, a niece of Sir 
Henry Austin Layard, who has already given very valuable infor- 
mation to the Pedigree Committee, and has promised a paper to 
be read before the Society, be elected as Corresponding Member. 
Whereupon it was decided to recommend Miss Layard for election 
as Corresponding Member at the next meeting of the Society. 

Mr. Freeman moved that the Society should be represented in 
the French Huguenot Church of New York, and to this end that 
a pew should be secured to stand in the name of the Society. 
The motion, after a great deal of discussion, was lost. 

On motion of Mrs. Lawton, seconded by Mr. Mitchell, it was 
ordered that should there be a deficit in the amount raised for the 
tablet in the French Church, such deficiency be made good by the 
Society. Such sum not to exceed $200.00. 

New York, January 17, 1902. 

President de Peyster in the chair. 

The Secretary reported that she had represented the Society at 
the funeral of our late member, Rear- Admiral Roe. 

She read a letter from Judge Clearwater in regard to a reception 
to be given by the Memorial Society of New Paltz to the Hugue- 
not Society, and requested instruction. She was authorized by 
the Committee to say that an answer would be sent later, as the 
Society has a good many engagements ahead. 

The following-named persons were duly elected Resident Mem- 
bers of the Society : 

Samuel R. Thayer — ancestor, Molines (two descents) ; pro- 
poser, Fred. J. de Peyster. 

William Wood Thayer — ancestor, Molines (two descents) ; pro- 
poser, Mrs. Lawton. 

Dr. Wm. G. SchaufHer — ancestor, Byssel ; proposer, Alden 


It being decided to have a banquet this year, Mr. Rhinelauder 
was requested to interview Delmonico, as to w T hat evenings the 
hall wanted would be disengaged, and the date left to his discre- 

The 13th falling on Sunday, the 14th of April was decided on 
for the Annual Meeting. 

The Chairman of the Tablet Committee gave the estimates from 
the Cox and Buckley Co. : $120 for the first tablet and $400 for the 
one to be placed in the church. These being very satisfactory, it 
was voted that they be accepted, and that Mr. Wittmeyer be re- 
quested to give the orders at once. The question being raised as 
to the dates to be decided on for the placing of the tablets, it w r as 
unanimously voted that the date for the tablet in l'Eglise du St. 
Esprit, with all the arrangements for the ceremony, be left 
entirely in the hands of Mr. Wittmeyer. For the placing of the 
tablet on the site of the First French Church, the president 
thought that later in the season would be better, when the weather 
would be more settled. 

New York, February 21, 1902. 
In the absence of the President and Vice-President, Prof. Rees 

Report of Treasurer : 

Dues, about $1455 00 

Interest on Certificates, if same as last year 74-96 

Interest on Funds in Fifth Avenue Trust Co 21.46 


Expenses, so far « 1168.03 

Balance $383.39 

Balance left from last year 663.64 

Total $1047.03 

Prof. Rees requested the Treasurer to give in an itemized report 
at the next Executive Committee Meeting. 

The Treasurer requested action on the part of the Committee in 
regard to the re-renting of the Library for another year. He w T as 
given authority to renew at the same rate as last year. 

A letter was read from Mr. Banta, Chairman of the Publication 
Committee, tendering his resignation, but action was deferred till 
the Annual Meeting. 

7 6 

The report from the Dinner Committee was presented and the 
Chairman asked for an appropriation. It was moved, and carried, 
u That the usual amount, $200.00, and the unexpended balances 
from the previous dinners be appropriated for the expenses of the 
Dinner this year, and that this resolution be embodied in the 
minutes and reported to the Dinner Committee." 

The following-named persons were duly elected Resident Mem- 
bers of the Society : 

Mrs. Rosa Wright Smith — proposer, Mrs. C. Addison Mann ; 
ancestor, Molines. 

Mrs, Susan Adrianna Richards — ancestors, Rapelye, Trico, 
(three descents) ; proposer, Chas. S. Richards. 

Also supplemental of Paul Mayer La Bach — Demarest and de 

Mr. Jackson asked that Miss Ida Layard be requested to send 
the Society the paper she spoke of in her letter. 

" Resolved, that the invitation of the New Paltz Memorial 
Association be extended to the Society at their next meeting, 
and that the Secretary be authorized to send out the invitations 
with some of our notices, if so doing does not entail extra ex- 


New York, February 27, 1902. 
A meeting of the Society was held in Assembly Hall, on Friday, 
February 27, 1902, at eight o'clock. President de Peyster in the 

The President announced to the Society the death of the 
former President, Mr. Marquand. 

The Secretary paid this tribute to Mr. Marquand' s memory : 

" Mr. President, I wish to enter upon the minutes of this meeting 
a few words expressing my own deep sorrow on the death of our 
much loved and venerated ex-President, Mr. Henry G. Marquand. 
Only those who were thrown with him, in the management of the 
Society, can realize what a strong, tender nature his was. His 
interest in the society was unfailing, and, until his health obliged 
him to give up the duties of his office, very few days passed with- 
out his being at the Library to ask how he could help. To this 
unflagging interest, we owe the success of the Celebration of 1898. 

u I move, Mr. President, that a Committee be appointed, to 



draft a fitting memorial minute, to enter upon the records of the 
Society, and to send to his family." 

The President appointed the following gentlemen upon this 
Committee : Professor J. K. Rees, Mr. Wm. Jay Schieffelin, and 
Mr. R. Fulton Cutting. 

The President also said that he would appoint a delegation to 
attend the funeral. 

The Report of the Tablet Committee was given in by its Chair- 
man, the Rev. Mr. Wittmeyer. He said that the two tablets, one 
for the site of the First French Church, in New York, and the 
other for the present French Church, were nearly finished, and 
that he hoped, when they were placed, that the members of the 
Society would make it a point to attend. The third, the Bayard 
tablet, is a personal one, put up by one of the members of the 
Bayard family. 

The Secretary reported that Mr. Ralph Le Fevre, the President 
of the New Paltz Memorial Association, had written, extending 
the hospitalities of New Paltz to the members of the Huguenot 
Society of America, and asking if it would be agreeable for them 
to accept the same. 

A resolution was passed, thanking the President of the New 
Paltz Association for the kind invitation, and that it would give 
those who could attend great pleasure to do so. 

There being no further business for the evening, the Secretary 
was introduced, and read a short paper, a translation by Mr. du 
Faix, a member w T ho died several years ago, from Rotteck, on the 
m History of the Huguenots," giving some not very well-known 
details of the massacre of St. Bartholomew. 

The meeting then adjourned, and refreshments were served. 

New York, March 24, 1902. 

A meeting of the Executive Committee was held at the Library 
on Monday, March 24, 1902. 

The minutes of the last meeting having been left at her house 
for copying, the Secretary was excused and requested to read 
them at the next meeting. 

No report from the Treasurer. 

The following persons were duly elected Resident Members : 
Frank McMillan Stanton and John Robert Stanton— ancestor, 
de Maree ; proposer, Mrs. John Stanton. 


Miss Elizabeth Varian Cockcroft — ancestor, de Vaux ; pro- 
poser, Mrs. E. A. Hopkins. 

Supplemental to be added to the original application of Mrs. 
George F. Adams — Le Sueur, Sohier, Cresson, and Cloos. 

In the case of Miss Cockcroft, one marriage date was missing, 
but as the marriage was mentioned and the birth of the daughter 
in the N. Y. Record, Vol. 31, p. 209, the Executive Committee 
declared her elected. 

The business of the meeting was now taken up. 

On motion of Professor Rees, seconded by Mr. Rhinelander, the 
Executive Committee was appointed a Nominating Committee. 
By the new Constitution, the Finance Committee is the Auditing 
Committee. The President was requested to say to the Treasurer 
that his report must be sent in before the 14th of April. 

Mr. Wittmeyer reported that the first tablet will soon be 

The President appointed Mr. Wittmeyer a Committee of one to 
attend, not only to the unveiling of the tablet in the French 
Church, but also to that at the Produce Exchange, with power to 
add another to his Committee. 

Moved, and carried, that a resolution passed at the last meeting, 
appropriating $200.00 and the unexpended balances of the pre- 
vious dinners, for the Dinner of this year be rescinded, as these 
unexpended balances have been merged into the general fund. 

A resolution was read by the Chairman of the Stewards from 
his Committee, asking that the Executive Committee allow 
$400.00 for the expenses of the Dinner. A motion was carried 
that this sum be granted, and that the Treasurer pay it over to 
the Treasurer of the Stewards. 

Mrs. Lawton requested that the Committee appoint Mrs. L. 
Holbrook Ass't Secretary. Appointment made. 

The Secretary read a letter from the London Society in relation 
to the death of our late ex-President, Mr. Marquand. 

Professor Rees, Chairman of the Committee appointed to draft 
resolutions in regard to Mr. Marquand's death, read the following, 
which was ordered spread on the minutes, and a copy sent to his 
family : 

" The Huguenot Society of America spreads on its records, and 
to the family of the late Henry G. Marquand sends the following 
minute : 


11 Henry G. Marquand showed by his loving interest in the 
Huguenot Society of America the same noble and unselfish devo- 
tion to a good cause which his distinguished life so fully exempli- 
fied. Mr. Marquand succeeded our first President, the Hon. 
John Jay, and with rare fidelity and remarkable faithfulness carried 
the burdens of the Presidential office from 1894 to 1898. 

'* It was under Mr. Marquand' s presidency that this Society 
undertook to celebrate the 1 Tercentenary of the Promulgation 
of the Edict of Nantes.' His unfailing support during all the 
preliminary arrangements, and through the entire week of the 
' Congress,' was a most important factor in making the Celebra- 
tion an international success. His heartfelt interest was ever 
apparent, and did much to encourage deeply the Celebration Com- 
mittee, but especially those who were the hard workers for the 
success of the Society. 

" We feel that we have lost one of our most loyal and effective 
supporters, and one who was always thinking of others, rather 
than of himself. 

" The sincerest sympathy of the Society goes out to the bereaved 
family of our former President. 

(Signed) " J. K. REES, Chairman, 


" R. Fulton Cutting." 


New York, April 14, 1902. 

The Annual Meeting of the Huguenot Society of America was 
held in the Trustees' Room, on Monday, April 14, 1902. Presi- 
dent de Peyster in the chair. 

The minutes of the last Annual Meeting read and approved. 

The Reports of the Secretary, Treasurer, and Library Commit- 
tee read, accepted, and ordered spread on the minutes. 

The Secretary reported from the Executive Committee the 
resignations of the Treasurer, Mr. F. Ashton de Peyster, and of 
the Chairman of the Publication Committee. She also announced 
that Miss Ida Layard, a niece of Sir Austen Layard, had been 
recommended by the Executive Committee as a Corresponding 
Member, but required the vote of the Society to be elected. 

Whereupon on motion of Mr. Banta, seconded by Mr. 


Darlington, Miss Layard, was unanimously elected a Correspond- 
ing Member. 

The Secretary also announced to the Society that Mrs. L. Hol- 
brook had been elected Assistant-Secretary by the Executive 
Committee. This election was ratified by the Society. 

The Secretary's report proper was as follows: 

We have had five meetings of the Executive Committee, various 
meetings of the Tablet, Dinner, and Stewards' Committees. We 
have had one Society meeting, at which a paper was read on 
"The Earl}' Huguenots," being a translation from Rotteck. 
Fifteen members were elected during the year. Some ten sup- 
pi ementals. Two pedigrees have been returned for correction, 
and are not reported on. Some six pedigrees are ready to be 
presented, and consequently cannot appear on this year's list. A 
great many pedigrees are out. Three resignations, and as far as 
we know, the following are the deaths: R. C. Bacot, Mrs. Lyman 
Cobb, Miss Mary E. Potter, Admiral Roe, Mr. Henry G. Mar- 
quand, — our second president, — Miss Florence Wright, and Mr. 
Pierre Lorillard. The one bright " star of hope," pointing to the 
interest among our members for the memory of our ancestors, is 
the Tablet Fund. Four hundred and twenty dollars have been 
raised, and the Executive Committee has contributed $100. The 
tablet down town cost $120.00, the Church tablet $400.00. 

The Treasurer reported as follows: 

Huguenot Society of America in account with F. Ashton de Peyster, 
Treasurer, April 13, 1901, to April 14, 1902. 

Balance as per last report as follows : 

New York Life Insurance and Trust Co $3500.00 

Seventh National Bank 663.64 

From Dues 

From Initiation Fees 

From Life Members ; 

From Telephone 

From Library Fund 

From Diplomas 

From Legacy J. D. Brez 

Interest on Certificate of Deposit 

Interest on balance Fifth Avenue Trust Company 







Salary of Clerk $ 110.00 

Rent, Office 523.92 

Library 1.70 

Insurance 18.00 

Safe Deposit Vault 6.00 

Rent, Assembly Room 15.00 

New York Telephone Company 77. 80 

Expenses of Treasurer 5.89 

American District Telegraph Company 3.30 

Refreshments 15.60 

H. K. Brewer & Company 184.00 

Printing, etc., Secretary* 182.57 

Collection Charges .30 

Mrs. Budd, dues returned 5.00 


Balance 4960.33 

Total $6109.41 

By balance brought down : 

New York Life Insurance and Trust Company #3500. 00 

Fifth Avenue Trust Company 1460.33 


F. Ashton de Peyster, Treasurer. 

This is to certify that we have examined the accounts and vouchers of 
F. A. de Peyster, Treasurer of the Huguenot Society of America, and found 
same correct. 

Bayard Dominick, 
Henry 0. Swords, 
Frederick W. Stelle, 

Auditing Committee. 

The Library Committee reported as follows: 

The Chairman of the Library Committee reports gifts as follows: 
Mr. Banta, The Sayre Genealogy. Mr. James, The Virginia 
Antiquary. Miss Vreeland, Life and Genealogy of Frencau, the 
Hugiienot Poet of the Revolution. The Chairman of the Library 
Committee, Revised Edition of the Colo?iial Dames of the State of 
New York, The Minutes of the Orphan Masters of New Amsterdam, 
and Count Hannibal. The usual German and English exchanges 
had been received, and the year books of Societies of which our 

* The Secretary's payments include all small bills approved by her— stationery, printing 
notices, etc., stamps, cleaning Library, express charges, incidentals, and books bought 
for Library. 



members are members. The Chairman respectfully calls the at- 
tention of the Society to the fact, that, with the exception of the 
Bulletin of the French Society, for which we have subscribed for 
several years in advance, she has been forced to stop all subscrip- 
tions, as the shelves of the Library are so crowded, that 76 books 
and some 175 pamphlets (ready for binding) are stored in, on, and 
under skeleton shelves, the table, and the piece of furniture given 
us by Mrs. Kendall. 

The annual election of officers now being in order, the regular 
ticket, approved by the Executive Committee, was distributed to 
the members. Messrs. Darlington and de Luze were appointed 
tellers by the Chair, and they declared the election of all the can- 
didates for office appearing on the regular ticket approved by the 
Executive Committee.* 

After the election, the Secretary said that she had been re- 
quested by the London Society, which seems to have been as sure 
of his re-election as our Society itself was, to tender to Mr. de 
Peyster their congratulations, and to say that he had been elected 
an Honorary Member of the London Huguenot Society. 

Mrs. George P. Lawton offered the resolution: ''That the 
Society recommend to the Executive Committee to spend what is 
necessary for the Publications." This was seconded and carried. 

* See list, p 10. 


By Charges M. Dupuy, 
Vice-President, from Pennsylvania, of the Huguenot Society of America 

Three hundred and thirteen years ago, this very day, all Prot- 
estant Christendom was startled by one of the most atrocious 
crimes that has ever blackened the pages of history. 

The king of France, only a few days before, under his own 
hand, had given assurance of his determination to sustain the 
Protestant cause; but the propitious time had arrived for the exe- 
cution of the long premeditated scheme of that Jezebel, Catharine 
de Medici. One sudden, unlooked-for blow that would extirpate 
these Huguenot leaders would carry terror to reformers every- 
where, and strengthen France and Rome, by suppressing the 
detestable heresy forever. 

The King was overcome by the artful picture she drew of the 
ruin to the throne by longer tolerating the Huguenots. Start- 
ing to his feet, he cried in rage and terror: " I agree to the scheme. 
Let not one Huguenot be left alive in France to reproach me with 
the deed." 

That night the slaughter commenced. The tolling of a bell at 
midnight, in the tower of a church near the palace, proclaimed 
the murder of Coligny, and w r as at the same time the appalling 
signal for a universal massacre. The king himself, from his 
palace windows, with his own hands, fired upon his fleeing 
subjects, and that day Paris was drenched in a sea of blood. 
The slaughter rapidly extended throughout all France, until, as 
variously estimated, from thirty thousand to seventy thousand 
Huguenots had been massacred. 

The heart of all Protestant Europe was frozen with horror. 
The queen and court of England, clothed in deep mourning, 

1 Read before the Society at the summer meeting held at New Rochelle, New York, 
August 24, 1885. The author died in New York City, Oct. 8, 1898. He was a direct descendant 
of the eminent Huguenot surgeon, Dr. John DuPuy, who practised thirty years in New 
York and who was " Ancien " of Saint d' Esprit Church in that city, afterwards becoming 
a member of old Trinity Church, in which churchyard he was buried and where his 
tombstone stands in perfect preservation. 



8 4 

spumed contemptuously the French envoy who would have 
apologized for the bloody deed of his master. At Rome, the 
pope, preceded by his Cardinals in pompous state, specially 
offered up a solemn Te Deum at the church of St. Mark, in thank- 
fulness for the auspicious deliverance from this hateful sect. 

Weary r and footsore and broken, many fled from the horrors of 
that terrible St. Bartholomew's Day, over pathless mountains to 
La Rochelle, that city of refuge, which in all their trials was ever 
found faithful to the Huguenot cause. Here, for a while, rest 
was vouchsafed. Here bleeding wounds were bound up, and 
nature was measurably permitted to recruit exhausted strength 
for the great struggle, which at last was to scatter the best blood 
of France to the four quarters of the earth. Long years of heroic 
suffering were yet to be endured, but at last, one by one, and in 
little companies, this persecuted people were forced stealthily to 
seek homes on foreign soil. America became a place of refuge, 
and here on this very spot, nearly two centuries ago, one of these 
little companies was planted and in grateful remembrance of their 
dear La Rochelle — the city of their fathers so long a shelter to the 
persecuted — they called the place New Rochelle. Here in sorrow- 
ful remembrance, and with streaming eyes, old men have re- 
counted to their children the fiery trials endured by their parents 
across the sea, and here all around us, peaceful homes were reared, 
some of which to this day are tenanted by the lineal descendants 
of these faithful men. 

New Rochelle, therefore, is a fitting place for the Huguenot 
Society of America to inaugurate its first annual summer meet- 
ing. Its atmosphere is inspiring, for the very name of Rochelle, 
whether the old or the new, brings a flood of remembrance to 
every Huguenot descendant. We gather here, then, but not as 
many of our fathers did of old, who sought refuge from perse- 
cution and personal violence to enjoy freedom of conscience. We 
come, rather, on this memorable day, hallowed as it is by so much 
suffering, to tell over the deeds of those heroic men by whose lives 
and deaths the world has been better prepared for a truer concep- 
tion, a more lofty realization, of the foundation upon which endur- 
ing civil liberty and religious freedom can alone be permanently 
maintained. Let me trespass upon your patience for a few mo- 
ments, while I bring before you a brief outline of the causes of 
the whole Huguenot movement. 




In the age which we would consider, popes and kings had too 
long been the irresponsible custodians of men's souls and bodies, 
impiously assuming the right to consign both at pleasure, prem- 
aturely, to the regions of eternal torment. The people at length 
had become weary of all this tyranny, and in earnest anxiety to 
find some way of relief conflicting opinions had become grossly 
intolerant. At such an era, when most reformers fiercely pro- 
claimed that the only road that led to Heaven w r as their own 
narrow pathway, no small credit is due to the peaceful Huguenots, 
who commonly maintained that all religions should be free, and 
that men's thoughts should no longer be led captive. Nor was 
this toleration of the Huguenots less to be admired, at a still later 
age of universal dogmatism and bigotry, when priest, minister 
and witch, by turns, at men's caprice, were burned at the stake. 

He who will read the minutes of their National Synods will be 
amazed at the toleration and unity that existed in these assemblies 
amid the intense excitement and anxieties that constantly sur- 
rounded them. Whether the business in hand was simply the 
government of the church, or the grave instructions to a deputa- 
tion to match the subtle policy of the king, their debates were 
always tolerant. 

While William the Silent, the great Prince of Orange, found it 
necessary to address letters of reproof to the principal cities of 
Holland and The Netherlands to stir up flagging zeal and promote 
unity, the Huguenots of France were always zealous, united, and 
tolerant. Indeed, these lessons were early learned as a funda- 
mental part of their religion, and during the long period of their 
fiery trials intolerance has never been a sin their opponents could 
justly lay at their door. 

While superstition still brooded darkly over Europe, the first 
glimmers of light occasionally began to gild the mountain-tops of 
France. Often, at intervals, even during the Dark Ages, France 
had put forth the first swelling germs of reformation, and as often 
had these germs been shrivelled to death by the violence of the 
Pope's military power. 

The last bloody persecution to oppose religious liberty in 
France, prior to the general Reformation, was in 1487, when, 
by order of the Pope, the Waldenses had been driven to the 


mountains and were there slaughtered by thousands, while re- 
mission of sins was granted by Rome to those who so foully 
obeyed his murderous decree. 

In 15 15, literature was reviving in France. In 1523, LeFevre 
published the first translation of the New Testament into French, 
and it was eagerly read by the French people. 

One day LeFevre was preaching at Paris on the rapid advance 
of the Reformation, when a monk, starting to his feet, exclaimed : 
" If this is so, we will preach such a crusade, that if the king still 
permits it we will expel him from the kingdom," — a prophecy 
more than once literally fulfilled in succeeding generations. 

The Roman priesthood was now aroused, and monks went from 
house to house to suppress the heresy. Driven from Paris to 
Lyons, where Waldo had preached reformation nearly four hun- 
dred years before, Lyons became the centre of the movement. 

An earnest zeal for reformation continued to move swiftly on- 
ward, and with equal energy France and Rome determined to ob- 
struct its progress. They resolved that the only true way to 
stamp out heresy was a ' 1 slow fire ' ' to burn heretics, and so in 
1525 this antidote began to be applied. 

11 Lower the flames," said the officer in charge of the burning 
of a poor shoemaker of Milon ; ' ' the sentence demands it must be 
a slow fire. ' ' 

It was in vain that the reformers continued to protest against 
the confessional, the invocation of saints, and the sale of indul- 
gences for crimes. The popes sometimes admitted a necessity for 
reform, but always insisted that it must be ordered from within 
the Church and not be dictated from the outside. At last Europe 
was compelled to realize that the Roman Church did not intend 
to reform itself. Indeed, the powerful influence of various orders 
of religionists rendered it apparent that if an earnest reform had 
been seriously contemplated at Rome, it would have been readily 
defeated by the large army of antagonizing priests and monks. 

The settled policy of France and Rome in 1533 had now become 
more firmly cemented by the marriage of Catherine de Medici to 
the heir of the French throne. This niece of the Pope, with no 
royal blood in her veins, thus became the wife of him who was 
afterwards Henry II. The Pope himself performed the ceremony 
at Marseilles and commemorated its importance by a bull against 



Notwithstanding this closer bond of union, and the persecutions 
which followed it, reformers continued to increase both in num- 
bers and fearlessness. 

One night, in 1534, by concerted arrangement, placards were 
secretly issued simultaneously throughout all France inveighing 
against the gross abuses of the Roman Church. One even reached 
the king's chamber. Its effect upon public opinion was electri- 
cal, but still the burnings continued. 

Rome revenged herself soon after for the placard by parading 
the king of France, in the garb of a penitent, amid a splendid 
array of Cardinals and various church orders, in a solemn pro- 
cession through Paris to the Church of Notre Dame. He, the 
king, Francis I., in a prearranged speech, condemned the hereti- 
cal publication, amid the acclamations of the multitude. On his 
return from the procession, he witnessed the burning of six heretics, 
who were repeatedly lowered and lifted until the writhing bodies 
found rest in the fire that finally consumed them. 

Following on another step, in 1544, the Pope demanded of 
France the utter extermination of the Waldenses within her 
borders. The order was obeyed, and twenty- two of their villages 
were destroyed. Those inhabitants who were not slaughtered or 
burned escaped to Switzerland. 

It was to be expected that Catherine's influence over her hus- 
band, Henry II., would be in the interest of Rome, by whom she 
had been trained and advanced. It was her influence that passed 
the Edict of 1 55 1, ordering all courts to punish heretics without 
appeal. It excluded suspected heretics from public preferment, 
established penalties for harboring them and confiscated their 
estates, rewarding the informer with one-third. 

Lyons, the hot-bed of heresy, must be made an example, and now 
five zealous reformers were burned at the stake. At Paris, the 
magistrate Dubourg, who enraged the king by opposing, in debate, 
the contemplated torture of reformers, was arrested and strangled. 

In 1560, Francis I., Henry VIII., and Charles V., besides 
several popes who had been active in these reigns, were all dead. 
Still the religious tragedy which was convulsing France went 
steadily onward. The Roman organization, which survives men, 
was powerful enough to cope everywhere with the opponents of 
intolerance, irrespective of popes and kings. 

The French Reformation, up to this period, had received no 


co-operation whatever from the civil power. No prince of royal 
blood — no influential noble, had espoused its cause or rendered it 
material aid. On the contrary, it was constantly harassed by the 
legalized persecution under the Edict, and yet, under all this dis- 
couragement, it grew rapidly in numbers and influence, and the 
purity of its doctrine and organization w r as considered a marvel 
of perfection in other Protestant countries. 

France and Spain had now, by the Pope's advice, ceased their 
quarrels and had joined hands in a common cause against heretics. 
The long period of Catherine's regency after Henry's death, ex- 
tending over thirty years, w T as spent by her in artful strategy to 
promote the Roman interest in the destruction of reformers. 

Still edict after edict, which encouraged the intolerant monks to 
stimulate the ignorant to deeds of further torture, only strength- 
ened heretics and made them more determined. 

Then came the July Edict of 156 1. It imprisoned and confis- 
cated any who openly or privately attended heretical services, and 
confirmed the severity of preceding edicts to the strictest letter 
of the persecution. Now, the reformer, Henry of Navarre, by 
right of lineage, claimed the throne and was sustained universally 
by the reform party. 

About this time representatives were sent to Catherine to plead 
for liberty of conscience. It was an unarmed and influential de- 
putation, but it received no audience. An armed force was then 
sent to second the demand, but it was cut to pieces by the royal 
party and open warfare was at once commenced. Thence-forward 
the reform party in derision were called Huguenots. 

This Huguenot influence had now become too strong to be 
openly trifled with. They were no longer outlaws, and Catherine 
adopted a temporizing policy, ostensibly to harmonize religious 
differences. She caused a Grand Council to convene in 1560. It 
was here that Admiral Coligny earnestly petitioned for religious 
freedom. "Your petition bears no signatures," said the king. 
" True, Sire," said Coligny; " give me but a day and I will obtain 
fifty thousand in Normandy alone." 

The conference finally adjourned without coming to an under- 
standing, and a second conference was called for the following 
year. At this council the Huguenot representatives eloquently 
portrayed the gross abuses of the priesthood and of the Church of 
Rome. The assembly was deeply impressed with these undeniable 

8 9 

facts, but its deliberations finally ended in a close vote, ordering 
reformers forthwith to sell their estates and leave the kingdom. 

The Huguenots were now too strong to be thus summarily 
banished and they continued to worship openly or covertly, accord- 
ing to circumstances. 

In Paris, the meetings were very large, the number often being 
as high as twenty-five thousand, and were guarded from intrusion 
by armed men. At La Rochelle eight thousand received the 
sacrament in one morning while thus guarded, and equally as 
large meetings were often gathered in other cities. In the countr}- 
the meetings were held secretly in secluded and out-of-the-way 
places where those present were very often surprised and im- 
prisoned by their vigilant enemies. A disturbance at one of these 
meetings at Paris at length created an open rupture and blood 
was spilled. At another time, some Huguenots were worshipping 
in a barn at Vassay as the Duke of Guise passed by on his way 
to Paris. Some of his retinue, having irritated the worshippers, a 
contest ensued, ending in the loss of sixty lives while two 
hundred were wounded. 

These various disturbances compelled the issue of the January 
Edict of 1562, which exempted Huguenots from molestation in the 
free public profession of religion until a conference could finally 
settle religions disputes. The}' now foresaw the necessity of main- 
taining their political rights in order to secure the permanency of 
religious worship, now only provisionally granted. For this 
reason the Huguenots were the more persistent in advocating 
Henry's claim to the throne, and this persistence redoubled the 
scenes of strife and bloodshed during many more } r ears of cruel 
persecution. After many hard-fought battles, with varying for- 
tune, the Huguenots finally gained such success as to force the 
treaty of August, 1570, granting full liberty of conscience and 
public profession of religion. 

In sketching this merest outline of causes from the beginning 
we now come down to the period of St. Bartholomew's Day to 
which reference has already been made at the commencement of 
this paper. 

st. Bartholomew's day 

Henry's ability as a leader in the ranks of the Huguenots was 
now fully recognized by Catherine and prompted her to secure his 


alliance with her daughter Margaret. She thus expected to lead 
this future king gradually to forsake the Huguenots and to secure 
his firm alliance with Rome. 

Encouraged by the success of this matrimonial scheme, she was 
emboldened to lay still another plot. She resolved to exterminate 
all the Huguenot leaders whom she could decoy to Paris to wit- 
ness the approaching marriage of this Huguenot king. The in- 
vitation was at first looked upon with distrust, but was finally 
accepted with hesitation, and lavish preparations were made 
for the entertainment. 

The day arrived. Many significant signs and intercepted letters 
made it clear to some of the Huguenot guests that a deep plot of 
treachery was in contemplation. It was discovered that arms had 
been secretly distributed, and their great leader, Admiral Coligny, 
had been severely wounded by a musket-shot as he passed through 
the city. The suspicions of the Huguenots became aroused to 
alarm and many then hastily left Paris. Coligny himself began 
reluctantly to fear treachery. 

The king called on the wounded admiral with feigned expres- 
sions of sympathy. He apologized for the shot, assuring him it 
had only been prompted by private malice. He soon became im- 
pressed with Coligny' s loyalty and disinterested nobility of pur- 
pose. The king's frequent visits to the bedside of Coligny 
alarmed Catherine, who feared that he would be won over to the 
Huguenot cause. She hastily contrived to convene the Council. 
It discussed man}' plans, but finally agreed upon the original plot, 
to be executed the following St. Bartholomew's Day. 

The proof that it was premeditated is clear. A few days before 
its occurrence Catherine sent a sealed letter to Strozzi, who was 
raising troops in the vicinity of La Rochelle. It was not to be 
opened until the 24th of August, the day appointed for the 
massacre and read as follows: 

" I give you notice that to-day, the 24th of August, the Admiral 
and all Huguenots who were here have been killed. At once take 
diligent measures to make yourself master of La Rochelle and serve 
the Huguenots who fall into your hands the same as we have 
served those here. Be careful to make no mistake, as you fear to 
displease the king, my son, and myself. 

" (Signed,) Catherine." 


M Where is Coligny ? " was the bloodthirstj' cry as the doors of 
the wounded Admiral's rooms were hastily beaten down on that 
eventful day. M I am he," was the calm reply. Quickly many 
swords pierced his heart and the body was thrown from the win- 
dow. The severed head was sent to Catherine, but the rest of the 
body was dragged through the streets and then thrown into the 
Seine. It was afterwards withdrawn and hung by the feet to a 
gibbet over a fire where the king and court witnessed the burning. 
Late that night a faithful servant secretly removed the remains 
and buried them at Chatillon, his ancestral seat. 

The young Huguenot, Henry of Navarre, aroused from slum- 
ber, was brought to the king and offered " the Mass or death." 
He accepted the mass but soon escaped to his Huguenot friends, 
renounced the extorted vow, and became the head of the Hugue- 
nots in place of the noble Coligny. 

Amid the cry of "Kill ! Kill ! " the slaughter was pushed all that 
day with vigor, and the refrain was echoed throughout France. 

Ambrose Pare, although a Huguenot, was surgeon and near 
friend of the king. After the terrible scenes of the massacre he 
asserts that the king said to him: 4 'Ambrose, -sleeping or waking, 
the murdered Huguenots seem ever present to my eyes, with 
ghastly faces and weltering blood." The following day the king 
remorsefully forbade further massacre in Paris. 

At first the king disavowed the horrible crime, but later on 
acknowledged the deed was done by his commands and as a just 
punishment for religious offences. 

A commemorative medal was struck, with the royal arms and 
the words " Piety aroused Justice" on the one side and on the 
other the king holding his sword and scales of Justice. At the 
feet were a group of human heads and the inscription, " Courage 
in Punishing Rebels." 

At Rome a medal was also struck with the Pope's profile on one 
side and on the other a winged woman with drawn sword pursuing 
the fleeing masses, and the inscription, " The Destruction of the 
Huguenots, 1572." 

Catherine died forsaken and unlamented, remorsefully urging 
her son to cease further persecution, and to grant religious tolera- 
tion; but her son, Francis II., soon followed her to the grave and 
Henry of Navarre ascended the throne as Henry IV. 

The Huguenots, whose spirit was thought to have been broken 

9 2 

on St. Bartholomew's Day, to the general amazement of all, rallied 
again in their strength. For many more years they exhibited to 
the world heroic deeds of daring courage, amid scenes of terrible 

Henry's reign was an unceasing effort to propitiate the Romish 
party and still not be recreant to the Huguenots, w 7 ith whom he 
had so long acted and to whom he owed his life and his throne. 

It w r as Henry who granted the celebrated Edict of Toleration, 
called the Edict of Nantes, in 1598. It was carefully balanced to 
be acceptable to both parties, but the "pretended reformed re- 
ligion" was the language of the edict to which they reluctantly 
were obliged to submit. In it the right of worship, except in 
places specially named, was granted to the Huguenots, but their 
former political privilege of assembly, enjoyed since the year 1560, 
was decreed to be suppressed. 

Before that year, namely, 1560, the Huguenots were granted 
no other privileges than religious toleration. These had been 
maintained by them even to torture and death. After that 
period, with Coligny to project and to lead them onward, they 
began to realize that toleration could only be preserved through 
political organization. 

While by the Edict their political assemblies had been abolished, 
yet Henry always tacitly permitted them. Henry was a politician. 
While aiming to harmonize conflicting opinions, he was also de- 
sirous to promote the prosperity of the State and to encourage the 
arts and to develop the national industries. Under his reign the 
Huguenots redoubled their ardor in the interest of pure morals 
and religion, and thrift and prosperity succeeded to the impover- 
ishment which had been the fruit of preceding intestine conflicts. 

The Huguenots were now, in 16 12, at the height of their 

After Henry's death, their political privileges, so long enjoyed 
were wholly denied. Then a stricter construction of the Edict be- 
gan, and battles, marches, wounds, and death were the stern 
protests these persecuted people made, for many more years, to 
establish the right of political assembly. 

Prodigies of heroism in the interest of the cause and at the cer- 
tain sacrifice of their lives are numerously recorded of all classes 
of Huguenots down to the humblest peasants. 

The king's commissioner w r as now always present at the general 


synod of the Huguenots. In that of 1626 he insisted upon a still 
closer construction of the edict. He exhorted them, with what 
must have appeared to them as severe irony, to live in greater 
moderation with the different religionists. 

The synod endeavored to show how impossible this was when 
constantly molested in person, when they were not permitted to 
worship in peace; when their churches were demolished in their 
faces, or given as dwelling-places to Roman priests; when their 
dead were ignoniiniously dug from their graves and scattered 
along the highways; when they were deprived of all burial places 
but the open fields; when their ministers were beaten, bruised, and 
wounded, and their people were persecuted with the grossest in- 
dignities and sufferings. 

The Huguenots were ever loyal to the king. In their darkest 
hours they always prayed for him and even while besieged at La 
Rochelle by his forces they offered up daily prayers for his person 
in that devout city. Once, when a shot from a cannon was said 
to have covered his garments with dust, the whole city was in 
consternation lest he might have been killed, when special prayers 
were offered in thankfulness for his safety as soon as the fact be- 
came known. From the king' s bad advisers they would be delivered, 
but never from the revered person of the ki?tg. 

Notwithstanding this loyalty, it was the more stringent denial 
of privileges and intolerable persecutions which forced them most 
reluctantly to endure the fourteen months' siege of La Rochelle in 
1628. Its population was narrowed by starvation to one fifth; 
there was scarcely enough living to bury the dead. It only sur- 
rendered upon the treacherous promises of the Cardinal Prime 
Minister Richelieu, who was in command of the king's army, to 
restore their ancient privilege of assembly. This promise was 
never fulfilled, and, with the fall of La Rochelle, there was merged 
in the throne, not only Huguenot privileges, but also all the ancient 
rights of all classes of people, and from thenceforth that arrogant, 
absolute king, Louis XIV., boldly declared : "/ am above all 
edicts ; I am the State." 

The synod now only met at the king's pleasure, and it was not 
again convened for five years, when the king's commissioner de- 
fined still more closely all its actions and limited the period of its 
sittings. The next synod was not permitted to sit for seven years. 

Only one more synod was allowed to meet, after an interval of 



four years, and, after an existence of centuries, they were abol- 
ished amid the lamentations of a sorrowing people. At this last 
meeting the king's commissioner prohibited absolutely any further 
petitions to the king. No secular matter must be discussed, no 
grievances be submitted, and no correspondence to a foreign re- 
ligious body would be tolerated, and, finally, the general synods 
from henceforth must be forever abolished. 

At this time, with more and more stringent measures to suppress 
the churches and persecute the humbler people, every effort was 
made to lure the most influential by court favor. Places of power 
and trust were the premiums cunningly granted by Louis XIV. 
in payment for abjuration, while literary men and Huguenot 
pastors could always count on the king's bounty as a certain re- 
ward for apostacy. Notwithstanding all these allurements, the 
people were not weakened in their faith. The most energetic 
force was now determined upon. Church after church was de- 
stroyeduntil three out of four were utterly broken up. Romanists 
were freed from pecuniary obligations contracted with Huguenots. 
Courts of justice that had been established to protect Huguenots 
were abolished. Edict after edict still further narrowed the con- 
struction of their rights, making life more and more intolerable. 

Numbers of noble families who had long been members of the 
Reformed Church, under the blandishments or threats of this reign, 
now abjured, and professed the Roman faith, but the country 
gentlemen, the merchants, the skilled artisans, and professional 
men and farmers who were now in every way oppressed in their 
pursuits, were only the more opposed to despotism and clung the 
stronger to their religion. 

It was in vain that conversions to Rome were now bought and 
paid for from the royal treasury at so much a head. The sturdy 
middle class remained uncontaminated, and a still stronger force 
was resolved upon. 

In 1 68 1, dragoons were quartered on the Huguenots in fives or 
tens, or even an entire company, in one household, where the 
means were known to be sufficient. They devoured their sub- 
stance, robbed them of money, clothing, and valuables, leaving 
the families in absolute destitution. Authority was given in these 
dragonnades, led on by the bitter hatred of the monks who ac- 
companied them, to use any species of torture that ingenuity could 
devise, except what would cause death. 


The)- hung the Huguenots by the hair in chimneys over smoking 
fires. They threw them on hot coals and plunged them repeatedly 
in deep wells until almost strangled. They poured wine, through 
funnels, down their throats until, frenzied, they were brought to 
the verge of death. They pierced them with pins, cut them with 
knives, tore the flesh with hot pincers, plucked off their finger- 
and toe-nails, or rolled them in barrels which had been pierced 
with nails. Women were insulted in every possible way. The 
children of the well-to-do Huguenots, on slight pretext, were often 
forced into monasteries and nunneries, in order to be made " pious 
Catholics ' ' at the cost of unwilling parents. 

Under all these cruelties many fell away, and the Gazette pub- 
lished long lists of such " converts," composed largely of the timid 
and of those who were unable to leave the country, while thousands 
upon thousands fled. Let us look at the results. 


Four months after the commencement of these dragonnades the 
hospitality of all Protestant Christendom was freely accepted. 

Louis XIV. saw his error after it was too late. For more than 
a century and a half these people had lived in trembling uncer- 
tainty. Quick to avail themselves of periods of temporary quiet, 
they industriously recruited their forces, only to gather fresh 
strength to endure renewed persecutions. At last when all hope 
of peacefully enjoying their religious convictions had vanished, 
when the right of assembly to defend these privileges was hope- 
lessly denied, when their churches and educational institutions 
had been uprooted, their property confiscated, the ordinary avo- 
cations of life refused to them, when stripes, w T ounds, and death 
had become a common heritage, when their choice at last was to 
become martyrs or hypocrites, then it was that, singly and in little 
companies, a half million of people escaped to neighboring States 
and across the sea. They went in open boats or stowed them- 
selves in the cargoes of friendly ships. They w r ent by any way, 
in any manner, and to any place, only to escape the horrible oppres- 
sion of their own king and of their own countrymen. 

The Edict of Nantes, for which they had so long struggled, and 
which was granted by Henry IV., was finally abolished under 
Louis XIV., by the Edict of 1685. It forbade assembly under 


any pretence, public or private, for religious exercises. It demol- 
ished their churches, expelled their ministers in fifteen days under 
pain of the galleys. It prohibited their schools and compelled the 
Roman baptism of their children under penalty of five hundred 
francs for each offence. It confiscated their property after four 
months' absences, and finally it prohibited all emigration, " under 
penalty of the galleys for the men, and confiscation of bodies and 
goods for the women." 

Notwithstanding all of this evidence, this persecuting monarch 
professed not to be persecuting, but to be converting sinners. Had 
not the Saviour said : " Compel them to come in ? " which Louis 
interpreted as meaning compulsory, since this means of grace had 
been in operation a quarter of a century. 

At Rome a Te Deum was sung in thankfulness for the abolish- 
ment of the Edict and the conversion of the Protestants. The 
pope wrote the king: " The Catholic Church shall most assuredly 
record in her sacred annals a work of such devotion and shall 
celebrate your name with never-dying praises." 

The demolition of the churches was commenced immediately and 
was thoroughly accomplished. One at Charenton, very imposing 
and massive, having a capacity of fourteen thousand people, was 
destroyed with great difficulty. The ministers everywhere sought 
immediate flight to escape the galleys, which were worse than 
death. A very few eminent persons were permitted to emigrate, 
among whom were the noble old Marquis de Ruvigny, Marshal 
de Schomburg, and a few others. The prisons soon overflowed 
with detected emigrants of all grades and the ranks of the galleys 
were rapidly recruited by many of the most honored names of 

Every avenue of escape was now vigilantly watched and rewards 
were paid to the betrayers of emigrants. The greatest art was 
required to baffle suspicion and find ways of leaving the country. 
They travelled in wagons or on foot, by night, over the roads in 
small companies. Sometimes they disguised themselves as porters, 
as sportsmen, as peasants, as footmen, as soldiers, or as officers in 
the king's service. Women were equally as suggestive in dis- 
guises. They often disarmed suspicion in the apparel of pages 
and male- servants. The zeal of vigilance was often blinded with 
bribes, and large numbers escaped by paying so much a head for 
the privilege of flight. 


The Huguenots loved France. They loved its literature, its 
language, its refinements. They loved its vineclad hills and its 
verdant valleys. It was a pleasant land. They tore themselves 
from their country, not for gain, for the products of skilled industry 
in which France then excelled were readily marketed in all parts 
of the civilized world. They only left this land they loved so well 
to enjoy religious toleration and freedom. 

In their struggles for the supremacy of conscience, they had 
grown to revere constitutional law as the only safeguard against 
despotism. The memory of this constitutional protection which 
had at least guarded them for a time in the few rights accorded 
them, caused them to cherish only the more deeply their reverence 
for law, and wherever they went, they carried with them to the 
countries of their adoption their most fervent respect for its laws. 
They devoutly believed in human rights, which could only be 
maintained through law, and the3 T expatriated themselves, not for 
gai?i, but through law to maintain those human rights. 

With the flight of the Huguenots came a reaction. The 
wastes of persecution which had been steadily going on for 
more than a century, had largely paralyzed the best efforts of 
industry, but now the enormous loss began to be appallingly 
realized as more than half a million of people vanished from the 

Official investigation soon developed a deplorable depletion of 
revenues. Every department of industry had been largely filled 
with Huguenots and now that the Huguenots were gone all in- 
dustries became utterly paralyzed. 

At the height of their strength Gamier estimated the entire 
number of the Huguenots at o?ie third of the whole population of 
France. Lacretell made the number about sixteen hundred thou- 
sand. A letter to Lady Russell in 1685 from her sister, then a 
resident of Paris and a niece of the illustrious Huguenot leader. 
Marquis de Ruvigny, stated the number to have been one million 
eight hundred thousand, of which not more than ten thousand then 
remained, and " they soon would be converted by the dragoons 
or perish." 

Whatever was the actual number, it is very certain they were 
mainly composed of that earnest, conscientious, industrious middle 
class whose loss was irreparable. 

The entire population of Coutances, in Normandy, emigrated, 

9 8 

taking with them the manufacture of fine linen. The paper- 
makers of France and their workmen left almost en masse. 

Seventy-five per cent of the tanners and silk manufacturers left 
the country. Out of eighteen thousand looms in Lyons, in ten 
years after the repeal of the Edict there were only four thousand 
left. The linen, the woollen, the lace manufacturers, the makers 
of hardware, — in fact every industry in every part of the king- 
dom, being very largety operated by Huguenots, was almost 
annihilated. Nor was the injury to commerce less severely felt. 
The merchants, the ship-owners, and mariners were largely 
Huguenots, and the annual loss of revenue from decaying com- 
merce was then officially estimated to be more than ^1500 sterling. 

To quote from your learned townsman, the Rev. Dr. Charles 
W. Baird: "The Protestants of Southern and Western France 
surpassed all others in the cultivation of the soil. The foreign 
trade of the kingdom came to be very largely controlled by their 
merchants. Inventive and industrious, they had applied them- 
selves with great success to the mechanical arts. In every 
department of labor they were fitted to excel by their morality, 
intelligence, and thrift. ' They are bad Catholics,' said one of 
their enemies, ' but excellent men of business.' " 

Dr. Baird's able work, The Huguenot Emigratio?i to America, 
and that of his brother, the Rev. Dr. Henry M. Baird, on the Rise 
of the Huguenots of France, will well repay the perusal of every 
one interested in Huguenot history. 

France paid dearly for this transient victory. A large propor- 
tion of her intelligent, industrious, and loyal subjects had been 
driven into exile, and the impoverished and distracted State soon 
gave evidence of its speedy decay. 

A national debt had rapidly accumulated, and now became 
totally unmanageable. The money carried away by the fleeing 
Huguenots and the prostration of all industries by their absence, 
rendered it impossible for the remaining population to support 
itself and provide for the expenses of an extravagant government. 

To suggest ways and means for an empty treasury and to relieve 
the miseries of the people, the V States General " were convened 
in 1789. This assembly became helpless and discouraged by the 
difficulties that surrounded it and it finally drifted into the fero- 
cious mob whose enactments outraged civilization. 

France was now deprived of that sturdy, honest Huguenot ele- 


ment which had always been loyal to the best interest of the State, 
At this momentous period, had there been Huguenot integrity in 
the councils of the nation and Hugueuot industry and thrift to 
exercise the wealth-creating power of the people, the blood-stains 
of the Revolution of 1793 and 1794 would never have polluted the 
pages of history. 

What France lost in the arts and in commerce with the escaping 
Huguenots, was correspondingly gained by the countries of their 
adoption. They brought with them the secrets of their arts and 
successfully established elsewhere those various departments of 
skilled manufacture which had hitherto made France so famous. 

The manufacture of an endless list of articles hitherto imported 
from France was now transplanted and became firmly rooted in 
rival soils. The cunning inventions of the skilled Huguenots, 
which had long given France a balance of trade in her favor, were 
now conducted in foreign lands and those nations which formerly 
had been large buyers of France, now successfully competed as 
sellers of the same productions in all the markets of the w r orld. 
Thus it was that the industry and skill of the Huguenots, by 
helping largely to promote the general prosperity of other coun- 
tries, contributed substantially to fill the coffers of Protestant 
states to conduct wars for the advancement of Protestantism. 
The Huguenots had been compelled to learn the arts and strate- 
gies of war. In their long struggle for faith and freedom, they 
had raised up trained captains and soldiers, not excelled in Europe 
for intelligence, experience, and trustworthiness. 

Beside this, the king's army contained large numbers of loyal 
subjects whose secret convictions w r ere with the Huguenots. 
When the last trial came and the revocation of the Edict com- 
pelled honest men to choose sides and act from convictions, then 
it was that the king lost a large number of valuable officers from 
his armies. Thus from both sides military men in France were 
forced to find a field more congenial to their consciences in the 
various Protestant armies of Europe. It is estimated that Eng- 
land alone gained seven hundred to eight hundred valuable officers 
from the ranks of the refugees, whose skill at arms contributed 
largely to place the Protestant king, William III., upon the 

" Your Majesty may have heard that the three French regiments 
of infantry and one horse do better service than any other," was 


the report to the king of England from his brilliant major 
general, the noble old Huguenot refugee, Count de Schomberg, 
who was killed, in English service, in his seventy-sixth year, at 
the battle of the Boyne. 

In these trying times the Huguenot clergy were always ready 
witnesses for the faith that was in them. Carrying their lives in 
their hands for so many years, their religion was a living thing, 
and with torrents of earnest eloquence they were as prompt to ex- 
pose the subtleties and abuses of Rome as they were to plead for 
the rights of conscience and religion. 

" Is this a man or an angel who is speaking to us ? " said Abad- 
die, of the eloquent Saurin. 

Driven from France as malefactors, under penalty of the galleys, 
the fleeing Huguenots scattered everywhere, and with redoubled 
missionary ardor they proclaimed that religion must be free and 
that conscience should be forever unchained. 

France, at the behest of Rome, had now driven out the Hugue- 
nots and impoverished herself, but in so doing, to the intense dis- 
may of Rome, she had unwittingly reinforced Protestantism 

The insult to civilization by this hollow mockery in the name 
of religion, permitted by Rome upon these Huguenots, has since 
only succeeded in forcing upon disgusted Frenchmen a nominal 
Romanism, while the expelled Huguenots largely aided in light- 
ing up a brighter flame throughout all Protestant Christendom. 
I have, I fear, wearied you in this imperfectly tracing of the causes 
of St. Bartholomew's Day and the results which flowed from it as 
exhibited in this Huguenot movement, from its inception until 
their final exodus. 

Why, it may be asked, does the Huguenot Society of America, 
at this late day and after a lapse of so many centuries, commemo- 
rate these revolting atrocities, by appointing the return of St. 
Bartholomew's Day for their summer meeting ? Why not consign 
the agonizing horrors of this mournful period to eternal oblivion 
forever ? 

To answer these questions is to give a reason for the organiza- 
tion of this Society. Its great object, concisely stated in the first 
clause of its constitution, is to " perpetuate the memory and to 
foster and promote the principles and virtues of the Huguenots." 
To quote again: " And surely the name and the memories left us 



by our Huguenot ancestors, the role which many of their de- 
scendants have played in the history of their country, the position 
to which many others have attained in literature, sciences, and 
the arts, are sufficiently bright and glorious to entitle them to be 
rescued from perishable family papers and other similar documents 
in order to be inscribed upon the more enduring pages of history." 

The Spartans encouraged emulation by recounting the noble 
deeds of ancestors, but Spartan heroism never equalled this per- 
sistent Huguenot struggle for freedom of conscience which lasted 
more than one hundred and fifty years. In bringing to light the 
long-hidden part which these people have played in the great 
drama of human freedom, this and kindred Huguenot Societies 
will show by their splendid examples how the continued growth of 
freedom can only be wrought by high resolves and sacrifices. 

May it not be said that freedom of conscience, having been 
established by the stern struggles of the fathers, the children have 
only to repose under its grateful shade ? Freedom must continue 
to grow or the world will retrograde. Civilization reaches onward 
and upward and each age must work up to a higher standpoint 
through conflict with ignorance, prejudice, and intolerance. 

Acting under the profound respect entertained by mankind for 
the unseen and spiritual, at an early day a Roman bishop ambi- 
tiously banded his followers to wield a mysterious religious 
tyranny throughout the world. So long as these priests and 
monks humbly fulfilled the spirit of their mission in ministering 
to the sick and wounded in body or mind, their ministry was 
tolerated, but when they grasped at the control of government 
and wielded the strength of dynasties to enchain men's thoughts 
in slavery to enhance their own pride, power, and circumstance, 
then it was that the dignity of human nature began to rebel and 
Huguenots were found foremost in the battle. 

This papal organization, which so long terrorized the Huguenots 
and the world at large with so much intolerance, should warn us 
of the danger that may arise from the combination of unchecked 
organized corporations, whether religions or secular. The popes 
died, but the Roman organization lived from age to age, and per- 
sistently carried forward its purpose for nearly one hundred and 
seventy years to destroy the freedom of conscience of the Hugue- 
nots. It was only in 1787, a century after the Huguenot expul- 
sion, that this powerful organization permitted an Edict in France 


that guaranteed the unmolested practice of Protestant trades and 

The founders of this government forbade a state religion and 
hereditary entailment as dangerous to freedom, but incorporated 
institutions have been legalized, with powers of perpetuity and 
unlimited aggregations of wealth, which may well excite the 
anxiety of the lovers of freedom. 

Other complicated problems are ushered in with our newer 
civilization, calling for the fullest exercise of justice and wisdom, 
but this is neither the time nor the place even so much as to name 
them. Whatever social questions are yet to be solved, may we as 
a nation follow the faithful example of these noble Huguenots in 
serving God, loving our neighbor, and bei?ig loyal to the State / 

With a spirit of tolerance mingled with equity, while guarding 
every encroachment on freedom, may we still avail ourselves wisely 
of every institution and every effort that will elevate and ennoble 
humanity ! So, ever moving onward and upward to a loftier plane, 
may this nation continue to be a beacon to guide to a higher 
pathway the oppressed and down-trodden of all the nations of the 
earth ! 



By Prof. Charges A. Briggs, D.D. ; D. Litt. 

The colonies of Great Britain were the refuge for the oppressed 
of Europe, who fled from the persecutions that they incurred on 
account of their dissent from the established national churches. 
It seems to have been the design of Providence to gather these dis- 
senters, in all their variety and complexity, in the British colonies, 
in order to establish and illustrate the principles of religious free- 
dom and equality in the life of a great nation, and thereby point 
the world to the true path of Christian brotherhood and unity. 

Among these persecuted dissenters none were more worthy than 
the ancestors of the members of this society who bore the name 
of Huguenots. It is true that the French dissenters did not 
organize in the British colonies a separate French Reformed 
Church alongside of the Dutch Reformed, the German Reformed, 
the English Presbyterian, Scotch Presbyterian, Congregational, 
Baptist, Episcopal, Lutheran, and other denominations of Chris- 
tians. They showed no zeal to perpetuate the customs, institu- 
tions, and forms of worship of the French Reformed Church. But 
they did a greater and a nobler work; for they valued the unity of 
Protestantism more than national and ecclesiastical peculiarities. 
Although they were all Calvinists and Presbyterians, they did not 
lay such stress upon their Calvinism and Presbyterianism as to 
take sides with the parties that divided the British and the Dutch 
churches. ' French Reformed churches were organized with 
French Reformed ministers wherever the Huguenots were in 
sufficient numbers to justify such local organizations; but they 
had no zeal to maintain their differences. No general organiza- 
tion into presbyteries, classes, or synods was ever attempted. 
And so the French churches became merged either in the Dutch 
Reformed, the Presbyterian, or the Episcopal communions in the 
colonies just as the special circumstances seemed to require. 

There are many illustrious names on the rolls of the Huguenots 

1 Read before the Society, April 1 8, 1889. 




of America, but none is more truly representative of the best 
features of French Protestantism, none is more deserving of honor 
than Elias Neau. 

Elias Neau was born in 1661 at Moise in the principality of 
Soubise in Saintonge of an humble but respectable family. 1 He 
was a sailor boy at twelve years of age. 2 He was a pious lad, 
greatly beloved by his pastor, J. Morin. 3 In 1679, at eighteen 
years of age, he left his native land " on account of his religion," 
and sailed to St. Domingo. At this time the French were active 
in the western part of the island, having gained a foothold in this 
Spanish possession in 1630. An aggressive colonial policy was 
pursued by Colbert, the great minister of finance of Louis XIV., 
and colonists were encouraged to settle in this island, where the 
French had to contend with the Spaniards for the right of posses- 
sion. Neau himself at a later time, when on trial, said: " I left 
my native country because Jesus Christ, the King of kings, com- 
manded me to fly from that country when I could not enjoy liberty 
of conscience, and retire into another. . . . The Gospel com- 
manded me, when I was persecuted in one kingdom to fly into 
another country." 4 

Elias Neau remained several years in St. Domingo, and in his 
calling of seaman sailed to and fro between the Dutch and French 
islands. Here his religious experience was enriched. He says, 
in connection with a severe affliction that came upon him at this 
time: " It was there that God began to speak to my heart and 
granted me His love. My ignorance, however, made me to be 
like the blind man, who saw men as trees walking the first time 
that the Lord touched his eyes. For I did indeed love God; but 
I did not know Him well enough to be constrained to live only 
for Him." 5 

The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes and all other edicts in 
favor of the Protestants of France, October 22, 1685, made it im- 
possible for the Huguenots to remain in the French islands, all 
the more on account of the large numbers of Huguenots who were 
transported to serve as slaves in these islands. Accordingly, the 

1 1,ichtenberger, Encyclopedia, sub nom. 

■ Bulletin Soc. de V Histoire du Prot. Franc, xxiii., p. 513. 

• Agnew, Protestant Exiles from France, 3d ed., ii., p. l8t. 

• Narrative in Agnew, /. c, pp. 178-179. 

• Baird, Huguenot Emigration, i., p. 215, quotes from Histoire abbregie des souffrances du 
sieur Elie Neau, p. 99. 


Protestants left these islands for New York and Boston. 1 Among 
them was Eli as Neau, who went to Boston, where he remained 
for six years. 

We have little information with regard to these six years of his 
life. He made the acquaintance of John Eliot and saw the Indian 
missions which were then under a cloud owing to the recent 
Indian wars. He formed an unfavorable opinion of the piety of 
the Christian Indians. 3 This impression was doubtless strength- 
ened by the sad experience of the French settlement at New 
Oxford in the Nipmunck country, where Daniel Bondet labored 
among the Nipmunck tribe of Indians from 1687-1695. In the 
vicinity was Wapaquasset, one of the praying towns of John Eliot, 
which did no honor to its pious founder. 3 We have no informa- 
tion as to Neau in this period. This probably is owing to the 
fact that he still followed his calling as seaman. He was natural- 
ized as a British subject January 31, 1690. He married about 
this time Susanne Pare, daughter of Jean and Marie Yisseau 
Pare, refugees from St. Sauveur, La Rochelle, in 168 1, and resi- 
dent in Boston. 4 His sister-in-law Judith was married to Stephen 
Robineau, and his other sister-in-law Marie was married to Ezekiel 
Grazillier. Both of these settled in East Greenwich, Rhode 
Island, in 1686. It seems likely that Neau made his headquarters 

1 Letter of M. de Denonville from Quebeck, Nov. 16, 1686, says : " The same man who 
came from Manat (N. Y.) told me that there arrived there within a short time from the 
islands of St. Christopher and Martinique 50 or 60 Huguenots who are settling themselves 
at Manat." — Doc. relating to Colon. Hist. N. Y., ix., pp. 309,312. Also Mass. Archives, 
Council Records, 1686 and 1687, p. 52, give July 12, 1686. " Upon application of the French 
Protestants (lately arrived from St. Christophers) to the President for permission to reside 
and dwell in this his Majtys Dominion and to bring their effects and concerns here. 
Ordered, that upon the takeing the oath of Allegiance before the President and under his 
hand and seal of his Majtys Territory and Dominion, they be allowed to reside and dwell 
in his Majtys sd. dominion, and to proceed from hence and return hither as freely as any 
other of his Majtys subjects and this to be an order for all such French Protestants that 
shall come into this his Majtys Territory and Dominion."— See Baird, ii., p. 199. 

■ Hawkins, p. 263. "I have been nineteen years in this country. I have seen the Indians 
of New England and formerly I knew Mr. Eliot, who took much pains with them ; but I 
never see any of them that were true converts, although these gentlemen boast of the 
conquest that they have made over souls, but must needs say that if the purity of manner 
be not joined with that doctrine, I have no good opinion of such profession of Christianity. 1 

5 Baird, ii., p. 277. 

* Baird, ii., p. 196. His first child, a girl, died eight days after birth. His second 
child was eighteen months old when he left New York in 1692. See Agnew, p. 1^2, who 
quotes a letter of Neau to Pierre Neau, of Amsterdam. His wife had been naturalized 
A Pril 15, 1687, with her father and brothers, Peter and John, and sister Mary, and Stephen 
Robineau, his wife Judith, and daughter Mary (Agnew, ii., p. 5&)< also F.zekiel Grazillier 
<P- 55)- It is singular that the wife, Marie Pare, is omitted and Jean given, in view of the 
statement of Baird that Marie was a widow on her departure from France. 


in Boston and resided with his mother-in-law after his mar- 
riage. But he must have been deeply grieved at the misfortunes 
of his sisters-in-law, who, with their husbands and children, were 
forced to abandon their property at East Greenwich owing to the 
greed and hostility of the English settlers. They all removed to 
New York. 1 Elias Neau soon followed them, if he did not go 
with them. He took command of a trading vessel, La Belle Mar- 
quise, of eighty tons, belonging to Gabriel Le Boiteur, a merchant 
of New York and elder in the French Church, and sailed for Ja- 
maica August 15, 1692. 2 The long war of the League against 
France, of which William III. was the head, had broken out in 
1689, and was now in full course. The vessel was captured by a 
French privateer August 29th and taken to St. Malo on the coast 
of Brittany. Here Neau was imprisoned for four months. Every 
effort was put forth to induce him to conform to the Roman Catho- 
lic religion, but in vain. He was tried for disobedience to the 
Proclamation of Louis XIV., recalling fugitive Protestants to 
France, and sentenced by the Parliament of Rennes, March 6, 
1693, "to serve the king at the galleys for life and that for hav- 
ing settled in foreign countries without the permission of His 
Majesty and contrary to his declaration, 1662, which prohibited 
his subjects from leaving the kingdom." 3 

April 3, 1693, Neau was tied to the great chain and with fifty- 
nine slaves, criminals of all kinds, as well as Huguenots, he was 
led on foot through all the chief cities of the Provinces from Brest 
to Marseilles. Criminals and Huguenots were added to the chain- 
gang in every place until they reached the number of one hun- 
dred and fifty. After the endurance of great sufferings they 
arrived at Marseilles May 19th. 

Neau was sent at first on the Vieille Madame, where he served 
as a galley-slave for six months, and then he was transferred to the 
Magnanime for another six months. Every effort was here put 
forth to induce him to abandon his religion. But he was not 
only faithful to resist every threat and inducement, but he also 
strengthened the weaker brethren in their faith and was even the 

1 Ezekiel Grdzillier was in New York as early as May 15, 1689. He was present at a 
baptism in the French Church. Judith Par6 first appears at a baptism August ax, 1692. 

* Agnew, ii., p. 181. His daughter Susanne was born after his departure and baptized 
in the Huguenot Church of New York November 6, 1692 (see Records), her grandmother 
and uncle Grazillier being godparents. 

* La France Prot., vi., p. 313 ; Bulletin, xxiii., p. 535. 


instrument of converting a Roman Catholic criminal to Protes- 
tantism. This man afterward endured great persecutions for his 
new faith and remained faithful to the end. The priest in charge 
of the galley was so enraged at his own ill-success that he refused 
to celebrate mass on the galley so long as this obstinate Huguenot 
remained on board. 1 

Accordingly, Neau was transferred to the prison of the Citadel of 
Marseilles, May 5, 1694. "He was forced to lie upon the stones 
without any bed or even straw. No one was permitted to speak 
to him and he was not permitted to write. After a year a kind 
priest sent him a straw bed. But 'I continued twenty-two months 
without changing my clothes, my beard being as long as the hair 
of my head, and my face as pale as plaster.' However, he did not 
yield to his sufferings. They could not break his faith or his 
health; for 'God out of His infinite love, afforded me such com- 
forts that I little regarded the miseries I was reduced to.' " He 
seems to have derived great comfort from the use of liturgical 
prayer and in the composition of a considerable number of hymns 
and songs. 

The climax of his sufferings was reached when, May 20, 1696, 
he was put in a subterranean hole, where he remained until July 
1st, when he was transferred to a worse hole in the castle of If, on 
a rock in the midst of the sea about five miles from Marseilles. 
"The place was so disposed that we were obliged to go down a 
ladder into a dry ditch, and then go up by the same ladder into 
an old tower through a cannon hole. The vault or arch wherein 
we were put was as dark as if there had been no manner of light 
in heaven, stinking and so miserably dirty that I verily believe 
there was not a more dismal place in the world. We might have 
received some money to help us in this great distress, but they 
would not suffer it, so that all our senses were attacked at once — 
sight by darkness, taste by hunger, smell by the stench of the 
place, feeling by lice and other vermin, and hearing by the horrid 
blasphemies and cursing which the soldiers, who were obliged to 
bring us some victuals, vomited forth against God and our holy 

Neau remained six months in this hole until his companion 
died. He was then removed to another pit, where he was con- 
fined with four other confessors until their clothing rotted upon 

1 I,ichtenberj?er, sub nom., Aguew, LL, p. 180. 


them. He was finally released July 3, 1698, in compliance with 
the demand of the British ambassador, the Earl of Portland, in ac- 
cordance with the terms of the Peace of Ryswick, October, 1697. 
Upwards of five years had this noble young man suffered the 
most cruel trials for no other crime than being a Huguenot and 
seeking refuge in America for that liberty of conscience he could 
not enjoy in his native land. 

It seems hardly credible that such persecution could take place 
in an enlightened country like France less than two hundred 
years ago, in the golden age of French letters and military re- 
nown. And yet only a few years before (1685), in London, the 
aged Richard Baxter was tried before Chief Justice Jeffreys and 
sentence to pay a fine of five hundred marks and shut up in prison 
for eighteen months until he was finally released through the 
efforts of a Roman Catholic nobleman. And a few years after, 
1707, in New York City, Francis Makemie, a Presbyterian min- 
ister, was arrested by order of Governor Corubury on the charge 
of preaching without a special license from him. He was de- 
fended by three of the ablest lawyers in the province and was ac- 
quitted, but was compelled to pay the cost of prosecution as well 
as defence, amounting to ^83 7^. 6d. The cruelty was in the sys- 
tem of requiring conformity to an established religion and in re- 
garding lack of conformity as crime. The sufferings of our French 
and British ancestors purchased for us our heritage of freedom. 

On his release Neau went first to Geneva, where he was wel- 
comed by pastors and professors with wonderful sympathy. He 
then went to Bern and appealed to the Swiss government on be- 
half of a fellow-prisoner from Switzerland. He awakened such 
interest in the Swiss for his fellow-sufferers that large sums were 
raised for their relief. In Zurich alone 19,600 livres were con- 
tributed in a single day. 1 From Switzerland he went to Holland, 
arriving there in September, and appealed to the Dutch govern- 
ment. He then crossed over the Channel to England, where he 
remained several months endeavoring to interest the British pub- 
lic as well as the government in behalf of his fellow-sufferers. He 
was granted an audience with King William III. and had the op- 
portunity of thanking him for his deliverance and of beseeching 
him to aid the Huguenots still suffering in the galleys and prisons. 
The king made him a present of three hundred florins. During 

* Bulletin, p. 541. 


his sojourn in England he prepared a narrative of his sufferings. 
It was published in 1699. It was afterwards published in French 
at Rotterdam in 1701, with an introduction by his former pastor, 
J. Morin. 1 

He thus spent nearly a year, after his release, in Switzerland, 
Holland, and Great Britain in intercession for his companions in 
suffering. Although he had been absent from wife and children 
for more than five years of imprisonment, and was longing to re- 
join them, he did not hesitate to make the sacrifice of another year 
for the redemption of others. His wife seems to have remained 
in New York during this period. s 

He arrived in New York in the spring or summer of 1699 and 
entered into mercantile pursuits, in which he gained the reputation 
of a good merchant 3 and acquired a considerable estate. 

He united with the French Church in New York. His name 
appears on its records from this time onward. When he was 
chosen elder we do not know, but his name appears as elder in two 
official documents, September 1, 1704, and September 10, 1704. 4 
He seems to have become greatly interested in the negro and In- 
dian slaves of New York. His own sufferings in bondage doubt- 
less opened his heart and drew his attention to them. He seems 
to have begun to work among them by gathering them in his own 
house and visiting them in their own homes. He was pressed to 
conform to the Church of England and undertake the work of 
catechist under the direction of the Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel. He found no conscientious difficulty in this step, 
because, as he wrote to the Society in London: "I had learned 
part of the Liturgy by heart in my dungeons and ever since that 
time I have had both affection and esteem for the divine service 
as it is used in the Church of England. Nevertheless, I would 
not condemn all these who are not conformable thereunto; I leave 
that judgment to God." 5 

1 Bulletin, p. 541. I,ichtenberger, sub nom. 

* She was present at the baptism of her niece, Susanne Grazillier, May 20, 1694, and also 
at a baptism March 18, 16Q5 (6>, and again July 5, 1696. 

'September 17, 1699, he was present at the baptism of Elie Pare in the French Church 
of New York. June 25, 1701, he wrote a letter to G. Bernon from New York {Mass. Hist. 
Collections, 3d series, |ii., p. 65). December 30. 1701, he signed a petition to King William 
Hi. In the census of 1703 he is mentioned as in good business, with a family composed of 
eight persons besides himself: three women, two sons, two daughters, and a negro. 
(Baird, in Bulletin, xxiv., p. 275.) 

* Collections Hug. Soc. America, i., pp. 101, 102. 
8 Hawkins, pp. 270-271. 


He was licensed as a catechist August 4, 1704, 1 while still an 
elder in the French Church. But he probably ceased to be an 
elder soon after, for he was chosen vestryman of Trinity Church 
April 10, 1705, in which capacity he served till Easter, 17 14. 
There were two practical difficulties in the way of his conformity 
to the Established Church of England. In the first place, he was 
obliged to separate himself from his countrymen and his ancestral 
worship in the French Reformed Church of New York. This was 
not an easy step to take, for it involved the risk of alienating old 
friends in New England and of offending his countrymen in New 
York. The question of conformity to the Church of England 
troubled the French churches for many years. But he was also 
obliged to lay aside his business in great part. As Chaplain 
Sharp said: "He is a person of great zeal for this pious w r ork. It 
was this that prompted him at first to the undertaking upon the 
bare allowance of ^50 per annum, when in the way of trade, be- 
ing a merchant and in considerable business, he could have cleared 
three times the same yearly. Yet he willingly divested himself of 
his secular affairs that he might the better attend to this." 2 

Here we observe the same heroic spirit that prompted Neau to 
endure the sufferings of a galley slave and prison for the Gospel ; 
and to absent himself from his family for an additional year to 
plead for his fellow-sufferers. He now gave up his religious ties 
to his countrymen, his ancestral mode of worship, his connection 
with the Puritans of New England, and every business prospect 
in order to devote his life to the poor negro and Indian slaves. 
He was not an ordained clergyman. He had not been trained for 
the work of the ministry in academy, college, and university. His 
training had been in Christian experience through incredible suf- 
fering. But this very training enabled him to do the work of a 
true minister of Christ to these poor slaves far better than the 
most highly educated clergyman could have done it. He was one 
of those lay-workers raised up from time to time by God, who by 
Christlike self-sacrifice, devotion, fidelity, courage, and success 
put to shame the ordained priest and bishop. 

Chaplain Sharp gives a touching picture of the work of this good 

"They see him creeping into garrets, cellars, and other nause- 

1 O'Callaghan, Doc. Hist., Hi., p. 129. 

2 Sharp's Proposals, p. 349. 


ons place?, to exhort and pray by the poor slaves when they are 
sick; and they are seriously persuaded he seeks their eternal hap- 
piness by such constancy and unweariedness in his labors; and 
above all they observe his sober and religious deportment, the 
seriousness and severity of his life, and that his family is a little 
chappel where the praises of God are celebrated by reading 
prayers and singing three times every day, and that his house is 
full of hospitality and good works." 

On Wednesday and Friday evenings after dusk "the sixth part 
of the negro and Indian slaves in town, besides children and ap- 
prentices, both English, Dutch, and French, assembled in the 
upper floor of Mr. Neau's own house and crowded it to overflow- 
ing." None of the churches would allow this motley crowd to 
meet in them "because of keeping them clean for the congrega- 
tions." The good Chaplain Sharp strongly urged the erection of 
a catechetical chapel for them. 

Elias Neau had many other difficulties to contend with besides 
these mentioned. Public prejudice was against this education of 
slaves. Sharp so well states the case that we cannot do better 
than to listen to his words : 

"The grounds of their prejudice against it are a vile conceit that 
the negroes have no immortal souls, but are a sort of speaking 
brutes destined by God to a state of servitude. At the same time 
they will urge it as argument for this that they are the seed of 
Cain (their complexion is the mark) and such like ridiculous 

"Another is that Christianity makes them rather worse than 
better, which blasphemy some stick not to urge as a reason why 
they neither instruct them themselves nor allow them to be in- 

It is sad for us to contemplate such a state of opinion in the city 
of New York less than two hundred years ago. But, in fact, these 
opinions of negro slaves were current at the time in New England 
as well as in New York, and some of us remember them in the 
Southern States not many years ago. This was not a question of 
the right or wrong of slavery. Few doubted the right of slavery 
at that time. Scripture and history were cited in favor of an in- 
stitution that was as ancient and as widespread as the world itself. 

The question was as to the wisdom and advantage of giving 
negro slaves a religious education. It is one of the glories of the 


Society for the Propagation of the Gospel that it laid such stress 
upon this neglected work not only in New York but in other colo- 
nies wherever its missionaries went and wherever its influence 
extended. This was due not only to the influence and example 
of Neau, but also to the efforts of the excellent Dr. Bray, George 
Keith, Sharp, and a few others. George Keith, in 1693, published 
a paper in which he "charged the Friends that they should set their 
negroes at liberty after some reasonable time of service," 1 in this, 
as Dr. Moore shows, following the example of George Fox. 

In 1693 Cotton Mather prepared some rules for the Society of 
Negroes in Boston. These were discussed and published by the 
learned Dr. Moore. They were to meet in the evening after the 
Sabbath and pray together by turns, one to begin and another to 
conclude the meeting. "And between the two prayers a psalm 
shall be sung and a sermon repeated." This was a congrega- 
tional service. These rules were such that they bound the negroes 
to strict discipline not only for immoral and irreligious acts, but 
also for disobedience and unfaithfulness to masters, and went so 
far as to pledge them to give no harbor to runaway slaves, but to 
do what they could that they might be discovered and punished." 2 

When Keith conformed to the Church of England and became 
the first travelling missionary of the Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel on April 24, 1702, he gave his great influence to 
the work among negroes and Indians. 

The work of the catechist continued without interruption and 
with continued success until 17 12, when it was put in great peril 
by the outbreak of the negro insurrection in that year. 

In April, 1712, there was a rebellion started by a handful of ig- 
norant slaves that exasperated the community and excited them 
beyond measure. The cathechetical school was closed and the life 
of the catechist was endangered 3 ; " the people was so infuriated 
against him that for some days he durst hardly venture abroad 
through fear of personal violence." 4 

The enemies of the catechetical instruction charged the rebellion 
upon those who instructed the negroes. As Mr. Sharp tells us: 
"The school was charged as the cause of the mischief, the place of 
conspiracy, and that instruction had made them cunning and in* 

• Geo. Moore, Notes on History of Slavery in Mass., p. 79. 

• Rules for the Soc. of Negroes, 1693, by Cotton Mather, published by Geo. Moore, 1888. 

• I^ichtenberger, /. c. 

4 Anderson, Colonial Church, iii., p. 329. 


solent. The catechist and all that were known to favor the de- 
sign were reproached, and the flagitious villany was imputed to 
the catechumens. Yet upon the strictest enquiry and severest 
tryal, where the bare affirmations of infidel evidences who are not 
capable of any other tye to veracity, was sufficient to fix the guilt, 
there were not any found actors or accomplices in the conspiracy 
who had duly attended the catechetical instruction. But two 
were accused, one of whom had been formally baptized and he 
dyed protesting his innocence (but too late for him), pityed and 
declared guiltless even by the prosecutors. The other had made 
some proficience but was not admitted to baptism through the re- 
luctancy of his master whom he had often solicited for it. He 
was an eminent merchant and with his son were both murdered 
in the streets. This negro was hung in chains alive. I went to 
him after he had hung five days: he declared to me he was inno- 
cent of the murder with a seeming concern for his master's mis- 

We may well imagine the grief of Neau, that heroic man, under 
these circumstances. But he had endured the brutality of French 
prisons; he was not to be overcome by the brutality of slave- 
holders in New York. He had been hated and persecuted in 
France. It was no new thing for him to be hated and persecuted 
in America. But these very sufferings aided him in his work. 
These poor slaves saw him "hated and ridiculed and even spite- 
fully used by his Christian brethren for this work's sake. They 
hear their masters and others confidently assert and upbraid them 
that they have no souls, and they observe his care and concern for 
their salvation. They find him constantly attend his stated hours 
of instruction, be there many or few that come to hear him; and 
that he stands a champion for the Christian religion against all the 
insults and blasphemous reflections of those who yet pretend to 
expect salvation of it." 1 

The Common Council of New York passed an order forbidding 
the negroes to appear in the streets after sunset, without lanterns 
or candles. 

This for a while broke off the evening meetings. But Governor 
Hunter visited the school with the chief officers of the city and 
declared "that Mr. Neau had demeaned himself in all things as a 
good Christian and subject; that, in his station as Catechist, he 

1 Sharp, p. 349. 


had, to the great advancement of religion in general and the par- 
ticular benefit of the free Indians, negro slaves, and other heathens 
in these parts, with indefatigable zeal and application, performed 
that service three times a week; and that they did sincerely be- 
lieve, that as a catechist, he did, in a very eminent degree, de- 
serve the countenance, favour, and protection of the Society." 1 

His work among the heathen continued successful until the last. 
In the report of the year 1720 eight of his catechumens were bap- 
tized, four negro men and four negro women. In the report of 
1721, two negro men, one Indian woman, and one mulatto woman 
were baptized. The school was very numerous and nothing was 
spared to encourage the slaves to be instructed in the way of 
salvation. His death did not stay the work ; it was carried 
on at first by the schoolmaster, Mr. Huddlestone, in the new 
steeple of Trinity Church and at his own house, then by Mr. 
Whetmore. 2 

Elias Neau was a quiet and peace-loving man, yet he could not 
avoid complications in the civil and religious conflicts of the 
colony. In everything that he did he was firm, true, and honest. 
He did not hesitate to incur the wrath of the wicked Governor 
Cornbury by advocating the cause of Thoroughgood Moore, who 
had been so shamefully treated by him. He was not always on the 
best terms with Mr. Vesey, and yet he was esteemed by all as a 
most excellent, pious, and faithful Christian. He was sustained 
by the best influences in New York and by the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel until his death, September 3, 1722. 
His remains now lie in the burial-ground of Trinity Church, New 
York, with an humble monument. In the Surrogate's office the 
Will of this admirable man is on record. The Will, like every- 
thing that he did, discloses his simple, childlike, Christian 

We may mention that this catechist, with a salary of ^50 a 
year, left an estate which could not be less than ^1000, a large 
sum for those days. His wife and children had all departed this 
life before him. He divided his estate among his favorite charities, 
friends, and relatives. 

He left ^20 to Trinity Church, doubtless thinking of his negro 
school under its care; ^20 to the French Church for poor French 

1 This is quoted by Anderson from some original document, Hi., p. 331. 
■ See Reports S. P. G., 1720-1, 1721-2, 1722-3. 


refugees. To his ministerial friends he left: £10 each to Daniel 
Bondet of New Rochelle, Lewis Rou of the French Church; £5 
each to Thomas Poyer of Jamaica, Mr. Jenney, chaplain, and Mr. 
Faulkner, the minister of the Lutheran Church, showing the 
breadth of his- ministerial fellowship. He left ,£40 to Daniel Ay- 
zant of Newport, Rhode Island (merchant), who married his niece, 
Marie Robineau. He left ^600 in trust with Trinity Church 
without interest to be paid to the children of his two sisters, Su- 
sanne Girate and Rachel Petelt of Boston, when the youngest be- 
came of age, and also ^100 to three of these children to be paid 
six months after his death. He also left £50 in trust with 
Lewis Rou for the purpose of publishing 152 hymns that he had 
composed in the French language. Several of these had been 
published in his narrative, but whether the others were ever actu- 
ally published in accordance with this trust we have no knowl- 

He left £25 to William Vesey and £20 to Albert Moore to repay 
them for their trouble in carrying out the terms of the will, show- 
ing that he died in peace with Mr. Vesey and with confidence in 
his integrity and Christian character. 

The remainder of his estate was divided equally between his two 
cousins, Elias Grazillier and Jude Robineau, the sons of his sisters- 
in-law. The will was signed August 15, 1722, shortly before his 

Thus closed an eventful life of sixty-two years, eighteen of 
which he had passed at home in his native land, in peril of ever- 
increasing persecutions; seven years a fugitive in the West Indies, 
until he was compelled to flee to Boston; six years in obscurity 
in New England; six years a galley-slave and in dungeons in 
France; one year an intercessor for his fellow-sufferers; six years 
a successful merchant; eighteen years a catechist of negro and 
Indian slaves in New York. Such was his heroic life. Many a 
saint in the Roman calendar has suffered less and accomplished 
less than Neau for the cause of Jesus Christ. Neau is worthy of 
a distinguished place among the saints of the modern world whose 
names are written in heaven. For certainly there are few in 
modern history so resplendent with the beatitudes of our Saviour 
and so marked with the graces and the scars of the victors of the 
Apocalypse. This is one of those few names that all American 
Christians can unite in honoring. He was a Christian who rose 


above sectarian and provincial prejudices. He was a Christian 
who, like the Master, had no bitter words for his persecutors. He 
was a Christian who sought above all things the salvation of the 
meanest and weakest of men. He served slaves in this world. 
He will reign over kings in the world to come. 


By Miss Anna M. Cummings 

As a representative of the Huguenot College and Seminaries of 
South Africa, institutions established as monuments in memory of 
the early Huguenot settlers there, it is a great privilege and 
pleasure to meet to-night those who represent the Huguenots of 
America. Nearly two and a half centuries ago the Dutch East 
India Company, under the charter granted to them by the States- 
General of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, established a 
garrison on the shores of Table Bay. European possession of 
South Africa may date from that time, although the Portuguese 
and English had long before then visited and even formally 
claimed dominion there. In i486, Diaz, under the commission of 
John II. of Portugal, rounded the Cape, and in remembrance of 
the rough seas there met named it Cabo Tormentos, — Cape of 
Storms, — but King John, joyful that there was now promise of the 
long-desired ocean route to India, changed the name to Cape of 
Good Hope. 

Da Gama, in his voyage in 1497, was the first to touch at points 
along the coast and hold intercourse with the natives, and it was 
he who gave to "the beautiful land that they passed on the 25th 
of December, 1497, the name of Natal, in memory of the day 
when Christian men first saw it." The English were the next to 
show themselves there, and Francis Drake, knighted by the 
Queen on the completion of his voyage, sailed from Plymouth in 
1577 in the Pelican, which reached England again on November 
3, 1580, the first English ship to round the world. 

In an account of this voyage we find the following paragraph: 
"We ran hard aboard the Cape, finding the report of the Portu- 
guese to be most false who affirm that it is the most dangerous 
cape of the w T orld, never without intolerable storms and present 
danger to travellers who come near the same. This Cape is a most 
stately thing, and the fairest cape we saw in the whole circumfer- 
ence of the earth and we passed it on the 1st of June." A few 
years later, in 1589, the celebrated Dutch explorer, Jan Huyghen 

1 Read before the Society Jan. 21, 1897. 


Van Linschoten, when homeward bound in a Portuguese ship, en- 
countered a violent storm when off the Cape, and in his narrative 
says: "When we were in this distress our captain observed that 
nothing surprised him more than that God the Lord caused them 
who were good Christians and Catholics with large and strong 
ships, always to pass the Cape with such great and violent tem- 
pests and damage, and the English, who were heretics and blas- 
phemers passed it so easily with small and weak ships." 

The Dutch at first, in 1652, simply occupied the Cape as a sta- 
tion or place of resort for the Dutch ships trading to the eastward, 
where they could get water and fresh supplies, and recruit their 
sick crews. There was no attempt at planting a colony until sev- 
eral years afterward, and then it was of so anomalous a character, 
and under such peculiar circumstances, as to contrast most curi- 
ously with similar movements elsewhere. 

Jan Anthony Van Riebeck, a surgeon in the employ of the 
Dutch East India Company, who had directed the attention of his 
masters to the advantage of establishing a rendezvous at the Cape 
of Good Hope, for the refreshment of their fleets, was the first 
officer commissioned to occupy the Cape Promontory and build a 
fort and lay out gardens in Table Valley. Accompanied by about 
a hundred souls, he arrived under the shade of Table Mountain on 
the 5th of April, 1652. His followers were officers and servants 
of the Company, a few of whom, after landing, were released from 
their engagements and permitted to become "free burghers," or 
cultivators of the soil, on payment of tithes and other restrictive 
conditions of servitude. The daily life they led and the progress 
made are minutely detailed in the quaint and interesting journal 
and despatches of Van Riebeck, w T hich are still preserved in the 
archives of the colony. These show that the settlement was 
simply regarded as a dependency of the Company and its affairs 
administered with no other view than that of protecting and sup- 
porting the commercial interests of that body. The principal ob- 
ject was to supply its ships cheaply and plentifully, to get as much 
profit as possible out of the burghers and the natives on w r hom it 
was dependent for these supplies, and to prevent their engaging 
in exchange or barter with any other than the Company's officers, 
thus monopolizing all trade for its own advantage. Van Riebeck 
was very zealous in carrying out the instructions and policy of his 
principals, and in his relations with the natives was tolerably just 

ii 9 

and friendly. For the ten years of his administration the settle- 
ment, which scarcely extended over the area now occupied by the 
city of Cape Town, seems to have answered expectations. It was 
nothing as a colony, but it was considered a nourishing establish- 
ment of the "cabbage-garden order," and that was all it was then 
desired to be. 

During the following years the Company was advised by some 
of Van Riebeck's successors, and notably by Governor Van der 
Stel, to make something more of its Cape dependency; to grow 
corn, wine, and other products which might yield rich returns. 
For this purpose it was urged that the number of residents should 
be increased, as there was land of excellent character in abun- 
dance, but laborers were required to till it. In order to remedy 
this the directors of the Company in Holland determined to rein- 
force their garrison with a number of settlers of the agricultural 

It was no easy matter to find large numbers of Dutch who were 
willing to leave their fatherland, where was a prosperous country, 
plenty of employment for all, and no sectarian persecution to drive 
them into exile; yet in Holland for a century numerous immi- 
grants from the southern Netherland Provinces had gradually 
increased the population. Many of these immigrants spoke no 
other language than the French, and wherever they settled in 
sufficiently large numbers clergymen using that language were 
appointed to conduct religious services for them. In this man- 
ner many French and Walloon congregations were established 
throughout the Free Netherlands. 

These congregations, however, did not form separate churches, 
but only new branches of churches which previously existed in 
the towns where they settled. In the same building where the 
ordinary Dutch services were held, French services were con- 
ducted at different hours, the whole body of worshippers being 
united in one church, with its deacons, elders, and other officers. 
When, about the year 1670, the large stream of emigration which 
was the result of cruelties inflicted by Louis XIV. upon his Prot- 
estant subjects commenced to set out of France, there was no 
country to which the refugees looked more hopefully than towards 
the United Provinces. A few of the refugees who left France be- 
tween 1670 and 1685 entered the service of the East India Com- 
pany and some of these were stationed in South Africa. 


Dominiques de Chavonnes, the officer in command of the garri- 
son at this time, was one. These, though only three or four in 
the course of the two years following 1685, were persons of irre- 
proachable character, who gave no trouble to the government or 
employment to the courts of law. 

The ordinances which revoked the Edict of Nantes, though they - 
forbade the emigration of Protestants, gave a tremendous impetus 
to the movement. When the directors of the East India Company 
met in the autumn of 1687 it seemed possible to obtain some Pied- 
montese and French families as colonists and they therefore re- 
solved to make the attempt. How successful they were may be 
seen from the fact that this offer was accepted by about two hun- 
dred men, women, and children, according to Theal, though 
other, possibly less reliable, historians add another hundred to 
this estimate. A despatch was sent to inform Governor Van der 
Stel of the large body of freemen he might soon expect. 

"Among them," says the despatch, "are persons who under- 
stand the culture of the vine, who will in time be able to benefit 
the Company and themselves. We consider that as these people 
know how to manage with very little, they will without difficulty 
be able to accommodate themselves to their work at the Cape, 
especially as they feel themselves safe under a mild Government, 
and freed from the persecution which they suffered. It will be 
your duty, as they are destitute of everything, on their arrival to 
furnish them with what they may require for their subsistence 
until they are settled and can earn their own livelihood." 

They were promised that a clergyman speaking the French lan- 
guage should accompany them, that they should be at liberty to 
return to Europe after the expiration of five years if they should 
desire to do so, while as a further inducement they were offered a 
gratuity of from ,£5 to £8 6s. 8d., according to circumstances, to 
every head of a family, and from £2 10s. to £4. 35. ^d. to every 
young unmarried man or woman, to aid in procuring an outfit. 
They were to be provided w r ith free passage and with farms in full 
property without payment. They were to be supplied with all re- 
quired farming stock at cost price on credit. They were to sub- 
scribe to the same oaths of allegiance as those taken by persons 
born in the United Provinces and were to be in all respects treated 
in the same manner and to enjoy the same privileges. While 
making such efforts to procure Huguenot emigration, the directors 



had no intention cf making the Cape a French colon}'. Owing 
to the competition arising from the influx of such a number of 
refugees, it was now less difficult than it had hitherto been to ob- 
tain emigrants of Dutch blood, of whom more families than of 
French origin were being sent out at the same time, so that these, 
together with the settlers already in South Africa, w T ould absorb 
the foreign element without undergoing any change. At no time 
did the French exceed in number one sixth of the colonists, who 
were at this time about fourteen hundred. 

The directors hoped that the Huguenots would supply the 
knowledge which the Dutch colonists lacked in some particular 
kinds of industry believed to be suited to South Africa, such as the 
manufacture of wine and brandy and the cultivation of olives; 
the vine there bore grapes equal in flavor to any in the world, yet 
the wine and brandy made hitherto were greatly inferior to those 
of Europe. Some of the Huguenots sent out were men who had 
been reared among the vineyards and olive-groves of France and 
who were acquainted not only with the best methods of cultivat- 
ing the vines and the trees, but with the manufacture of wine, 
brandy, and oil. At the same time the directors were careful to 
lay down the rule that such occupations were not to be pursued to 
the neglect of the more important industries of growing wheat and 
rearing cattle. 

Arrangements were made by the different chambers of the East 
India Company for the passages of the Huguenot emigrants to the 
colony, as they could not all embark at the same port, having been 
engaged in different provinces; but as far as possible families and 
friends were kept together. They were sent out in the ships 
Voorschoten, Borsse?iburg, Oosterland, China, Zuid Beveiand. The 
first of these, the Voorschote?i, sailed from Delftshaven on the 31st 
of December, 1687, with twenty-two passengers whose names are 
given in the archives of the colony according to a despatch from 
the Chamber of Delft to the Cape Government. 

The Borssenburg sailed January 6, 1688, but her passenger list 
has disappeared from the archives of the colony and also from The 
Hague. The Oosterland left Middleburg January 29, 1688, with 
twenty-four passengers whose names are found in full in the 
despatch from that place, and after the quickest run then on 
record, eighty-seven days, cast anchor in Table Bay. 

On the 20th of March, the China sailed from Rotterdam with 


thirty-four passengers, but she was seven months on the way, and 
her crew and passengers were nearly all sick, and twenty persons, 
of whom twelve were French refugees, had died during the pas- 
sage. Fifteen days later the Zuid Beveland arrived from Middle- 
burg, but the only names of passengers on record are those of 
V Pierre Simond of Dauphine, minister of the Gospel, and Aung 
de Beront his wife." The arrival of their pastor had been looked 
forward to with anxiety by the Huguenots already there so that 
there was a little crowd of people waiting to welcome him on the 
wooden jetty, then the only pier in Table Bay; The Dutch were 
accustomed to treat their clergyman with great respect, but they 
were incapable of participating in such feelings as those with 
which the Huguenots regarded their pastor. A French Protestant 
clergyman in those days was of necessity a man of earnest faith, 
of great bravery, of entire self-devotion, and such a man naturally 
inspired strong attachment. 

In the great persecution under Louis XIV. the pastors stand 
out prominently as the most fearless of men. Nothing short of 
death could silence them, there was no form of suffering which 
they were not prepared to endure rather than forsake what they 
believed to be the truth. It was not from any superstitious rever- 
ence for their office, but on account of their force of character, 
that they were regarded with the highest esteem and affection. 
The Rev. Mr. Simond was a man of determined will, who possessed 
just those qualifications which would cause him to be regarded by 
his flock as a fit guide and counsellor in secular as well as in re- 
ligious matters. A quantity of his correspondence is still in ex- 
istence and in it he shows himself to have been somewhat lacking 
in charity toward those who differed from him in opinion, but 
that was the fault of the age rather than of the man. For his 
faith he gloried in having suffered, and for those of his own religion 
there was no sacrifice which he was not capable of making. As 
for the members of his congregation, their interests and his own 
were inseparable. The little band of refugees who were about to 
make a home for themselves and their children therefore felt their 
circle more complete after his arrival. 

The Huguenots landed in South Africa without any property 
in goods or money. The East India Company sent out a quantity 
of ship's biscuit, peas, and salt meat to be served out to them as 
provisions for a few months, and deal planks to make the wood- 


work of temporary houses. Whatever else they needed was 
he supplied on credit from the Company^s stores. From Europe 
they had no assistance to expect, for the demands upon the purses 
of the benevolent there were unceasing. A fund for their benefit 
was raised in the colony, to which each individual contributed 
in cattle, grain, or money according to his circumstances. The 
amount subscribed is not mentioned, but Commander Van der Stel 
reported that it was very creditable to the old colonists and very 
serviceable to the refugees. It was given to the Rev. Mr. Simond 
and the deacons at Stellenbosch for distribution. 

The burgher council furnished six wagons free of charge to con- 
vey the immigrants to their destination. Some of the Huguenots 
were located in and about Stellenbosch, but the larger number at 
Drakenstein and Fransche Hoek, or as the Huguenots called it, 
La petite Rochelle. Particular care was taken not to locate them 
by themselves, but to mix them as much as possible with the 
Dutch colonists who were already there, or w 7 ho were arriving at 
the same time. This was almost from the day of their landing a 
point of disagreement between them and their commander, for 
they expressed a strong desire not to be separated. Several even 
refused to accept the allotments of ground which were offered to 
them, and in preference engaged themselves as servants to some 
of the others. 

A few months after the first party of Huguenots left the Nether- 
lands others followed, who arrived in 1689, and shortly after their 
arrival a gift of 1250 English sovereigns from the Board of Deacons 
of Batavia was received to be distributed among them according 
to their need. It was decided that all the Huguenots should share 
in this gift save a few who were otherwise provided for. A copy 
of the list of distribution is in the archives at The Hague and, with 
a few names added from another document, forms a complete list 
of Huguenots settled in South Africa at this time; according to 
Theal, those who received a share numbered 158 and those who 
were not in need of assistance only 18. 

With most of the Huguenots the first difficulties of settling in a 
new country were speedily overcome; houses were built, — very 
small and rough, it is true, with thatched roofs and clay walls, 
but still giving shelter from sun and storm, — gardens were placed 
under cultivation, and as the crops of the first season were particu- 
larly good there was no want for any of the necessaries of life. 


Let us fellow the wagons of those refugees as they wound over 
the hills above Stelleubosch into the picturesque valleys of the 
Drakenstein and Fransche Hoek, where have been preserved 
more than in any other part of South Africa the names, homes, 
and characteristics of the early Huguenots. "They named," 
says Noble, " the places where they settled after the Gallic homes, 
whence they came, La Parais, La Motte, Rhone, Languedoc, La 
Rochelle, Xormandie, and the like. The mountain scenery around 
is very magnificent, towering up in rugged and imposing bluffs 
and buttresses: and from one of the heights a waterfall descends 
some three or four hundred feet, forming in winter a grand sight 
and even in the driest season washing the rocks and trees below 
with perpetual spray. 

" The homesteads are generally along the course of the Berg 
River, or its tributary, the Dwaars. They stand in the midst of 
orange, naartje, otherwise known as mandarin, or lemon groves, 
which occasionally number as many as a thousand trees in one 
clump. Their appearance at any time is exceedingly fine, but 
especially in September, when the orange is laden with its golden 
fruit and fragrant blossom, the vines are shooting out their first 
coat of bright green, the spreading ' veldt ' is gay with flowering 
bush, and the mountains high above are here and there tipped 
with the remains of the winter snow still tying in their craggy 

Fransche Hoek is at the extreme end of the valley, forming a 
charming little hamlet engirt with hills. It was there that the 
three brothers, de Villiers, from whom are descended the exten- 
sive colonial family of that name, first settled, in what year his- 
torians disagree, some saying as early as 1670, and others as late 
as 1690; and the ruins of the original house built by them of 
moulded clay with red covering may still be seen. Lower down, 
near Simon's Valley, is the site of the old church in which they 
worshipped; and there their descendants have erected a memorial 
school named Simondium, in commemoration of the first French 
pastor, Pierre Simond, who accompanied them to the colony. 

With regard to church services an arrangement was made that 
the Rev. Mr. Simond should preach in French on alternate Sun- 
days at Stellenbosch and at the house of a burgher at Draken- 
stein. The "sick-comforter," Mankadan, was to read a sermon 
and prayers in Dutch at Stellenbosch when the minister was at 


Drakenstein, and at Drakenstein when the minister was at Stellen- 

Once in three months the Rev. Mr. Simond was to preach at the 
Cape and then the Rev. Mr. Van Andel was to hold service in 
Dutch and administer the sacraments at Stellenbosch. This was 
in accordance with the custom in the Netherlands or as closely so 
as the circumstances would permit. There the refugees as they 
arrived formed branch congregations of established churches; in 
the colony they formed a branch congregation of the church of 
Stellenbosch. That church, though as yet without a resident 
Dutch clergyman, had a fully organized consistory, which was 
presided over by the minister in the capacity of counsellor. It 
was an arrangement designed to meet the wants of both sections 
of the community, but it did not satisfy the French, who desired 
to have a church entirely their own and considered this to have 
been implied in the promise made to them that they should have 
a clergyman of their own. An application to Van der Stel to be 
permitted to establish a separate congregation of their own at 
Drakenstein met with a stern refusal, whereupon there was noth- 
ing to be done but await a reply from the Supreme Authorities, to 
whom the Rev. Mr. Simond had written some five months earlier 
concerning their grievances, and for a time the two nationalities so 
soon thereafter to be blended regarded each other with a bitter 
spirit of hostility. In 1690, however, the Assembly of Seventeen 
took into consideration the request of the Rev. Mr. Simond on 
behalf of the Huguenots at the Cape and resolved to permit 
them to establish a church at Drakenstein under the following 
conditions : 

1. The deacons and elders chosen yearly were to be approved 
of by the council of policy — which meant in practice that a double 
list of names should be submitted by the retiring officers, the same 
as at Stellenbosch, from which the council should make a selection 
of deacons, and that the elders nominated by the consistory could 
be rejected if they were not considered suitable persons. 

2. A political commissioner was to have a seat in the consistory. 

3. Important matters were to be brought before the church 
council of the Cape, in which deputies from the church consistories 
were to have seats. 

4. The consistory of Drakenstein was to have control of the 
poor funds raised by the congregation, but contributions sent from 



abroad were to be under the control of the combined church 

Those who were located at Drakenstein had hardly got a roof 
over their heads when the}' addressed the commander on the sub- 
ject of a school for the education of their children. He approved 
of their request, and on the Sth of November, 1688, Paul Roux of 
Orange in France, who understood both French and Dutch, was 
appointed schoolmaster of Drakenstein. He was to receive a sal- 
ary of 25J. and a ration of 12s. 6d. a month, and in addition to his 
duties as teacher he was to act as church clerk. The Assembly 
of Seventeen sent instructions that the teachers at Stellenbosch and 
Drakenstein were to be men who understood both languages, and 
care was to be taken that the French children should be instructed 
in Dutch. The despatch in which these resolutions w T ere embodied 
reached the Cape in June, 1691, after which date the parishes of 
Drakenstein and Stellenbosch were separated. Before this time 
most of the Huguenots who had been located elsewhere had 
managed to purchase ground at Drakenstein, and when the next 
census was taken only three French families were found residing 
at Stellenbosch. 

Already there had been several intermarriages, and hencefor- 
ward the blending of the two nationalities proceeded so rapidly 
that in the course of two generations the descendants of the 
Huguenot refugees were not to be distinguished from other colon- 
ists except by their names. 

La Vaillant, the French naturalist, travelling through these 
regions nearly a hundred years later, gives a most entertaining 
account of his experiences. In regard to Fransche Hoek or French 
Corner he says: " The soil of it is good and it produces plenty of 
corn and wine. The best bread of all the colonies is eaten here; 
but this is not owing to the corn being better than it is in any 
other place, it is because the French methods introduced by the 
emigrants have since been preserved from father to son. This is 
all that remains of the remembrance of their ancient and cruel 
country. In this canton I found only one old man who spoke 
French: some families, however, still retain their primitive names 
and write them as they were written formerly. I have known 
here Malherbes, Dutoits, Retifs, Cochers, and some others whose 
names are familiar in France." 

Were it possible for us to trace even in the briefest manner the 


history of these Huguenots in South Africa from the early part of 
the eighteenth century, it must inevitably be the same as that 
of the Dutch farmers or Boers. 

The story of their grievances under the rule of the Dutch East 
India Company is vividly set forth by the compilers of the annals 
of the Company during this period, who assure us that "under the 
system which prevailed not even the garden of Eden could have 
been successfully colonized; for the Governor listened readily 
only to reasons that jingled." Many of these farmers began then 
that nomad habit of "trekking" which has continued on the 
borders even to the present day. While the colony was thus en- 
larged, the small population was spread over an immense area, 
isolated, uncared for, and consequently, in some degree, drifting 
away from civilization. Happily most of the people carried with 
them an attachment for the simple teaching and religious observ- 
ancesof the Reformed Church, wmose beneficial influences prevented 
them and their descendants from altogether lapsing into semi- 
barbarism: and to the present time " the traveller in the interior 
will find the scattered ' trek-boers,' how r ever rough and uncouth, 
saluting their Maker at early dawm w r ith prayer and praise, while 
every evening the patriarch of the family reads the accustomed 
chapter from the cherished Bible." 

Theal says of these early colonists: " They maybe the poorest, 
but are not the least courageous or liberty-loving people of any 
country who go forth to found colonies in distant lands, and as- 
suredly the men who built up the European power in South Africa 
were, in those qualities which ought to command esteem, no whit 
behind the pioneers of any colony in the w r orld. 

"They brought to this country [South Africa] an unconquer- 
able love of liberty, a spirit of patient industry, a deep-seated feel- 
ing of trust in the Almighty God." With virtues such as these 
they will surely do the w r ork which Providence has marked out for 
them in the land of their children's home. 

It does not come within our province to follow the fortunes of 
South Africa in the varying vicissitudes of the nineteenth century 
which are familiar to us all, — the treaty of 1814, by which the Cape 
Colony formally came under British rule, the emancipation of the 
slaves, and the emigration of large numbers of farmers in 1835 and 
1836, Africander Boers of Huguenot and Dutch descent, into the 
country beyond the Orange River. There they separated, one 


party crossing the Drakensberg Mountains and founding what is 
now the colony of Natal ; another party crossing the Vaal River 
and planting what is now the auriferous Transvaal Republic; 
while still another purchased leases of land near the Orange River 
forming what is now the Orange Free State and then included the 
diamond-producing territory of Griqualand west. 

The question naturally arises, " Where are the Huguenots of 
South Africa to-day ? " A glance at the daily papers of that land, 
into the records of every department of government and educa- 
tion, will reveal the place that the Huguenots are holding, whether 
they be the Boers of the Transvaal, Orange Free State, Natal, and 
Cape Colony, or the lawyers and physicians, pastors of the 
churches, teachers in the schools, professors in the colleges, or 
high officials in government. From the Zambesi River to Table 
Bay, from Port Nolluth to Lorenco Marques, everywhere are 
found the footprints of the Huguenot. 

The historian of South Africa, George McCallTheal, from whose 
volumes much here presented has been drawn, has in his posses- 
sion a large amount of material gathered through years of diligent 
research by Mr. Christoffel Coetzee de Villiers, whose sudden 
death ten years ago while yet in the prime of life took away the 
one most fully qualified to bring out a history of the Huguenots 
in South Africa. Mr. Theal has not felt at liberty to incorporate 
in his own histories the results left by Mr. de Villiers to him as a 
literary legacy, but hopes in the near future to verify, complete, 
and give to the public this valuable contribution to the history of 
the Huguenot refugees should the funds sufficient to compile and 
publish be forthcoming. 

Mr. de Villiers commenced the compilation of the Cape family 
registers in 1882, at first limiting himself to working out the pedi- 
grees of his own family; but, finding these so very numerous, he 
determined to include in it all the well-known old Cape families. 
The information collected he obtained from the Cape Archives to 
some extent, but chiefly from the Deeds Registry and the Cape 
church books, the marriage registers of which he investigated to 
as late a date as 18 15; by personal enquiry from members of the 
different families; and by going through and comparing such pedi- 
grees as they possessed. One volume, which deals with families 
beginning with the first ten letters of the alphabet, A to J, entitled, 
Geslacht Register der oude Kaapsche Familie, edited by Mr. Theal 

I2 9 

from Mr. de Yilliers's papers, appeared in 1893, *ke Colonial Gov- 
ernment advancing the funds for its publication. Mr. de Villiers 
left some " Notes on Huguenot Families at the Cape," containing 
such information as he had been able to collate about the places 
from which they came, and other interesting items. 1 

No sketch of the Huguenots in South Africa would be complete 
without a reference to the Huguenot Bi-Centenary observed in 
1885, and the founding and growth of the Huguenot College and 
Seminaries. The Cape Times of October 31, 1885, contains the 
following paragraph: " Celebrations which had lately taken place 
in Cape Town, Stellenbosch, and Paarl in connection with the day 
commemorating the arrival of the Huguenots in South Africa were 
brought to a fitting conclusion in the place (Wellington) where 
most if not all the inhabitants were their descendants. Proceed- 
ings were enlivened by the presence of his Honor the Chief J ustice, 
Sir Henry de Villiers, Professor Marais, and others, among them 
Mr. H. E. Bright, Resident Magistrate of Stellenbosch, w T ho gave 
an address in French in the afternoon." 

At the close of the public exercises a memorial address was 
signed by one hundred and sixty persons of Huguenot descent 
bearing French names. The address contained among other 
things the following: 

" More than fifty years ago your missionaries on their way to 
the interior, tarrying here, left M. Bisseux to remain with us, at 
the urgent request of your brothers here. Our thought to-day is 
to send you a letter signed by those who bear the Huguenot 
names. The language but not the faith is lost. Although not more 
than three churches bear strictly Huguenot names, yet scattered 
through our Colonies more than half the inhabitants are of 
Huguenot blood though they do not bear the names." 

The most important event of the day was the laying of the 
corner-stone of a new building, the gift of the Hon. E. A. Good- 
now of Worcester, Mass., U. S. A., to the Huguenot Seminary, 
founded some eleven years before as a permanent memorial to the 
Huguenot ancestors of the present inhabitants. 

In 1872 a long-felt desire on the part of the descendants of the 
Huguenots in South Africa that they might establish a suitable 
memorial for the refugees who had on account of their faith left 

1 A copy of these Notes in an English translation is in the Library of the Huguenot 
Society of America and is printed at the end of this volume. 


home and friends that the}- might there serve God in liberty and 
in truth, found expression in the following paragraph, written by 
Rev. Andrew Murray, in the Kerb-bode, the religious organ of the 
Reformed Church in South Africa: 

"At the commemoration of the Reformation the solemn duty 
was poiuted out resting upon us as the heirs of the names and the 
faith of the fathers to cherish carefully and use faithfully the 
charge committed to us. The seed which God amid such terrible 
siftings had brought into this quiet corner of the world, as into a 
safe garner, must be precious and of great price in God's sight. 
It is His will that that seed should now be scattered that it may 
bring forth much fruit. How can we better fulfil this purpose of 
God than by establishing on this sacred spot where the Huguenots 
first found rest and on their own soil might again worship God, a 
school consecrated to their memory, to the preservation and dis- 
semination of the faith for which they did not count their lives 
dear unto them, and so to the glory of God who counted us worthy 
to be the descendants of such a parentage, and has hitherto pre- 
served to us the precious legacy they left us ? It is the trust that 
the Huguenot Seminary at Wellington will realize such a destiny 
that we would arise and build. God from heaven will prosper us. 
In this assurance we dedicate our Institution to the mercy and 
truth shown to our fathers and to the glory of His name among 
the succeeding generations of our children." 

A year later the farmers of the district first settled by the 
Huguenots brought in their offerings for this memorial Huguenot 
Seminary. Mr. Murray had read the life of Mary Lyon and was 
deeply impressed with the work she accomplished in founding 
Mt. Hoi yoke College. " Nowhere," he says in a later address, 
" could such a school have originated but in New England, no- 
where but there could it have succeeded and become the great tree 
giving its fruit to be carried to distant lands and planted as the 
seed of similar institutions, where hand and head and heart could 
be trained into healthy and harmonious perfection. 

\* In God's own time the seed was brought over. The question 
has been often asked as to how it came, when all our connections 
would more naturally have led us to seek for educational aid from 
Europe, that relations were established with A.merica. !" The an- 
swer has more than once been given: We had nowhere heard of 
an institution in which thorough intellectual development, a con- 


seerated Christian life, and practical domestic training had so 
directly been set forth as the aim of education, and where the 
teaching of the boarding school so united school teaching with 
home training. But to-day we can give another answer: It 
was the Lord's doing. He had so ordered it that the descendants 
of the Puritan and Huguenot refugees whose footsteps had trod- 
den the sands of Delftshaven should meet again, and that here in 
Africa they should together labor for the maintenance of the faith 
for which their fathers had equally suffered, and be a blessing to 
the children of the people who had given them refuge for the sake 
of their faith." 

In December, 1896, was laid at Wellington the corner-stone of 
the first building set apart for the distinctively college work of the 
Huguenot memorial institutions. In Cape Colony, the Orange 
Free State, and Natal are to be found the branches of the school 
planted at Wellington in 1874. Of the more than eight hundred 
students now receiving instruction at these seminaries in a cur- 
riculum ranging from the kindergarten through college work 
more than half are the daughters of the Huguenots. No grander 
monument to the memory of the Huguenot refugees exists to-day 
than the lives of these young women of South Africa as they have 
gone out, five hundred of them as teachers, fifty as missionaries to 
the heathen, all to make Christian homes and become a power for 
such good in that land as would have made those early " exiles 
for conscience' sake" rejoice amid their persecutions could they 
have seen the outcome. 1 

1 Copies of the sketch of these Huguenot memorial institutions can be had on applica- 
tion to the Secretary at the Library of the Huguenot Society of America. 


Presented to the Society on February 28, 1899, by their Donor, 
Judge A. T. Clearwater 


No. 1. Obv. Bust of Pope Gregory XIII. to left. Leg.: GRE- 
gorivs xiii. pont. max. an. I. [In the first 
year of Gregory XIII. Pontifex Maximus.] 
(Below F. P., i. e., Federigo Bonzcqra, called Par- 

Rev. Destroying angel with sword and cross: men and 
women dead, wounded, and flying before her. 
Leg.: VGONOTTORVM strages 1572. [Massacre 
of the Huguenots, 1572.] 

This is the Papal medal commemorating this 

No. 2. Another similar, but from a different die. 

No. 3. Obv. Bust of Charles IX. of France to left. Leg.: 


1572. [Charles IX., by the grace of God invin- 
cible king of France, 1572.] 
Rev. The King seated on canopied throne: holding 
sword: palm-branch and sceptre: his feet rest on 
the slaughtered Huguenots. Leg. : virtvs in 
rebelles. [Valor against rebels.] 

This is the French medal on the same event. 
No. 4. Obv. The arms of France crossed between two columns. 

Palm-branches, etc. Leg. : pietas excitavit 
ivstitiam— 24 avgvsti 1572. [Piety called out 
justice (of treatment) Aug. 24, 1572.] 
Rev. Same as the preceding. 




No. 5. Obv. The Pope seated on a many-headed monster which 
devours its victims: on one side stands a figure 
with sword and manacles and on the other a Jesuit. 
Leg. : supra DEVM post perniciem. [God above, 
destruction behind.] 
Rev. Execution of the Reformers: Some led to execu- 
tion, another dragged to horse's tail. Leg. : ex 
martyris palm,e. [After martyrdom the palm 
of victory.] 

This and Nos. 6 and 7 are the Dutch memorials 
of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. 
No. 6. Obv. Religion. Her foot on the Papal tiara and ser- 
pent, holding out in both hands a cornucopia from 
which she pours coins to two Reformers. Leg. : 


brethren in the faith, Savoyards and French.] 
Rev. Woman tied to a stake and being burnt: on left a 
priest, on right a French soldier: in the distance 
ships and burning city. Leg. : dominus liberabit. 
[The Lord will deliver.] 

No. 7. Obv. Priest on donkey the body of which is covered 
with heads of Reformers: he holds flag on which 
is represented the devil : from his mouth proceeds 
the word diabolvs. Leg. : ita domine ! QUic- 
quis doces jer. 5, 30,31. [So Lord ! Thou who 
teachest: Jer. v., 30, 31.] 
Rev. Spider on web: behind which is the Sarbonne. 
Leg. : non aquilis leve texit opvs. [Not for 
eagles does he make a slight piece of work.] 

No. 8. Obv. Bust of Louis XIV. to right. Leg. : ludovicus 


[Louis the Grand, the most Christian king. I. 

Rev. Religion holding a cross and trampling on dead 
Reformers: behind is temple, etc. Leg.: extinct a 
eleresis. — edictvm octobris mdclxxxv. [Her- 
esy crushed. Edict of October, 1685.] 

This is the French memorial on the revocation 
of the Edict of Nantes. 


No. 9. Obv. The Belgic Lion supporting shield of Utrecht: one 
foot on overturned beehive. Leg. : hostibus ense 
minans miseros scit pascere melle. [Threat- 
ening his foes with the sword, he knows how to 
feed the wretched with hone}*.] 
Rev. Inscription commemorating the reception of the „ 
refugees by the state of Utrecht in Holland, and 
their gratitude for this asylum. 

This medal was struck by order of the refugees 
in Holland. 

During ray stay in London some years ago, I spent many hours 
in the British Museum, where I was permitted to examine at leisure 
numerous rare things. The Department of Coins and Medals is 
singularly interesting. Among its treasures is a complete collec- 
tion of the medals, Papal, Huguenot, and Dutch, struck to com- 
memorate the massacre of St. Bartholomew in 1572'^and the revo- 
cation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685. Being courteously invited 
to breakfast by the Huguenot Society of London, I met some of 
its most charming members. The Right Honorable Sir Henry 
Austin Layard was then and for some time afterwards the Presi- 
dent of that Society. After my return to Kingston, we had some 
correspondence regarding the Huguenot settlements in America, 
and knowing him to be a trustee of the British Museum and be- 
cause of his researches at Nineveh and his contributions to the 
collections of the Museum a potent member of the Board, ^1 asked 
him to obtain permission for me to have facsimile reproductions 
of the Huguenot medals made for presentation to our Society. 
He did so, and through his kindness and that of the Honorable 
Reginald Faber of Primrose Hill, then the Secretary of the Lon- 
don Society, I was enabled to interest Mr. Henry Grueber, the 
Superintendent of the Department of Coins and Medals, in the 
work. The reproductions were skilfully and successfully made 
by one. of the most expert medallists in London, and it has afforded 
me great pleasure to present them to our Society. 

The exact responsibility for the issue of the Romanist medals 
has never been satisfactorily traced, and the many obstacles in the 
way of so doing will probably never be removed until the archives 
of the Vatican are opened to the scholars and antiquarians of the 
world. That they were authorized by the Papal Nuncio to the 



French Court, as once claimed, has not been sufficiently proven, 
and Van Loon, the great Dutch authority upon the subject, seems 
to have been in some doubt as to who directed their being struck 
and circulated, although it is authoritatively established that they 
were struck at the Royal mint. That attempts were made to col- 
lect and suppress them is so well known as to admit of no dispute, 
and the only complete collections now extant are said to be those 
of the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris, and that of the British 
Museum of which these are copies. They carry with them, how- 
ever, the most irrefutable evidence of the exultation felt in France 
over the unparalleled act of folly by which she lost nearly eight 
hundred thousand of her most industrious and intelligent citizens, 
one half of whom perished in prison, at the gallows, or upon the 
scaffold, and the residue of whom sought in other lands that 
liberty of conscience so cruelly and wantonly denied them in 
their own. 

Of all the crimes that have disgraced Christendom, none are 
more deeply dyed with the blood of the innocent, and none more 
recklessly idiotic than those which these medals commemorate. 
The most Christian king who ruled France at the time of the 
revocation of the great Edict with one stroke of his pen made his 
kingdom desolate and his memory infamous. The wily Cardinal 
whose ambition it was that his name should go down the ages as 
one of the great statesmen of history has left the world in doubt 
whether his advice to his royal master ranks higher as a crime 
than it does as a blunder. It stands a! so indefinite a height 
among the follies of statesmen, that a colorless presentation of the 
truth astounds us no less with its wickedness than with its im- 

It is a mistake to speak or think of the act of Henry of Navarre 
in signing the Edict of Nantes in 1598 as conferring new rights 
upon the Huguenots. That Edict was but the crystallization and 
restoration of the rights which had been granted them by the 
great Edict of January, and Louis XIV., in speaking of his grand- 
father, said : " Its signing was a singular mark of the perfect pru- 
dence of Henry the Great our grandfather." The hero of Ivry 
fell under the poniard of Ravalliac. Clement VIII. had pro- 
nounced the Edict accursed, and for three quarters of a century 
the most strenuous efforts were made by the enemies of the 
Huguenots to procure its cancellation. 


From the organization of the first Protestant church at Paris in 
1555 down to the time when it is thought the conscience of Louis 
XIV., becoming morbid under the artful tutelage of Madame de 
Mainteuon, led him to seek to atone for his sins and to expiate 
his many crimes by the slaughter of heretics, the great bond 
uniting the Huguenots of France was a community of charity and 

Correro, the Venetian envoy to the French court, w T riting to his 
ducal masters in 1569, notes with surprise that of the four hundred 
thousand Huguenots whose names appeared upon the famous list 
presented by Conde to the imperious Catharine de' Medici, only 
one thirtieth were bourgeois, and that fully one third of the 
haughty nobles of France were of the Huguenot faith. 

The strength of the Huguenot movement, which represented the 
two great social extremes of the proudest monarchy in Christendom, 
thus lay with the old noblesse, a fact which, while to some extent 
accounting for the heroism with which they bore the intolerable 
persecutions to which they were subjected, explains the position 
at once accorded them in the lands of their exile and throws a 
lurid light upon the vitriolic bitterness of the symbolism indelibly 
stamped upon these medals. 

That the common people should rebel against the Church was 
of lesser moment. That the descendants of the nobles who un- 
furled the banners of the Cross beneath the walls of Acre and 
Jerusalem should prove recreant to the true faith aroused the 
venom of the consummate artists whose talents were ever at the 
service of the opulent prelates of the Church of Rome. The 
Edict was at length revoked. Whether because of Louis's hope 
thus to atone for and escape the penalty of his misdeeds, or be- 
cause of the priestly pressure brought to bear upon Madame de 
Maintenon, is one of those mysteries of history no nearer solution 
to-day than when the world stood appalled at the shedding of 
innocent blood. 

These mementos of the great tragedy serve to remind us of our 
duty to perpetuate the memory and emulate the virtues of an- 
cestors made exiles from France by the events which they com- 
memorate, ancestors who found in the wilds of the New World a 
liberty of conscience denied them in the land of their birth. 


By Miss Mary Rebecca Duvai, 

Maryland was a proprietary colony, but with a charter granted 
Lord Baltimore by a Protestant Parliament and a professedly Pro- 
testant King, perfect liberty of conscience was promised to all 
denominations, and there is no reason to think the Lords Baltimore 
ever tried to curtail this liberty ; indeed, they appointed Protestants 
to many of the offices, and Maryland early declared for William 
and Mary. But the early records of the colony were kept by 
Roman Catholics, and the earliest histories were written by them. 

As an organized or corporate body, the Huguenots never settled 
in Maryland, and, indeed, Cecil ius Calvert, second Lord Baltimore, 
only encouraged the emigration of English and Irish. But in 
1648 he instructed "his trusty and well-beloved William Stone," 
Lieutenant-Governor, to give to any French, who "may be already 
settled, or who hereafter may be settled in the colony," all the 
rights and privileges of colonists. 

The Huguenots, finding themselves in safety, became identified 
with those alread} r settled here. English being the language of 
the colony, their descendants forgot even the speech of their fore- 
fathers. Religiously, they united with the Dutch Reformed, 
Presbyterians, and Episcopalians, built churches, and served with 
them in the councils and wars of the province. Their names, 
Anglicized, translated, spelled and pronounced different^, ceased 
to be French, as their bearers ceased to be Frenchmen. But it is 
still easy to find traces of them, and there are few colonial families 
in Maryland but have some Huguenot strain, and we gather from 
Weiss' s History of the French Protestant Refugees, (New York 
^54) 2 vols.) that it was easy to distinguish them by their greater 
sociability, thickset figures, and vivacity, contrasting with Eng- 
lish stiffness. But these distinctive features have, no doubt, 
assisted in creating Americanisms. 

* Read before the Society March », 1899, and afterwards enlarged. 



Thomas Bacon's Laws of Maryland (Annapolis, 1765) gives 
quite a list of French settlers, some of whose descendants claim 
Huguenot ancestry, while others unquestionably were Romanists. 

Many came before the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. 

The Jarboes came before 1649; also, the Causins and the Re- 
cauds; the Con tees came about 1690, but it is supposed they came 
through Devonshire, England. In 1650, Francis Posey was a 
member of Maryland's Council, and signed a paper, declaring 
that they, as Protestants, would not molest the Roman Catholics, 
as the Roman Catholics had not molested them. John Laville, 
or Laval, came about 1650; John Le Count, 1674; Nicholas Mon- 
taine, 1694 (the Baltzells claim this as the original spelling of the 
name.) The Le Counts, the Brewers of Annapolis, the Dashields 
of the Eastern Shore, and the La Mars of Prince George's County, 
are all of Huguenot families. 

On Bohemia River, the Dutch Reformed, Presbyterians, and 
Huguenots built a church in 1723. The Rev. Mr. Hutchinson 
was their pastor. Among the elder? were John Brevard (for 
whom a street in Baltimore is named) and Dr. Peter Bouchelle; 
while Bayards and Bassatts were parishioners. Richard Bassatt, 
a Huguenot, called his country Place Bohemia Manor. 

The Presbyterian of 1849 says a large number of Huguenots 
were received in Maryland. In 1666 the Council of the State 
passed an Act naturalizing French Protestants. In 171 2 the Rev. 
Daniel Manadier came to Maryland, and was licensed as rector of 
Westminster Parish, Anne Arundel County, Maryland. 

Among the earliest of the French Protestant settlers was 
Mareen Duvall. The date of his arrival in Maryland, is not 
certainly known, but on August 28, 1659, a tract of land on the 
south side of South River, in Anne Arundel County, near the site 
of the proposed town of New London, was surveyed for him and 
called Laval. It was resurveyed for him on September 16, 1678, 
and called Godwile or Goodwill. 

It was in this county, one of the earliest subdivisions of the 
province, and out of which Prince George's County was erected, 
in 1695, tuat Mareen Duvall first found refuge in America. 

The Land Records of the Province, show many surveys of land 
for this provident refugee and his sons. His land grants bore 
many names — Middle Plantation, Howerton's Range, and Rich- 
neck, surveyed in 1664; Duvall's Addition, 1669; Duvall's Range, 


1672; The Plains, Morley's Grove, Morley's Lot, Bandali's 
Choice, Lar kin's Choice, and others, aggregating several thou- 
sand acres, later. 

Both the church and other provincial records show that Mareen 
Duvall, soon after his name first appears upon them, became a 
prominent, useful, and trusted member of the community in which 
he chose his home, if not a conspicuous political character in the 
province at large. 

This was but natural, too, in view of the fact that he soon became 
a large landowner, planter, and merchant, and was a man of 
liberal education for the times, as evidenced by his w 7 ill, dated 
August 2, 1694, and probated the 13th of the same month and 
which came, it is said, from his own hand. 

There are in the testamentary proceedings of the State many 
references to him as either alone or associated with such persons 
as Hon. Cornelius Howard, Col. Henry Ridgely, and others, in 
the settlement of decedents' estates; in most such cases he is men- 
tioned with them as " gentleman." 

That he and his family were earnest Christians of the Protestant 
faith, devoted to the interests of the church, is also clearly dis- 
closed by the church records. 

On one of his plantations, in what is now Prince George's 
County, was built at his own expense a chapel for Protestant 
worship, and when, in 1705, Queen Anne's Parish in Prince 
George's County was erected out of Saint Paul's, John Duvall, 
the son of the emigrant, with his wife, appeared before the vestry 
of which he was a member, and by a formal acknowledgment 
gave and dedicated the land upon which the church was built, to 
Queen Anne, for the use of the Parish. 

The chapel erected by Mareen Duvall, was largely, if not 
entirely, maintained by him and his family as a private chapel, 
and it was not till 1741 that it became a public chapel or church 
and was thereafter supported and kept in repair at the public 

(See Bacon's Laws.) 

* n J 735 the old chapel was torn down, and upon its site a new 
brick edifice, which is still used for public worship, was erected by 
its first rector, the Rev. Jacob Henderson and his wife Mary 
(formerly the widow of Mareen Duvall, and then of Col. Henry 
Ridgely 1st), and by them presented to the parish. 


In 1 741 a parochial assessment was made for the purpose of 
repairing the chapel, and again in 1744 another assessment was 
laid on the inhabitants of the Parish to repair the chapel; and in 
1750 a third assessment was authorized to raise funds " to pale in 
the yard and build a house with a fireplace to accommodate the 
minister and parishioners in bad weather." All these and many 
other assessments were made in tobacco. This chapel is now Holy 
Trinity near Collington, in Prince George's County, Maryland, 
and has been recently repaired and embellished with many beauti- 
ful memorial windows to the memory of Duvalls, Mullikens, 
Bowies, and others. The chapel is frequently mentioned in old 
wills of members of the family. One John Duvall, in his will, 
dated in 1764, leaves twenty-one pounds to keep in repair the 
vault in the chapel. 

His plantation, " Mary's Delight," his slaves, his pewter, his 
feather beds, and other household treasures, he leaves to his wife 
and children; his sword to his grandson John, son of his son, 
Marsh Mareen Duvall, and his silver-hilted sword, with its hall- 
mark of the early part of .the seventeenth century, has come down 
to H. Rieman Duval, his descendant, and with it the tradition 
that it came from France with the refugee. 

There is a legend, that from the old vault at "the Chapel" a 
wild boar would rush to follow the belated passer-by until the 
glimmer of a light in a human habitation sent him back to his 
gruesome abode. 

When the vault was opened, after many years, only a handful of 
dust was left of all who had slumbered there. In the flower-garden 
of the home of Mr. Gabriel DuVal, also a descendant of the refugee, 
still are to be seen two small mounds, which tradition guards as 
the last resting-place of the first Mareen and one of his wives. 

The Huguenots, in their native land, were loyal citizens and 
staunch patriots, notwithstanding the persecution they suffered for 
their religion, at the hands of their King, and they carried with 
them, when they fled for safety to other lands, the same devotion 
to God, religion, and country. 

So it is not strange to find Mareen Duvall arraying himself on 
the side of King James, and against the Government of the Lord 
Protector, and later against that of William and Mary, although 
the latter were avowed Protestants and the former was only a half- 
hearted Protestant, if not a declared Romanist. 


Annapolis was settled in 1649 by the Puritans, among whom 
there was none more conspicuous and active in the promotion of 
its claims than that most eminent of Maryland's early heroes, 
Col. Nicholas Greenbury, —soldier, judge, and lawmaker, — in- 
deed, the Cromwell of Maryland. 

It is therefore but natural to find this doughty Puritan and the 
old Huguenot in opposite political parties, and it is with no sur- 
prise that we read in the archives of 1692 a letter from Colonel 
Greenbury to Governor Copley, calling attention to Colonel Dar- 
nel, Samuel Chew, and many others, as a Jacobite Cabal (as King 
James's party was then known), and Mareen Duvall's house as 
one of their rendezvous. Thus, though a staunch and uncom- 
promising Protestant, Mareen Duvall was willing to associate 
with both Romanists and Protestants in loyal support of the right- 
ful heir to the throne and the royal prerogatives. 

Again, the archives state that an Indian outbreak caused the 
loss of nineteen men, and the house of Mareen Duvall had to be 
especially guarded. 

Nearly every State in the Union has among its best citizens 
descendants of this Mareen Duvall, and his blood is represented 
in nearly every old and prominent family of Maryland, and of 
many of the other States. Letters are constantly received, asking 
for genealogical information. Quite a comprehensive record of 
the family has been left by Mr. Justice Gabriel Duvall (born De- 
cember 6, 1752, died in 1842), a grandson of Benjamin Duvall, the 
youngest son of Mareen Duvall the first. Mr. Justice Duvall says 
of himself: Gabriel Duvall " has spent about fifty-six years of his 
life in public service. He has been successively Commissioner of 
Confiscated Estates, member of the Executive Council, member 
of the legislature, member of Congress, a Judge of the General 
Court of Maryland, Comptroller of the Treasury of the United 
States from December 15, 1802, to November 21, 181 1, and is now 
an Associate Judge of the Supreme Court of the United States, 
which he has filled from October, 181 1." 

He writes quaintly of other members of his family. 

Of his brother Edward, he says: " He fell bravely fighting in 
the battle of August 16, 1780, he was a good and attentive officer, 
and was remarkably religious," and of another brother, Isaac, 
" he fell unfortunately in the battle of Eutaw Springs, fought on 
the 8th of September, 1781. No officer of his rank in the army 


was more eminently distinguished for bravery, good conduct, and 
military skill." 

They were both officers of the Maryland Line in the Revolu- 
tionary Army. Of another of the Huguenot's descendants, he 
says, 1 'she married the justly celebrated Mr. Rittenhouse of Phila- 

Susannah, a daughter of the first Mareen Duvall, married 
Robert Tyler, the first of the name in America, and from them 
descended President Tyler, General Bradley Tyler Johnson of the 
Confederate Army, and others of distinction. 

Mary, another of the old refugee's daughters, married, in 1701, 
the Rev. Henry Hall, of Horsham, England, the first rector of 
Saint James Parish, Herring Creek, Anne Arundel County, ap- 
pointed by the Bishop of London to this charge in 1698. Their 
descendants still bury and worship in this parish. William P. 
Duvall, the first Territorial Governor of Florida, for whom one 
county in that State and one in Texas, are named, descended from 
the emigrant through a grandson, William, who removed to Vir- 
ginia and became a member of the legislature of that State. 
Governor Francis Thomas of Maryland, the late Isaac Harding 
Duvall, Major-General of the United States Army, Colonel Lewis 
Duvall, once Mayor of Annapolis, Judge Alvin Duvall, of Ken- 
tucky, Governor English of Indiana, Major William Penn Duvall, 
of the United States Army, are all of his progeny. 

In all Church and State records the name is spelled in several 
ways, — Duvall, Duval, DuVal, and even Duvol and Duvale. But 
Mareen Duvall, the refugee, writes the name Duvall in his 
signature to his will, and in many deeds and other legal documents 
on record at Annapolis. This spelling was doubtless adopted by 
the emigrant after he came to America, as was the spelling of the 
names of many others of the early settlers, for the name is in all 
the French and English records spelled Duval and DuVal. 

One of the earliest mentions of the name is that of one "Rich- 
ard DuVal of Normandy in 1261 — Sieur de France." 

Some of the Duvals in this country claim the following as their 
pedigree in France: 

Duval — noble family, originally of Beaumont le Roger in Nor- 
mandy, who held in the twelfth century the fief or estate Duval, 
situated in the same province. It passed, toward the end of the 
thirteenth century, to the house of Beauvrou. 


I. Hugh Duval, Esquire (Equerry) Sir Duval. The first 
known of this name married Adilena, who, having become his 
widow, married a second time, John de Pomereuil, with whom 
she did not live long. By her first marriage she left: i. Robert; 
2. Jane, married to Guy de Beauvron, in favor of which marriage 
Robert Duval, her brother, relinquished to her, among other 
things, the fief or estate of Duval by letters (or deed) given in the 
year 1298. 

II. Robert Duval, Esquire, married, a long time after his sister, 
the Honorable (noble) Jane de Putot. Among other children 
they had: 

III. John Duval — Knight — Lord, so called, of the place, who 
lived in 1375, as appears from letters given the same year, June 
2d, before or in the presence of Bandouin de Saint Paul, Knight, 
and Keeper or Warden of Waters and Forests. He married a 
second time Mary d'Acon by whom he had Robert, who had a 
share or part in the fief his mother brought as a marriage portion. 
Nothing known of his posterity. 

IV. Lawrence Duval, Esquire, married the noble Lady Agnes 
de Marmien, who brought as a marriage portion the land and 
lordship of the section of the province named Saint Peter. They 
had several children whose names follow: 

V. William Duval, Esquire, Lord, etc., married Alex, de 
Mamusin. He had by her: 1. Massiot; 2. William; 3. Robert, 
Esquire, who married Catherine de Monfort, and had: 

VI. Massoit Duval, Esquire, Lord, Province Saint Lawrence 
and of the fief of Saint Aubin, married Margaret de Orbic. 
Among other children they had: 

VII. Thomas Duval, Esquire, Lord of Auge, in the Province of 
Saint Lawrence, and the fief of Saint Aubin, who married Nicola 


Mareeji Duvall 's children by his first wife : 

1. Mareen (the elder), married, in the lifetime of his father. 
His wife's baptismal name was Francis. 

2. John (Captain), married Elizabeth Jones, daughter of Wil- 
liam Jones, Sr. 

3. Eleanor, married John Roberts of Virginia. 

4. Samuel, married Elizabeth Clarke in 1687. 


5< Susannah, married Robert Tyler, ancestor of President 

6. Lewis, married Martha Ridgely, daughter of Robert. 
Children by his second wife, Susannah : 

7. Mareen (the younger), married Elizabeth Jacobs, daughter 
of Capt. John Jacobs. 

8. Catherine, married William Orrick October 22, 1700. 

9. Mary, married the Rev. Henry Hall, February 5, 1701. 

10. Elizabeth, never married. 

11. Johanna, married Richard Poole, i\ugust 12, 1703. 

12. Benjamin, married Sophia Griffith, in 1713. 

I — 1. Mareen Duvall the elder, married Frances , many 

years before the death of his father, in August, 1694, and had 
several daughters, and one son named Mareen, who was born 

October 24, 1687. The latter married Sarah , and had 

many sons and daughters. One of Mareen' s and Sarah's sons, 
Mareen (commonly called Western Branch Mareen), was a twin 
with Samuel, born June 22, 17 14. Samuel was the father of John 
Pearce Duvall who was a lawyer, removed to Virginia, and became 
a member of the legislature of that State. Samuel had a sister 
Mary, born November 2, 171 1, and also a brother Benjamin, born 
September 15, 17 15, who had a son named Lewis. 

Western Branch, Mareen Duvall had a son Alvin, who died un- 
married, and two daughters, Kazia and Anna. Kazia married " 
Cornelius Duvall (a descendant of the younger Mareen), who re- 
moved to Kentucky, and left a numerous offspring, one of whom^ 
was the late Judge Alvin Duvall of that State. 

I — 2. John Duvall (known as Captain) married in the lifetime of 
his father Elizabeth Jones, the daughter of William Jones, Sr., 
and had twelve children: 

Elizabeth, the eldest, married Benjamin Warfield (the youngest 
son of Richard Warfield, the pioneer of that name in Maryland), 
and was the ancestor of many distinguished men of Mar}-land, by 
the name of Warfield, Dorsey, Ridgely, Griffith, and W T orthington. - 

Mary, Capt. John Duvall' s second daughter, married Edward 
Gaither, February 21, 1709, by whom she had several children, 
one of whom, Benjamin, lived and died on his farm near the 

John Duvall's third daughter, Sarah, married Samuel Farmer, 
by whom she had many children, among them Samuel, who served 


with reputation, as an officer in the Maryland Line throughout the 
Revolution ary War. 

His (John's) son, Lewis Duvall had issue, a son William, who 
was an officer in the Revolutionary Army. He married a Miss 
Johnson of Alexandria, Virginia, and was the ancestor of Gover- 
nor William P. Duval of Florida, and of John Pope Duval, a 
lawyer, of Richmond, Virginia. (See Lamb's Biographical Dic- 
tionary, page 565, etc.) 

Lewis Duvall's daughter, Elizabeth, married William Ridgely, 
grandson of Robert Ridgely, Clerk to the Council of the Province, 
and afterward Principal Secretary of the Province, and ancestor of 
Honorable Charles Ridgely, one of Maryland's governors. 

Rachel, another daughter of Lewis Duvall, married Nathan 
Waters, whose son, Nathaniel Waters, married a daughter of the 
justly celebrated Mr. Rittenhouse of Philadelphia. 

A daughter of Rachel (Duvall) Waters, married Richard Mac- 
cubbin, father of George Maccubbin, the Treasurer of Maryland, 
in 1827, and another of her daughters married Arthur Nelson, 
and was the mother of Dr. John Nelson of the Medical Department 
of the Revolutionary Army. Another of their children was Roger 
Nelson, a lawyer, and an officer in the Revolutionary Army, a 
member of the legislature of Maryland, and a member of Congress. 
Roger w r as the father of John Nelson, who was at one time 
Attorney-General of the United States, and also a member of 

I — 3. Nothing is known of Eleanor Roberts family. 

I— 4. Samuel Duvall married Elizabeth Clark, in 1697, had 
seven daughters, but no sons. His oldest daughter, Elizabeth, 
born October 6, 1697, married Edward Tyler, son of Robert Tyler 
(the emigrant), and his wife Susanna Duvall; and Susanna Tyler 
(one of the daughters of Edward and Elizabeth), born February 
24, 17 17-8, married Benjamin Duvall, the youngest son of the 
Huguenot, and had issue, ten children; one of whom was Gabriel 
Duvall, a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States; 
another son, Benjamin, who married, in 1772, Miss Jemima Tay- 
lor, was the ancestor of the late Isaac Harding Duvall, of West 
Virginia, a Major-General in the United States Army. (See 
Lamb's Biographical Dictionary, page 565.) 

I — 5. Susanna Duvall, married Robert Tyler, Sr., and had 
eight children, one of whom, Robert 2d, born August 9, 1704, 
married his first cousin (his mother's niece), and had five children, 


one of whom, Robert 3d, born November 5, 1727, married Miss 
Bradley of Prince George's County, Maryland, and had a son, 
Robert Bradley Tyler, and a daughter, Millicent. The son mar- 
ried a daughter of Capt. Tobias Belt, and had several children, 
one of whom, Dr. William Bradley Tyler of Frederick City, 
Maryland, married Miss Murdock, and had several children. 

Millicent, the daughter of Robert Tyler 3d, married Dr. Colmore 
Beanes of Prince George's Count} 7 , Maryland, by whom she had a 
daughter, who married a son of Philip, and cousin of Francis 
Scott Key, the author of The Star- Spangled Ba?iner. 

I — 6. Lewis Duvall married, March 5, 1699, Martha Ridgely, 
daughter of Robert Ridgely, Principal Secretary of the Province, 
and had issue, four daughters: the oldest, Martha, lived with her 
father's stepmother, formerly the widow of Mareen Duvall, then 
the widow of Col. Henry Ridgely 1st, and finally the wife of the 
Rev. Jacob Henderson. Martha Duvali was buried in the vault 
at the chapel, with Mrs. Henderson. Her father is said to have 
removed to one of the Carolinas. 

I — 7. Mareen Duvall (the younger) was married October 2, 
1701, to Elizabeth Jacobs (the daughter of Capt. John Jacobs, the 
first emigrant of that name to come to Maryland, and had issue, 
eleven children : 

Mareen 3d, born November 14, 1702, married Ruth Howard, 
and had fourteen children, one of whom, Mareen Howard Duvall, 
married Miss Wheeler, and among other children she had Howard 
Duvall, who married Mary, a daughter of Marsh Mareen Duvall, 
from whom descended Dr. Howard Mareen Duvall of South River. 

Elizabeth, a daughter of Mareen (the younger), married Dr. 
William Danune, and had four daughters and one son; three of 
the daughters married three brothers, by the name of Taylor, 
Samuel, Caleb, and Richard. 

Martha, one of the daughters of Samuel Taylor, married Joseph 
Cross, by whom she had seven children. The oldest son was an 
officer in the United States Navy, and two others, Howarton and 
Freeman, were officers in the War of 1812. 

Samuel Duvall, son of Mareen the younger, born November 27, 
1707, married, May 16, 1732, Elizabeth Mullikin, born September 
25, 1717, daughter of James Mullikin, who came to Maryland in 
1660. They had issue, ten children. 

One of their sons, Samuel Duvall, born July 9, 1740, married 
Mary Higgins, and had ten children. 


Scharf's History of Maryland states that he was appointed 
Quartermaster of the Revolutionary Army. 

Samuel Duvall and Mary Higgins Duvall, his wife, had also 
ten children — among them. Tobias, Barton, and Beale. 

Tobias married Miss Willett, and had several children. One of 
Tobias's grandsons is the Rev. Frederick Beale Duvall, of the 
Presbyterian Church, and another was the late Ferdinand Duvall, 
a captain in the Confederate Army. 

Samuel and Joseph Duvall, sons of Daniel, and of Tobias, and Dr. 
Philip Barton Duvall and Samuel F. Duvall. sons of the late 
Richard I. Duvall, and Thomas Mitchell were other grandsons of 
Tobias, and were all soldiers in the Confederate Army. Samuel 
and Joseph, sons of Daniel, were killed in battle, and Dr. Philip 
Barton Duvall was killed on the battle-field at Chancellorsviile, 
Virginia. Samuel and Mary Higgins Duvall also had a son Bar- 
ton, who married Hannah Isaacs, a daughter of Richard Isaacs, 
Jr., and Nancy (Williams) Isaacs, and had four sons: Richard 
Isaacs, Dr. Barton, Samuel, and Dr.Joseph Isaacs Duvall. Richard 
I. Duvall was a member of the legislature and Register of Wills; 
he married, first, his cousin, Sarah A. Duvall, daughter of Tobias, 
by whom he bad the said Dr. Philip Barton and Samuel F. Duvall, 
and several other children, and secondly he married Rachell M. 
Waring, daughter of Francis and Elizabeth, by whom he had 
several children, one of whom is Richard Mareen Duvall, a mem- 
ber of the Baltimore Bar, who married Nannie Webster Golds- 
borough, daughter of Dr. John Schley Goldsborough of Frederick. 

Samuel Duvall, son of Barton, lived and died in Washington, 
District of Columbia. He left several children, among them 
Nelson Duvall and Mrs. Brecht and Mrs. Simpson. 

Dr. Joseph I. Duvall, son of Barton, married Mary A. Mitchell, 
and died in 1883, leaving now surviving him, one son, Dr. John 
M. Duvall, of Prince George's County, Maryland. 

Dr. Philip Barton Duvall, son of Barton, died about 1850, and 
has only one child surviving — Mrs. Patty. 

Beale Duvall, son of Samuel and Mary Higgins Duvall, married 
twice: First, Miss Belt, daughter of Jeremiah Belt, and had one 
daughter, who married a Mr. Walker. Second, Miss Williams, 
and had seven children, one of whom, John, married Eliza 
Ridgely, a descendant of Governor Ridgely and of General John 
Eager Howard, also Governor of Maryland. From John and 


Eliza Ridgeley Duvall are descended, Mrs. Benjamin Price of New 
York, Howards, Posts, and others of Baltimore, and Mr. Charles 
E. Fendall, a member of the Baltimore County Bar. 

John Duvall, a son of Mareen Duvall the younger, born Febru- 
ary 20, 1712/3, married, 1737, Ann Fowler, and had seven children. 

Their oldest daughter, Elizabeth, married, December 4, 1759, 
John Macgill, a son of the Rev. James Macgill. Their oldest son, 
Marsh Mareen Duvall, born April 17, 1741, was an officer in the 
militia during the Revolutionary War. He married, in 1762, 
Sarah Hall, a granddaughter of the Rev. Henry Hall of Saint 
James Parish, and Mary Duvall his wife, a daughter "of Mareen 
Duvall the Huguenot. 

John Duvall, the son of Marsh Mareen, born June 28, 1763, 
married, November 28, 1798, Rebecca Rawlings, a niece of Col. 
Moses Rawlings of the Revolutionary Army; and their son, the 
late John Rawlings Duval of Baltimore, born November 28, 1811, 
who married, October 17, 1837, Elizabeth Rieman, was the father of 
H. Rieman Duval of New York (formerly President of the F. C. & 
P. Railroad Company, who married Nannie Gordon Thomas, 
(daughter of the late Dr. John Hanson Thomas of Baltimore) and 
of Mary Rebecca Duval and John Rawlings Duval of Baltimore. 

In Scharf's History of Maryland, referring to the times preced- 
ing the American Revolution, it is stated that at a meeting held 
at Upper Marlborough, Prince George's County, Maryland, in 
November, 1774, a Committee of Freemen was appointed " to 
carry into execution within the said county the Association of the 
American Congress. " 

On this committee appear the names of John Duvall and Marsh 
Mareen Duvall. Both John Duvall and his son Marsh Mareen 
Duvall contributed largely to the funds for the Committees of 
Freemen and Observation, both prominent in Maryland Revolu- 
tionary measures. Marsh Mareen Duvall was commissioned 
captain in 1776, Prince George's Militia, Co., 15. 

It is interesting to the genealogist to note how names are 
changed and misspelled in ancient documents and records. 

The old Huguenot's Christian name was certainly, in French, 
Marin, and the Rev. Mr. Charles W. Baird, the Huguenot histor- 
ian, accepts the spelling of the name as Marin and writes that n the 
origin of the name Duval was probably in Lorraine La Ville de 


By Colonei, Richard L. Maury 

At the banquet given by the Huguenot Society of America on 
the evening of the Tercentenary of the Edict of Nantes, there was 
seen in front of the President a lovely silver bowl of antique de- 
sign embedded in sweet red roses of France. It was an eloquent 
and most appropriate reminder of one of the earliest and saddest 
of the many bitter persecutions which Huguenots bravely bore for 
nigh three hundred years, and its dreadful story of suffering, tor- 
ture, constancy, and heroic triumphant death never fails to thrill 
with wonder, admiration, and pride whenever told. It seems to 
overflow with the tears of heartbroken widows and orphans; to be 
full to the brim of sighs and groans of weary, aged prisoners, 
stretched upon the rack and chained in dreadful dungeons, and 
it tells of the agonies and the triumphs of blessed martyrs burning 
at the stake, and the sorrows of solitary exiles wandering far away 
from dear France, homeless and destitute, in strange, unfriendly 

It is an enlarged, but otherwise exact, reproduction of the silver 
cup or bowl of Etienne Mangin of Meaux, in which, at his request, 
— his last request on earth, when bound to the stake amid his thir- 
teen companions bound to thirteen other stakes in front of his own 
house then being torn to pieces, upon the market-place of Meaux, 
surrounded by their wives and children, their fathers and mothers, 
their relatives, friends, and neighbors, while awaiting the touch of 
the torch to their fagots, — a draught of cool water was served by his 
fainting, faithful wife to each one of those just tortured and muti- 
lated fevered saints of the Lord about to be burned alive for having 
worshipped God according to the dictates of their own conscience, 
and for refusing to do otherwise if released. It is believed by his 
family that the bowl thus used, which they still possess, and then 
specially asked for, was specially desired because it was the sacra- 
mental cup which had been used at their church service. It was 

1 Read before the Society March at, 1899. 



for thus celebrating the communion and refusing to recant that 
their fagots were now lighted, their weary, torn bodies now con- 
sumed from further torments, and their exulting souls sent to 
heaven for rest and peace, amid the loud Salve Reginas of the fren- 
zied monks. 

It is a memorial of the awful holocaust upon the Grand Marche ' 
at Meaux at noon on Thursday, October 7, 1546, of the " Four- 
teen Huguenot Martyrs of Meaux," some of them of our own 
names, whose merits, constancy, heroism, suffering, and devotion 
have never been surpassed. 

In the lovely valley of the Marne, amid fruitful orchards, bloom- 
ing gardens, and fragrant vines, surrounded with fertile fields and 
smiling meadows of teeming flocks and herds, twent5 r -seven miles 
above Paris, on both sides of the Marne, is the ancient walled city 
of Meaux en Brie. Its people are chiefly shepherds, vine-dressers, 
tillers of the soil, millers, and spinners and weavers of wool, its 
chief staple, w T ith a few master-manufacturers and others of busi- 
ness; all workers, characteristically honest, industrious, thought- 
ful, and pious, early lovers of libert}* and earnest, staunch seekers 
for purer religious life and closer communion with God. By 
nature it is one of the most fertile valleys of fair France; and the 
virtues and thrift of its people have made it the richest and most 

Meaux was the cradle of the French Reformation. Here was 
the earliest spiritual awakening of the masses, — the first Protestant 
church, — the first pastor, and the first wdio was burned alive at 
the stake; it was the first after Paris (by special instruction of 
Catherine de Medicis) to suffer the massacre of St. Bartholomew's 
Day, the first to become almost entirely converted; the first to 
open its gates to King Henry IV., and the foremost in constancy 
and faithfulness to " the religion." Theirs was the first pastor 
who suffered for his religion, Pierre Le Clerc, burnt alive there in 
1546, and theirs was also the last, Jean Broca, a prisoner for " the 
religion" in 1775 in the hideous dungeons of the old Chateau. 

From the earliest days Meaux was distinguished in ecclesiastical 
history and religious controversy for the earnest efforts of its 
bishops for reforms in the Church both in discipline and doctrine, 
for the readiness with which many of its people gave their hearty 
support to these efforts, and for the continual ly strengthening 
desire of an ever-increasing number of its inhabitants for religious 


instruction, reforms in worship, and return to the purer life and 
doctrine of the early Christians as taught in the Bible. 

As early as the tenth century its Bishop, Gilbert, had been 
active in correcting abuses and reforming his diocese, and there 
had been often bitter religious controversies and strife there since. 
The shameful lives of the monks, their scandalous neglect of duty, 
and the total absence of any ability or attempt to instruct the 
souls of which they claimed exclusive charge, were every day ob- 
ject-lessons to the thoughtful laity of the need for change. In 
the first quarter of the sixteenth century, its Bishop, Briconnet, 
Comte de Montbrun, amazed at the evils and abuses prevailing in 
his diocese, took the lead in reform and, favored by the King and 
assisted by the Queen of Navarre, his sister, was conspicuously 
active to purify and purge, and especially to afford religious in- 
struction to his eager people. He first had the Gospels translated 
into French and printed, distributing them freely to all, and he 
brought, at his own expense, distinguished readers and eloquent 
and scholarly preachers from Paris to read and to teach them from 
his pulpits, rarely occupied at all, and he even permitted private 
reading and study of the Gospels, and encouraged congregations 
to assemble or remain in the church after service for reading and 
instruction among themselves. 

Thus were the minds of the Meldenses prepared in advance for 
the favorable reception of the doctrines of the Reformation, and 
the efforts of the good Briconnet, aided by the learned Benedictines 
of St. Maur, to effect reform within the Church and afford proper 
spiritual teaching having been frustrated by the Franciscans and 
the Government, the eager people could only accomplish reform 
by reforming themselves for themselves, by independent action 
among themselves and by the establishment of church and pastors 
of their own selection. 

Therefore when the light of the Reformation commenced to 
arouse all Europe the doctrines found earliest fruition in France 
at Meaux, already prepared and already themselves earnestly 
seeking spiritual truth and teachers. Here, therefore, the harvest 
was more quickly apparent, and abundant, and so numerous and 
so staunch and so early w T ere the converts that the movement in 
France was first named in derision, from its lowly beginning, 
Meldensian, long before the French Protestants were called 
Huguenots. Ere the civil wars commenced nearly all the inhabi- 


tants of Meaux had aligned themselves on the side of reform. Of 
twelve hundred families living in the Grand Marche all but twelve 
had been converted, and thereafter, in spite of the bitter opposi- 
tion and persecution and the determination by the authorities to 
spare not, and to crush the so-called heresy at every cost, Meaux 
was almost wholly Huguenot. 

Though by act of Parliament they were branded as of Cain, that 
all who met them might lawfully rob and slay them on the spot, 
and though many were thus butchered and plundered by ruffians 
from Paris; though on the morrow of St. Bartholomew hundreds 
were suddenly seized in their homes at night, hurried to the dun- 
geons of the Castle, and poniarded next morning one by one till 
over three hundred were killed — men, women, and children — at 
its gate; though multitudes were killed in battle, or driven into 
exile in despair, Meaux was still Huguenot, and still enough re- 
mained "of the religion" to furnish not less than a thousand 
families to the emigration of a single period, — the Revocation. 
Then and then only were its fertile fields unfruitful and its busy 
mills and factories idle and deserted! 

For the faithful converts to reform, who now learned to look to 
God alone, were not intimidated; there was red blood of courage 
abundant in their brave hearts, which did not pale for fear, and 
their valor brought them new recruits on every day. Their 
meetings on Sundays and Saint Days for reading, praise, and 
prayer grew and multiplied till eight hundred and more attended 
from Meaux and all the country round for ten and fifteen miles. 
All were earnest, prayerful, brave, and determined — for their 
meetings were now unlawful, heresy was treason, and treason was 
death. Still they were not deterred, and soon feeling need for 
cohesion and organization determined to adopt rules of conduct 
and procedure, and to choose a pastor from among themselves for 
themselves. Two of their number were forthwith despatched to 
Strasburg to learn of the organization of the flourishing French 
refugee church established there by Calvin not long before, and 
when they returned in August, 1546, there was organized upon 
this model the first Protestant church in France; one of them, 
Pierre L,e Clerc, was elected pastor, the other, fitienne Mangin, 
deacon or elder, and an upper room in his house was chosen for 
the church — the first in France. 

Le Clerc was an elderly man — a wool carder, exceedingly well 


versed in sacred literature, having been one of the readers em- 
ployed by the Bishop to read the Gospels in his churches long be- 
fore. He well knew of the dangers before him, and probably 
anticipated death, for his elder brother, Jean, had been scourged, 
branded, and banished from Meaux because of his religion, and 
was afterwards most awfully butchered and burnt alive at Metz. 
Their father was a Catholic, but their old mother was a convert, 
and worth) r of her sons, for when the hot iron burnt into Jean's 
brow at the Cathedral door, she was not afraid to boldly proclaim 
herself of the same mind, crying out loudly, 4< Vive yes&s Christ 
et ses en$eign$ t " 

fitienne Mangin was one of the principal citizens of Meaux. 
His silver cup, its form, and its armorial engraving, suggest afflu- 
ence and gentle blood from Holland or the Rhine. He was a 1 ' very 
good man of advanced years," having house and other property, 
and also relatives in Meaux. He had come from San Nicholas in 
Lorraine — leaving there when persecution was furious, to embrace 
the reformed religion at Meaux. With him came his wife Mar- 
guerite, as brave as he. They had three children, girls, the eldest 
fifteen years of age, and two little ones, Perrette and Marion, who 
were arrested and carried bound with cords along with their father 
and mother to the dungeons of Paris. His residence was on the 
Grand Marche, a part of the town then and afterwards occupied 
almost exclusively by Huguenots. Its locality is now No. 73 Rue 
du Marche. It had a frontage of eighteen feet, was probably of 
the familiar style of that day, cross-timbered and plastered, with 
steep roof, overhanging eaves, and gallery on second story with 
stairs outside. It must have been of unusual depth for its upper 
room to accommodate so large a congregation as assembled there. 
It was a valuable property, evidently not the residence of a poor 
man, for it stood upon the principal square of that part of the city, 
and had a large garden running all the way back to the ramparts 
on the river. It was specially suitable for these meetings, because 
approachable more privately from the rear by the many who came 
down the river in boats from the surrounding country. It was 
prudent to meet quietly and without display, but they did not ex- 
pect or desire to hold such large meetings in secret or concealed 
from authority, for the house was on the public square, the time 
was morning, there was much singing, many came and went, and 
busybodies and informers abounded. Indeed, they were aware 


that the authorities knew cf these meetings, and were on the 
watch to trap them, but they piously replied to this friendly warn- 
ing that even the hairs of their head were numbered, and that 
only would occur which to God might seem fit. 

Our old contemporaneous chronicler, Crespin, — whose writings 
were text-books in many a Huguenot family long ago, and were 
often read in church at evening service, — says: " The chief authors 
and regulators of this undertaking were Estienne Mangin, a very 
good man of advanced years, and Pierre Le Clerc, by skill and 
profession a carder, but exceedingly well versed in sacred litera- 
ture, at least so far as it was treated in the French language. 

M These men with some forty or fifty others took counsel together 
as to electing a minister from among them, who should preach to 
them the Word of God and administer the sacraments. The}- did 
this in no spirit of rashness, for they all with one consent first de- 
voted several days to fasting and prayer; after which they pro- 
ceeded to elect their minister, and Pierre Le Clerc was chosen by 
their unanimous voice. This man showed the greatest diligence 
in supporting the office so undertaken. He collected the people 
together in the house of Mangin on the Lord's days and festivals. 
In such assemblies he would expound to them the Scripture as 
God had imparted to him grace and power. At these meetings 
they united in prayer and supplication to God and sang psalms 
and spiritual songs. They testified there that they would never 
give adherence to Papistical idolatries, after which they celebrated 
once or twice the holy Supper as it had been established by Christ 
the Lord. So in a short time this small church increased to such 
a degree that three or four hundred of both sexes and of all ages 
were found flocking to it; and not from the city only, but also 
from the country districts to a circuit of five or six leagues." 

Here, then, on the morning of September 8, 1546 (Lady Day, a 
Catholic festival; they were then reformers only in matters essen- 
tial) were gathered for worship a congregation of sixty-two pious 
men and gentle women — husbands with their wives and little 
children, young men and maidens — and poor widows, too. It 
was but the third service of the newly organized church, and 
many of those present were in attendance for the first time and 
had not yet formally joined, or even finally determined to join. 
The order of service was, first, prayer, Gospel reading, and praise 
in singing the psalms, as recently translated by Clement Marot; 


there was then an address or sermon by the minister, after which 
those present desiring to become members so testified and re- 
nounced adherence to the Catholic Church and Papistical idola- 
tries, and then all the members joined in celebrating the Lord's 

Observe, therefore, that the service having been interrupted ere 
the sermon was completed, all of those who were present were not 
liable to the same criminal charge, for some were as yet mere 
spectators, and had violated no law whatever. There were others 
who had as yet never partaken of the Communion or who had 
never taught the so-called heresies of the Protestants, or offended 
against the laws concerning heresies, blasphemies, or idolatry. 
There were others who had done all these things and more, who 
had confessedly taken and administered the Commuuion at the 
hands of one not a Catholic priest, and who had earnestly per- 
suaded people to renounce the supremacy of the Pope and the 
Church of Rome. Therefore it was that upon the trial all were 
not convicted of the same offences or punished equally, and not 
because, as some have claimed in derogation of the firmness of 
these saints, that some were weaker than others and saved them- 
selves by concession and recantation. 

Early that morning, at seven o'clock, information had been 
given ' ' Authority," who was craftily awaiting the assembly of 
these Christians, that all might be taken together red-handed in 
the act, that the congregation were already coming together, 
whereupon were summoned to meet at the house of Antoiue du 
Guet, an attorney, in the Place St. Maur, the chief city officials 
with their folio wings, — Maitre Philippe Rhumet, Lieutenant-Gen- 
eral of Meaux; the King's Attorney, Louis Cosset; the City 
Provost, Adrien de la Personne; all the sergeants; and Gilles 
Berthelot, Provost Marshal, with his archers. These proceeded 
to Mangin's house in two parties, one by the rampart to the rear, 
the other by the streets to the front, that none might escape, and 
the Lieutenant- General, preceding the others, quietly ascended the 
stairs and opened the door of the room where the worshippers 
were, but, alarmed at their unexpected number, quickly withdrew 
and quietly closed the door, to await the coming of the guard 
and to listen for evidence of conviction. 

He was seen by those within, who knew of course his fell in- 
tent, but there was no confusion or alarm manifested and the 


minister, Le Clerc. boldly continued without interruption the ser- 
mon he was preaching from 1 Cor. xi., 23, " I have received of the 
Lord that which also I delivered unto you." When the armed 
force had ascended, not without noise, all entered, but, impressed 
by the solemnity of the scene, stood silent at first, astonished that 
thus confronted with full knowledge of the dreadful fate before 
them this gentle audience should be so quiet and serene. Then, 
M What do ye here," said the Lieutenant-Geueral, "and why are 
so many absent from their parishes ? " for the day was a high festi- 
val in the Catholic Church. "Merely what thou seest," said 
Le Clerc, " but wait with patience until we bring these duties to 
a close." Brave words indeed ! They were not afraid to worship 
their God as He directed before all the world, or themselves to 
afford their executioners complete and conclusive evidence of all 
they professed and all they practised. Nor would they resist or 
attempt to escape, though the streets of the quarter were full 
of their friends and sympathizers, ready, eager, and easily able to 
rescue every one. 

1 ' No, ' ' said the magistrate, ' ' you must all go to prison. " " Let 
us go, then," said the minister, "if God has thought fit," and 
suffered himself to be bound with ropes. All the others — sixty- 
two — did likewise, and were tied without resistance, save one 
young girl who protested against such treatment for such a cause, 
but was silenced by "Authority," and all were led away to the 
city jail. Would that we knew the name of this young heroine, 
but history does not tell which of those present w r as so firm and 
fearless at this appalling moment. Beside the two daughters of 
Mangin, Perrette and Marion, who were too young to speak out 
thus, there were four other maidens, but their ages do not appear. 
Their names were Jehanne GuiHeminot, Marguerite Rossignol, 
" Catherine, daughter of Jehan Ricourt,' and Jehanne Gameuse. 
Perhaps it was Catherine Ricourt, she being mentioned with more 
particularity, but let them all be honored! Others there were 
whose names are still borne in Meaux, and some which are our 
own or familiar to our ears as household words, as Baudouin, 
Martine, Le Clerc, Vincent, Fouace, Dumont, Roussel, Fleury, 
Leconte, Fournier, Le Roy, Lemoine, Turpin, and Mace. Of 
these devoted ones a third were women, — last at the foot of the 
Cross, first at the door of the Sepulchre, — of whom eight were 
wives, six with husbands at their side to comfort and strengthen, 


and four were lonely widows. There was Jehan de Laurencerye, 
Sr., and Jehan de Laurencerye, Jr., and Guillaume de Laurence- 
rye, probably father and two sons; there was Man gin and his 'wife 
and their two little girls, and the minister's wife was at his side to 
share his fate; and there was Pasquette Piquery, widow, and 
Jehan, Pierre, and Louis Piquery, probably her sons, of whom 
the first two were burnt alive before her eyes; the last, too young 
for such fate, but a brave boy, was hung up by the arms to witness 
the awful sight, then flogged upon the market-place at the foot of 
the stakes bearing the smoking cinders of his brothers and impris- 
oned for life in the Abbey of St. Faron near Meaux, where he died. 
Alas, poor widow ! 

Their march through the streets of Meaux old Crespin says was 
a sight to move the wonder of angels and men. So far were they 
from meditating any violence or rebellion, their progress was 
blithe and cheerful. They sang psalms and especially with up- 
lifted voices the 79th, " Oh God, the heathen are come into Thy 
inheritance." Thus were the}- carried to the dungeons of the 
Chateau, where they were kept until the charges against them 
were prepared and the evidence to support the charges on the 
coming trial before the Parliament of Paris collected. The most 
serious charge made was that of having ventured to celebrate the 
Supper of the Lord and of having thus usurped the priest's office, 
but the nature of the distinct charges made against the different 
persons does not appear; as already said, they all had not offended 
to the same extent, and even the blind bigotry of that day could 
not condemn for Communion those who had not communed, or 
for heresy or blasphemy those who were not proved to have so 
professed or uttered. 

While in this prison some were put to the rack or other torture 
to compel disclosure of their associates — such was the cruel prac- 
tice of the day — but in vain, for no other arrests are named, and 
none others sentenced. But tortured or not, all suffered fearfully, 
for dungeons then were foul, unfurnished, and unfed, and jailors 
were ruffians and basest guardians of women and girls, wolves 
guarding lambs! 

After a few days the devoted band, all faithful still, were bound 
again, cast prone into rough carts, without even straw to lie upon, 
though man.y were old and feeble and worn and weary, and 
hastily carted over jolting roads twenty-seven miles, without stop- 


i 5 8 

page, to the dungeons and renewed tortures at the Conciergerie in 
Paris. Yet their hearts failed them not, for though exhausted 
already, and " weakened by the exertion of the journey and mo- 
tion of the vehicles, they ceased not to exhort and encourage each 
other by the way, and on entering Paris, to encourage the Hugue- 
nots there by the sight of their constancy and firmness, ceased not 
to sing their beloved psalms" as the cortege moved through the 
streets on its way to the prison of the Palace. 

Thus persecuting King and Queen cruelly hale pious people 
with their little children, seeking light and right, to the torments 
of the Conciergerie and death, and the centuries' struggle for 
freedom and conscience commences. Lift the curtain from the 
future, and see along this very road and to the same Conciergerie 
and to death, hundreds of years afterwards, another King and 
Queen and their little children haled by the people, a Huguenot 
their only friendly companion ; and the struggle ends; with victory 
for the Huguenots, who at last procured religious liberty for all of 

Thus as evening falls, wends its weary way the slow, long line 
of jolting tumbrils past the Bastille, into St. Antoine, and along 
the streets of Paris mid the jeers and hooting of the frenzied mob, 
and the songs of praise to God of the victims. It soon crosses the 
Seine and its human freight are quickly crowded into the subter- 
ranean dungeons of the Conciergerie, dripping with the washing 
waters of the passing river in darkness and the shadow of horrid 
cruelties past and to come. Here for three whole weeks all are 
kept, "to be further harassed by piteous torments, inflictions 
heavy and unremitted, carefully selected for their severity espe- 
cially in the case of the Fourteen." Again and again is every 
effort made to shake their faith and bring discredit upon their 
cause by recantation and confession of error, by tortures most 
horrible, — bodily and mental, — by arguments most specious, by 
tempting offers of pardon and clemency, but all in vain. Without 
complaint of God they suffer pains the most excruciating, — the 
rack, the boot, roasting before slow fires, floggings bloody, and 
the ''question" ordinary and extraordinary; and devilish in- 
genuity devises mental sufferings keener still, to wring parents' 
hearts, by torturing their children before their eyes, till they 
should relent and abjure. Men of learning, too, and high position 
spare no pains with many a perverted Bible text to break the faith 


of these untutored folk ; or to convince, presenting death, torture, 
and exile as alternatives, that 't would be no sin to return to the 
Catholic Church. " Renounce the ' errors ' of Calvin," the) 1 - say, 
11 only the errors, not the truths, and you and your dear ones will 
be freed." " You concede that Catholics may be Christians and 
we deny that others than Catholics can be saved, why not make 
sure, then, and live your pious lives within our fold?" " Pre- 
tend only to be convinced, and make public confession of error 
and go unhurt. You may easily rerecant if you choose." " Will 
not you by simulating conviction save from torture, death, or life- 
long cell, or exile, the galleys, or worse, your wife, or little 
daughter, or aged parent ? Surely one ought to sacrifice some- 
thing for such loved ones." " Whisper in the priest's ear, that 
spectators may think that you are confessing. Was not Naaman 
permitted to pretend to worship Rimmon by bowing the knee in 
his temple? Do likewise, then, poor, deluded people and return 
to home and smiling fields, and wife and children, or take them 
with you from these deadly dungeons to fireside peace and safety." 
But all in vain, their faith, if simple, was pure; their teachings 
from the Gospels alone, and strength was given their bodies to suc- 
cessfully resist all pains, temptations, and allurements. Thus by 
their firmness, they showed to their vast multitude of successors' 
how Huguenots were to become famous, and bequeathed to their 
descendants a motto which, three hundred } r ears later, poor Marie 
Durand, a peasant girl, torn from the nuptial altar at fifteen years 
of age and immured in the Tower de Constance till fi^ty-three, 
offered freedom daily if she would abjure, gave name to, and for 
her own encouragement cut into the stone wall of her cell where 
it may still be seen: " ' Recistez" 

On the 4th of October, Tuesday, 1546, the Parliament of Paris 
passed sentence ; the decree is preserved in the National Archives. 
"Authority " was fully minded to crush utterly this first organ- 
ized movement for reform; no effort was deemed too great to bring 
these leaders to confess that their teaching and example was 
wrong, or otherwise to disgrace and discredit them in the eyes of 
their followers. The President of the Court, Pierre Lizet, main- 
tained that such ends could best be attained by separation and 
imprisoning each one apart, torturing and tormenting till recan- 
tation, or till death, when it could be proclaimed that there had 
been recantation, and meantime false rumors could be circulated 


to their discredit: being removed from the sight of their followers 
they would soon be forgotten. But the other judges thought a 
public execution would be most effective and that their followers 
would be frightened into conformit} r , ignorant that cruel public 
punishment of innocence excites emulation, not fear. 

The judgment rendered against them is singularly reticent of , 
the offences charged, it was said, purposely, so to avoid giving 
publicity to the Huguenot doctrines; but as to punishment it is 
full in every detail. 

The crimes for which each prisoner was sentenced are not clearly 
stated; although all were not equally guilty All were tried " by 
reason of the offences and crimes of heresy, and execrable blas- 
phemies, private conventicles, and illicit assemblies, schisms, and 
errors bearing appearance of idolatries by them committed respec- 
tively in the house of Estienne Mangin, in which the said prisoners 
had assembled themselves, and committed the said offences against 
the honor of our Saviour and Redeemer Jesus Christ, of the holy 
sacrament of the altar, commandments of our holy Mother Church, 
and her Catholic doctrine." 

Observe that there is no charge of laws broken or statutes vio- 
lated, only that deeds had been done, but not specified, against 
the honor and doctrine of the Church. The offences which by a 
general charge are applicable to all were evidently not all sub- 
stantiated against all, for the punishments are diverse. 

The chief offenders, of course, among those arrested were such 
of the " forty or fifty " who had organized the church, elected the 
minister, and administered or partaken of the Sacrament. These 
were the " Fourteen Martyrs of Meaux," who having remained 
staunch in spite of ceaseless efforts to compel or induce recantation 
were sentenced to be again tortured and subjected to the Question 
Extraordiyiaire to " induce them to declare and report their abet- 
tors, allies, and accomplices and other persons suspected of their 
sect and error"; to have their tongues cut out upon the da} 7 of 
execution, unless they would " whisper in the ear of a priest," — 
*. e. % pretend to confess, — to be drawn on ignominious hurdles, like 
lowest criminals, through the streets of Meaux, from the Castle, 
past the Cathedral, and over the river to the Grand Marche, the 
Huguenot quarter of the city, in solemn procession with the other 
prisoners, the authorities, civil and religious, and there, each to a 
separate stake, arranged in a circle facing inwards in front of 


Mangin's house, their church, to be burnt alive in the enforced 
presence of their wives and children, the people of the town, and 
the other prisoners (save a few of the women against whom probably 
nothing had been proved), who were ordered to take part in the 
auto da fe, the men in penitential shirts with bare heads and feet; 
the women barefoot also, conspicuously grouped apart so that all 
might see and know them. The widow Piquery was to be there 
to witness the burning of her two sons; the younger, " whose 
tender age and the shame it would cause saved him from being 
burnt," was to be tied by the arms and raised upon a stake to see 
and be seen, and while his brothers burned was to be flogged at 
their feet. He was also condemned to imprisonment for life — and 
must have provoked his judges by exceptional bravery and firm- 
ness, for we find an angry addendum to the decree condemning 
him to burning also should he continue obstinate and contuma- 
cious. He never recanted and died a prisoner years after. 

The house of Mangin was to be destroyed at the same time 
and its materials used to build a chapel to the Virgin upon the 
site, at the cost of the prisoner's estates, where Mass should be 
said every Thursday, the day of the execution, forever. 

Then, the Court having again " tried them by all methods and 
found its attempts powerless to weaken their resolution, and that 
it was impossible by any means to lead them from the opinions 
they had adopted, they were handed over toGilles Berthelot, Pro- 
vost Marshal, to be brought back to Meaux for punishment. In 
spite of previous failures, two of the learned doctors of the Sor- 
bonne, Maillard and Picard, were sent with them to persist in 
these efforts to the last — hoping that hearts might sink and cour- 
age fail when the body was weak and distressed by further torture, 
mutilation, and sight of scaffold. These, in fact, gave them 
no peace along the road till brave Le Clerc commanded to let us 
alone and hinder us not from remembering and pondering on the 
benefits our God has given us." 

Crespin thus tells the rest (he knew both Mangin and Le Clerc) : 
" In the course of this journey, full as it was of all annoyance, 
an event by God's providence occurred which is assuredly memor- 
able. It cheered and confirmed this unfortunate people so wearied 
with every hardship both in soul and body, and their strength 
nearly worn out. As they passed through the forest of Livry, 

which is three leagues from Paris, a certain man, a naster weaver, 


came out from the neighboring village of Couberou to meet them. 
He followed their carriages and began exhorting them to hold 
fast the confession of the truth, saying: 1 Be strong and be of good 
courage, brethren and friends, and be not weary in that faithful 
testimon5' you owe to the Gospel.' However the carriages were 
moving forward at such a high speed that he could not be easily 
heard by those who were in front, so raising his hand to heaven, 
he cried out: ' Brethren, remember Him that is in heaven above.' 
Then the escort and other attendants in the train of the Provost 
Marshal, deeming the man a Lutheran, bound him fast, without 
any inquiry, and so cast him into the carriage where the fourteen 
were already in bonds. . . . This man who so appeared by 
God's goodness to them on their road, not only renewed their 
strength with his vigorous and zealous ardor, but also restored, 
confirmed, and refreshed their hearts by this latest proclamation 
of God's promises. Some of them avowed that new strength came 
to them by the unlooked for meeting with this man as if he had 
been an angel sent from heaven. Those w T ho were silent through 
the weight of their grief began to lift up their heads and rejoice 
in the Holy Spirit. On arriving at Meaux they shut them all up 
in the prison and then began to interrogate them w T ith tortures 
extraordinary as they are called. This method w r as employed 
especially in the case of the aforesaid fourteen to obtain the accu- 
sation of those who cherished the same doctrine. None, however, 
were named or accused by a word of theirs. In this inquisition 
their limbs were cruelly racked and all but torn asunder by the 
ministers of torture, yet it is said that the executioners were ex- 
horted by one of exceptional fortitude, who cried out to them not 
to spare the wretched body, since it had so much resisted the spirit 
and will of the Creator. On the next day, w r hereon their punish- 
ment was to be carried out, the doctors of theology renewed the 
discussion with them, dealing especially with the sacrament of the 
Lord's Supper. But Picard and the other Roman Catholic theo- 
logians were uncertain of their arguments, and had nothing what- 
ever to say when Le Clerc asked them what was the ground for 
their transubstantiation, and whether in eating the bread or in 
drinking the w r ine, they perceived any taste of flesh or of blood. 
In the end these terms were offered, that any who were willing to 
whisper in the ear of the priest, which is a phrase they use for 
confessing sins, should obtain some favor and their tongues should 

1 63 

not be cut off. Out of the fourteen above named, then seven 
accepted this condition, whether because they considered it of 
little moment, or because they thought they could by this stipula- 
tion redeem the privilege of speech. This caused profound sor- 
row to the others, whose resolution was never relaxed nor their 
determination ever abandoned for threat or promise. Now at the 
second hour of the afternoon, which had been fixed for the execu- 
tion of their punishment, when they were led out of prison, the 
executioner first demanded of Estieune Mangin to put forth his 
tongue. He put it forth in ready compliance. It was then 
cut off, and he, spitting out the blood, ) r et spake in a manner 
to be fairly understood, and prayed three times with such 
phrases as ' Blessed be the name of the Lord.' He was pres- 
ently dragged upon a hurdle, as was Le Clerc also. The rest, 
however, were placed in a cart and so carried off. Those that 
were not condemned to death followed close by on foot to 
the great market-place. Here were fourteen gibbets put up in 
a circle opposite Mangin' s house." These gibbets or stakes w r ere 
arranged in a small circle. The victims w r ere chained each to a 
stake, all facing inwards, and raised six or eight feet from the 
ground. The interspace was filled with fagots, straw r , gun- 
powder, brimstone, blocks of timber, and other quick-burning 

11 A separate gibbet was also erected a little farther off on which 
was to be hung up by his shoulders a youth called Michel Piquery 
whose tender age and the shame it would cause saved him from 
being burnt. Then like lambs for the sacrifice these men were 
bound fast by the executioners. Those wmose tongues had been 
cut off ceased not to call with stammering voice on the Lord, 
while the others who had the full use of speech kept singing 
psalms. This threw the priests and monks present into a frenzy 
of rage, who on their part struck up their monotonous chants — 
Sahdaris Hostia, then, Salve Regina and other like blasphemies. 
Nor did they leave off this impious and insane singing until these 
most holy victims were burnt and consumed as a sacrifice of 
sweetest savor. Their immortal names w r ere Pierre Le Clerc, 
Estienne Mangin, Jacques Bouchebee, Jehan Brisebarfe, Henry 
Houtenot, Thomas Honore, Jehan Baudouin, Jehan Flesche, 
Jehan Piquery, Pierre Piquery, Jehan Matheflon, Philippe Petit, 
Michel Caillon, and Francoys Le Clerc." 


" Of that highminded race, on all who bear 
Their names or lineage may their mantle rest — 
That firmness for the truth, that calm content 
With simple pleasures, that unswerving trust 
In toil, adversity and death which cast 
Such healthful leaven mid the elements 
That peopled this new world." 

Furious persecutions such as this, oft repeated with varying 
severity during generations throughout France from the moun- 
tains to the Mediterranean, far from subjecting men's consciences 
to the will of the king, imparted strength and growth to reform, 
and the successors of the Fourteen of Meaux in time included the 
king, many of the nobility, and the flower of even* class in France, 
and were of sufficient number and power often to compel Govern- 
ment and the Church not only to tolerate their worship, but to 
grant them legal recognition and civil and religious rights. 

But such successes were unstable — there was no power, save 
their own strong arms, to hold the Government to its treaties with 
its subjects, which began to be disregarded almost as soon as 
granted, so that persecution and oppression still continued. Thus 
many in despair, who would not abandon the religion of their 
fathers, chose rather to abandon all else and leaving home and 
country and property and friends began to seek liberty and peace 
in America. As early as 1562, under the auspices of Admiral 
Coligny, Huguenots landed on these shores where Port Royal in 
South Carolina now stands, to establish a colony there, but failed, 
having been all massacred by the Catholic Spaniards. 

Ere Jamestown in Virginia was three years old, Huguenots be- 
gan to appear there, and from then till the end of the century they 
continued to cross the Atlantic to these hospitable shores until 
thousands had blessed the Colonies by their coming. 

Purified in the fires of affliction for generation after generation, 
strengthened and developed by the constant exercise and teach- 
ings of their religion at great danger and sacrifice, and by their 
heritage of devotion from faithful parent to dutiful child, to resist 
the allurements and attractions of rewards and favors constantly 
offered if they w r ould recant or even pretend to do so, and by 
poverty and necessity enured to hardship, labor, and thrift, they 
were the best of every class in France, as their children have 
been, and are, in America. 

i6 5 

It is not too much to say that never have such emigrants crossed 
sea before: never have peaceful foreigners so impressed themselves 
upon their new surroundings as these ancestors of ours, and their 
descendants, have done in the United States — whence their potent 
influence has extended even back to France again. 

The same principles of civil and religious liberty for which the 
great Coligny fought and died, and millions in France suffered 
for hundreds of years, were largely by their teachings made foun- 
dation stones of our Constitution, whose chief artificers were 
Huguenots. Jefferson, huguenot taught, first secured a law for 
religious freedom for all in Virginia, and this and his Declara- 
tion of Independence were the models for the French Declaration 
of the Rights of Man, wherein the Huguenot, Rabaut de St. 
£tienne, President of the National Assembly, procured to be in- 
corporated the declaration for religious freedom for all in France, 
though at the cost of his life upon the guillotine several years 

Nothing more conclusively demonstrates their intelligence, 
force of character, superiority, and eminence in all that make 
men great and women loved than the wonderful records of their 
lives and successes here, and of the successes and achievements 
of their descendants. 

They came to America in direst poverty, generally, — aliens, 
exiles, hereditary foes, — speaking only a foreign tongue, of for- 
eign habits and customs, seeking at first to live apart and to them- 
selves, to a country with whom theirs was at war and constant 
feud, to colonies loyal and devoted, some of which were close 
corporations almost, governed by a proud and exclusive colonial 
aristocracy, jealous of its privileges and carefully opposing any 
enlargement of its favored circle. And yet from the day of their 
landing these Frenchmen were so impressive in their many vir- 
tues, attractions, and attainments that prejudice was at once dis- 
armed, exclusion forgotten, reason and self-interest prevailed,- and 
the newcomers are taken by the hand, and soon to the heart, and 
become the pastors, teachers, valued friends, and cherished com- 
panions of the best in the laud. Their children play together and 
intermarry, and they and their posterity have ever since been 
found among the leaders of this land, first among the foremost 
where duty, danger, or patriotism called, on land or sea, iu Court 
or Senate, in commerce or science, at home or abroad. The wife 

1 66 

of General Washington was a Huguenot, great-granddaughter to 
Gideon Macon of Languedoc, one of Virginia's earliest immigrants, 
and in the later colonial days Huguenots were the trusted leaders 
and advisers in every colon}* in preparation to resist the encroach- 
ment of the Crown, and Boudinot, Jay, Laurens, Bayard, Bowdoin, 
Manigault, and many others were chairmen of the committees of 
safety and donors of their fortunes and their credit to their several 
colonies. Of seven presidents of the Continental Congress, then 
the Chief Magistrate of the government, three were Huguenots, 
the first and the last, Laurens and Boudinot, and Jay. In the 
army many attained high rank — Laurens, who led the attack 
upon the British redoubt at Yorktown; Schuyler, in New York; 
and Marion, in South Carolina. The most potential artificers of 
the Constitution were Huguenots of New York — Hamilton and 
Jay, also the first Treasurer of the United States, and its first 
Chief Justice. The framers of the treaty which established 
American independence were Huguenots; as was the official who 
signed it on behalf of the United States, whose first representa- 
tives to foreign countries, even to France, were Huguenots. 

" I see thee yet, fair France, thou favored land 
Of Art and Nature — thou art still before me, 
Thy sons to whom their labor is a sport, 
So well the grateful land returns the tribute, 
Thy sunburnt daughters with their laughing eyes 
And glossy raven locks. But favored France, 
Thou hast had many a tale of woe to tell 
In ancient times, as now." 

Note.— The information upon these pages has been chiefly acquired from the learned 
notes and translations concerning the " Fourteen of Meaux" by Herbert M. Bower, M.A., 
published under that title by the Huguenot Society of I^ondon, vol. v., No. i ; from the 
Bulletin de la SociHi de P Histoire du Frotestantisnte Francois, Dec, 1897; from Crespin's 
Histoire des Martyrs, and from the invaluable work of Prof. H. M. Baird, The Rise of the 


By Benjamin Aymar 

Records dealing with the religious conflict which agitated 
France in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries 
give the name Aymar, the patronymic of a family found chiefly 
in Dauphine, Languedoc, Guyenne, and adjacent provinces. His- 
torically, it is of antiquity and importance, but this paper designs 
to treat of its relation to the strife of Protestant and Catholic, in 
an endeavor to afford a possible clue to the ancestry of Jean 
Eymar, or Aymar, a Huguenot, who settled in New York; and 
to chronicle data with regard to him and some of his immediate 

Many of the name embraced the tenets of Calvin, inevitably 
undergoing the brutalities and indignities to which his devoted 
followers were subjected. Some fought and some preached, each 
serving God and the cause in his own w ? ay. 

Matthieu Aymar laid down his life in the massacre at Orange, 
Comtat v enaissin, in i$~o. 

When the Catholic soldiery under Marshal Damville attacked 
Sommieres, Languedoc, November 10, 1572, Guillaume Aymar, 
a locksmith, was one of the courageous defenders of the little 
town. A stubborn resistance effected a surrender on favorable 
terms, and, to quote an authority, " the garrison marched out with 
all the honors of war." 

Laurent Aymar, pastor of the congregation at Lezan, preached 
there from 1620 to 1637, and later at Quissac and Saint-Hippolyte- 
du-Fort, Dauphine. In 1626 and in 1637, services were conducted 
by Ajmiars at Saint-Paul-Trois-Chateaux and at Die, in the same 
province. In 1698, Pierre Aymar, of Die, studied theology in 
Geneva, where the Huguenot clergy often prepared themselves 
for their work of self-sacrifice and danger, and it is interesting to 
note that the name has figured in the Swiss Church of the present 

For a considerable time, Pierre Aymar was imprisoned at Ber- 

1 Read before the Huguenot Society, November 25, 1899. 

I6 7 

1 63 

gerac, Guyeune, in which locality the family was numerous. In 
1701, he was claimed by his brother, Eymar de Boissy, a criminal 
magistrate of the place, but was not deemed a staunch enough 
Catholic to be set at liberty. Two years afterward, his niece 
Judith, daughter of the magistrate, fell under the ban. 

During the emigration arising from merciless oppression and 
precipitated by the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, October 22, 
1685, bearers of the name sought safety and religious toleration in 
foreign lands. 

In 15S5, Renaud Ay mar, a mercer of Mussy-l'Evesque, Cham- 
pagne, became an inhabitant of Geneva, where Abraham Aymar, 
of the valley of Oueiras, went in 1698. 1 

Jean Aymar, son of Guillaume Aymar, a butcher of Saint- 
Antonin, Guyenne, and of Jeanne Lombrail, fled in 1691, or 1692. 
He is cited in a list of Huguenots drawn up in 1700 by order 
of M. de la Houssaye, comptroller of finance for the district of 
Montauban. Marie Aymar, of Saiut-Antonin, wife of Jacques 
Roumieu, a merchant and manufacturer, died in Berlin in 1722, 
at the age cf sixty-five. 2 

Pierre Rotolp, sieur d Aimar, of Castres, Languedoc, was of 
the faith in 1666. 3 

Examination of the registers of the Threadneedle Street Church, 
London, under date September 17, 1676, reveals a memorandum 
of the baptism of Pierre, son of David and Elisabeth Berquez. 
Witnesses: Pierre Aimar and Marie Berquez, wife of Abraham 
Faulcon. 4 

Loys Emar, mason, a native of Nanteuil, Champagne, was ad- 
mitted as a denizen of Geneva in 1556 ; another Emar, of Dauphine, 
of Lausanne, in 1570. Jacques Emar and Marie Barrault, his 
aunt, were assisted to Loudon in 1702. 5 

An Eyma was an elder at Bergerac in 1679. Pierre Eymard 
escaped from Bordeaux, Guyenne, in 1685..: Salomon Eyma, about 
1 700. 8 

Jean Amard, of Saint-Bonnet, Dauphine, his wife and three 
children, received help to go to Geneva, thence to Berlin, in 1700/ 

1 La France Protestante, Haag - , vol. i.. p. 613. 

* Les Montalbanais et le Refuge, De Franc?, p. :6. 

* La France Protestante, Haag', vol. i., p. 59. 

* Publications of the Huguenot Society of London, vol. xiii., p. 220. 

* La France Protestante, Haag, vol. vi., p. 10. 

* La France Protestante, Haag, vol. vi., pp. TS5, i36. 
7 La France Protestante, Haag, vol. i. ; p. 16S. 


There is little to indicate kinship among these victims of Catholic 
enmity and no evidence is forthcoming to associate them with 
Jean Eymar, progenitor of the New York family. 

The name first appears in America in the archives of the French 
Church, then in King, now Pine, Street, New York: 

11 Aujourd'hui Dimauche 28? de Novembre 1731. apres la priere P 
du soir a ete baptisee par moi Soussigne Ministre de cette Eglise, 
Marie Ay mar nee a la Nouvelle York le i8 e Novembre dernier, 
fille de Jean Aymar et de Francoise Belon son Epouse, etant pre- 
sentee au S- Baptesme par Jean Roy et Marie sa femme parrain 
et Marraine. 

" L: Rou, Pasteur Jean Eymar 

Jean Roy 

"La marque de Marie m Magdeeeine Pasearen Roy." 1 

Two forms of the surname in this entry suggest that an extract 
from the Introduction of the Rev. A. V. Wittmeyer to the pub- 
lished registers of the church will not be misplaced here. 

" But it will be well in this connection," he says, il to caution 
the reader against a special difficulty caused by the orthography 
of the proper names. It is very seldom that a name, which occurs 
often in the records, is always spelled alike. A striking example 
of this fact is furnished by the name of Mr. Peiret, who was 
nevertheless one of the principal ministers of the church. Besides 
the form of Peiret, which is no doubt the ordinary form, it is found 
also as Pairet, Payret and Perret. The index, which may serve 
as a guide in this matter, reveals still greater differences in writing 
the names of persons. This fact can be readily explained. At 
that time the spelling of proper names, like the spelling of words 
in general, was far from being as definitely fixed as it is now. 
Not only so, but the members of the church consisted of Normands, 
Picards, Rochelers, Poitevins, Languedocians, Xaintongers, Gas- 
cons, Bretons, Angoumoisins, Bearnois, Dauphinois, 2 &c, and all 
these provinces then still retained some of their peculiarities of 
speech and writing. In identifying the names of persons, too much 
stress must not, therefore, be laid upon exact correspondence in 
the spelling." 3 

1 Collections of the Huguenot Society of America, vol. i., p. 191. 
* Documentary History of New York, vol. ill. , p. 1173. 

3 Collections of the Huguenot Society of America, vol. i., p. lxxxi. The index incorrectly 
assigns the orthography Aymard to the family. 


Of the ancestry of Jean Eymar nothing is known and for any 
account of him, prior to the date of the above baptismal record, 
we are forced to turn to family traditions, not always reliable wit- 
nesses. These vary somewhat in the different branches, but the 
main incidents bear a resemblance and inequalities as to domicile 
in France and time of flight therefrom, and the sojourn in Eng- 
land, Germany, and the West Indies, are not sufficient to dis- 
credit them as a whole. They are presented without comment. 

"Jean Aymar was a Huguenot. His parents left their native 
province, Dauphine, at the time of the revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes. Long and weary journeys by land and sea were endured 
ere they reached a spot they could call their home. Jean must 
have been a child at the time of their flight. Arriving in New 
York, he was accompanied by wife and children only; the elder 
Aymars had found a grave by the waj^side, never reaching the 
promised land. Tradition tells us of the great haste in which 
they fled, with the bread in the ovens and the meats before the 

" The first place of refuge was across the Rhine into Germany, 
wending their way to the shores of the German Ocean, or North 
Sea; thence they sailed for England. The story of that eventful 
passage was told by Mr. Peter Embury, a member of the family, 
when he was past fourscore, more than half a century ago. ' Your 
ancestors,' he remarked, ' were pious people and when they made 
that voyage so full of danger and hardship, over the sea in an open 
boat, they did not forget their devotions. Morning and evening 
they raised their voices in prayers of thanksgiving and hymns of 
praise to the Lord, who was leading them, as they believed, to a 
home of security and rest. A child sickened and died, and was 
buried in the deep.' These incidents form the subject of one of 
the late Edwin White's (N. A.) most pleasing pictures, The 
Evening Hynm of the Huguenot Refugees. It was purchased by 
Mrs. Lee, authoress of The Huguenots, and is now in the posses- 
sion of her heirs in Boston, Massachusetts. 

" The Aymars were not content in England. Their thoughts 
and hearts turned to the newer western land, where already many 
of their fellow countrymen had found safety and freedom to wor- 
ship God in accordance with the dictates of conscience and the 
simple rites of their own church. They embarked again, expect- 
ing to reach New York without delay, but disappointment awaited 


them. Overtaken by a storm, their vessel disabled, they were 
obliged to seek shelter at Nassau, in the Island of New Provi- 
dence. Tempted by the beauty of the place and the mildness of 
the climate, they remained for a time, occupying an estate they 
called ' Bon Dieu.' But they could not be satisfied until the land 
of promise was to them a land of possession. Once more they 
braved the perils of the ocean and at last landed in New York, 
where they made permanent settlement. Their descendants to 
the sixth and seventh generations are now among the residents of 
the great city." 1 

"As I learned from my father, who was an old man when I was 
quite young, his father was brought from France during the 
Huguenot persecution, by his father and mother. They escaped 
in an open boat from Rochelle, out into the Bay of Biscay and so 
into the English Channel to England, when he w T as at. infant. 
His father, after they reached England, went back in the h.-vpe of 
recovering some of his property, but was arrested and beheaded. 
The mother and child then left England and came to New Rochelle 
and subsequently to the City of New York." 2 

"July i, 1838. — Mrs. Abram Child sent for me to-day to pass 
the afternoon with her at her home on St. John's Park. She is a 
charming little old lady, so courtly and dainty. She told me that 
her grandfather, John Aymar, owned by inheritance most of the 
ground on which the Tuileries now stand. She said her grand- 
father was a zeajous Huguenot and fled from France because of 
religious persecution; that he went first to England, where he had 
many noble relatives; decided to make his home in the West 
Indies; but eventually came and settled in America." 8 

" A cousin, whose mother w r as Eliza Aymar Child, writes me: 
' The Aymars (our Aymars) were people of large wealth. At the 
time of the massacre of St. Bartholomew, they fled to the West 
Indies and from there came to New York. Their graves my 
mother has often taken me to see in Trinity churchyard. In fly- 
ing from France, they carried much valuable personal property 
with them and left large real estate interests. Their property was 

1 Communication from Miss Harriet (141 ) Aymar, South Norwalk, Conn. 

* Communication from the late Samuel S. (59) Aymar, Jamaica, L. I. 

■ Communication from Mrs. Benjamin A. Fessenden, Highland Park, Ul. Extract from 
the journal of her mother, Mrs. Abram C. Dayton. The descent is as follows : Jean Ey- 
mar mar. Francoise Belon ; Charlotte Aymar mar. John Moffit ; Frances Moffit mar. 
Abram Child; Jane Child mar. Charles Willoughby Dayton ; Abram Child Dayton mar. 
Maria Annis Tomlinson ; Laura Dayton mar. Benjamin Arthur Fessenden. 



iu the most attractive part of Paris and we used to have dreams 
of receiving this immense estate.' " 1 

" I have heard my father say that they left France at the time 
of religious persecution and came to America under grant of the 
King of England, who gave to them the townships of Shipenectady 
and Schenectad\ r , New York; that no one owning property in 
either of these places has a clear title. . . 

" I also remember father saying that . . . the records of 
the family proving their lineage were in the Dutch Reformed 
Church in Albany, N. Y., and when in the French and Indian 
War the church was burned, the records were destroyed." 2 

" Your Grand Father's name was John, his parents left France 
when he was a babe — They took him in their arms, went out of 
the back door, fled through the back street to the river, and made 
their escape in a boat without oars, and paddled over to Eng- 
land, They lived there until your Grand father was married, he 
then went to German)' ( I do not know whether his parents went 
with him or not. I could not find out their names) he staid there 
until his eldest daughter was born: they then went back again to 
England, and there he had two daughters born. From there, 
they went to Providence, in the West Indies, as there was great 
encouragement given by the English for the French to settle 
there — There, your Grand father settled and built a house, but 
when the French church moved to New York, they left all and 
followed the church — I could not positively find out the name of 
your Grand Mother — Mr. Peter Aymar says he believes it was 
Jane — He says the French name was Eymar — that E. is the right 
way of spelling it in French — They altered it to A. after coming 
to New York — Your Uncle John was the oldest son — he and your 
father were both born in Providence — Your Uncle James in New 
York." 9 

Jean Eymar was not naturalized in England and his name is 
absent from the roll of Freemen of this city. He is said to have 
engaged in the cultivation of grapes and to have owned vineyards 

1 Communication from Mrs. Benjamin A. Fessenden, Highland Park. 111. 

* Communication from Miss Jane H. (192) Aymar, East Somerville. Mass. 

3 Communication from the late William H. (i8i) Aymar , New Orleans La. Copy of a 
letter from Mrs. William Day to her father, January, 1843. This embodies data gathered 
between sixty and seventy years ago. when an advertisement for Eymar heirs to estates 
in France brought together members of the race in New York to discuss the advisability 
of claiming them. 



on Golden Hill. This eminence, since famous as the scene of the 
first bloodshed of the Revolution, was bounded approximately by 
Fulton (Fair), William, John, and Gold streets. 

On February 26, 1746, he purchased a house and land in Nassau 
Street from Elizabeth Ellison, 1 the original deed of which is in the 
possession of a great-great-great-grandson. In it he is styled 
44 yeoman," which fixes his worldly position at that period. Al- 
though no trace of the use of coat-armor is detected in the lines of 
descent from him, the tradition of noble blood survives, and 
French heraldic works enumerate several Aymar families. Be 
this as it may, until the connection of Jean Eymar with one of 
these can be positively substantiated, his descendants have no 
shadow of right to assume arms. 

He was an elder and door-keeper of the French Church, 2 and 
died in the city of his adoption in 1755. 

His will mentions wife and nine children, all of whose names 
occur in the church registers, which record the baptisms of Marie, 
Daniel, Jean Jacques, and Jeanne; and the marriages of Marie 
and Pierre Rougeon; Jeanne and Dennis Wortman; Jean and 
Jeanne Raveau; and Charlotte and John Moffit. 3 


" In the name of God, Amen. I, John Eymar, of the City 
of New York, being in good health and sound disposing mind and 
memory, thanks be to God, do make and ordain this my Last Will 
and Testament, in manner and form following: 

" First, I recommend my Soul to Almighty God who gave it and 
my Body to the Earth, to be decently interred at the discretion of 
my Executors hereinafter named, in hopes of a Joyfull resurrection 
of life Eternal through the Merrits and satisfaction of my blessed 
Saviour and Redeemer Jesus Christ. 

" Item, as to such Temporal Estate wherewith it hath pleased 
God to bless me and which shall remain after discharging of my 
Just debts and funeral expenses, 

"Item, I give, devise and bequeath unto my beloved Wife, 
Frances Eymar, all the use, benefit and profits of all my Estate 

1 Register's Office, New York, Liber 1494 of Conveyances, p. 295. 
a La France Protestante, Haag, vol. i., p 613. 

• Collections 0/ the Huguenot Society of America, vol. i., pp. 191, 197, 201, ail, 231, 235, 260. 


both real and Personal whatsoever, to be possessed and enjoye 
by her during her natural life and after ray said Wife's death, I 
give, devise and bequeath all my said Estate to and amongst my 
nine Children herein after named, to be equally divided between 
them, share and share alike, only with this difference, that my 
eldest Son, John Eymar, shall have three pounds more than any 
of the rest, that is to say: 

14 One ninth part thereof to my eldest son, John Eymar, and to 
his heirs and assigns for ever; one ninth part thereof to my Son, 
Daniel Eymar, and his heirs and assigns for ever; one ninth part 
thereof to my Son, James Eymar, and his heirs and assigns for 
ever; one ninth part thereof to my Daughter, Judith, the Wife 
of Daniel Hutcheson, of New York, Marriner, and to her heirs 
and assigns for ever; one ninth part thereof to my Daughter, 
Magdalen Eymar, and to her heirs and assigns for ever; one ninth 
part thereof to my Daughter, Lucretia Eymar, and to her heirs 
and assigns for ever; one ninth part thereof to my daughter, 
Charlott Eymar, and to her heirs and assigns for ever; one ninth 
part thereof to my Daughter, Mary Eymar, and to her heirs and 
assigns for ever; one ninth part thereof to my Daughter, Jean 
Eymar, and to her heirs and assigns for ever. 

" And my Will is that if it should happen that any, or either, of 
my said Sons and Daughters should happen to die before they 
attain the age of twenty-one 3-ears, or marriage, in that case, he 
or she so dieing, their part or share shall be equally divided 
amongst the Survivor, or Survivors, of my Children and 

''Lastly, I do order and appoint my beloved Wife, Frances 
Eymar, and my Eldest Son, John Eymar, and my Son in Law, 
Daniel Hutcheson, Executors of this my Last Will and Testament, 
revoking all other and former Wills and Testaments whatsoever 
made by me. 

" In Witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and Seal this 
thirty first day of March, in the Year of our Lord one thousand 
seven hundred and forty-nine. "Jean Eymar (l. s.)." 1 

From about the middle to the end of the century, we discover 
Aymars for whose place in the genealog) r there is no documen- 
tary evidence, although they may belong to this family. These 
names are italicized. 

t 1 Surrogate's Office, New York, Liber 19 of Wills, p. 214. 


May 3, 1744. — Baptism of Daniel, born in New York, April 27, 
1744, son of Daniel Hutchesou and Judith Eymar. Sponsors: 
Daniel Ravaux and Magdeleine Eymar Watkins. 

August 4, 1 77 1. — Baptism of Abraham, born in New York, 
July 25, 1 77 1, son of Jean Aymar and Jeanne Raveau. Sponsors: 
Jaques La Masney and Marie Aymar, his wife. 1 

In 1779, Peter Aymar lived in South Street, between Whitehall 
Street and Exchange Slip, on land owned by Peter Goelet. 2 

A schedule, apparently of Protestant refugees to various parts 
of America, compiled by an anonymous writer, includes Pierre 

The will of John A mar, " Master Carpenter to the Board of 
Ordnance, and late of Pensacola, but at present of the City of New 
York," dated September 19, 1781, recorded October 29, 1781, 
mentions " my Brother, Daniel Amar, and my Sister, Deborah 
Amar, both of the Parish of Bromham, near the Devises, Wilts, 
in the Island of Great Britain," to whom he bequeaths " the sum 
of Fifty pounds Sterling each, to be paid to them within six 
months after my Decease," and " the rest, Residue and Remainder 
of my Estate . . . unto my beloved Wife, Sarah, to hold the 
same to her, her Heirs and assigns forever." 3 

January n, 1789. — Baptism of Sarah, born December 10, 1788, 
daughter of Daniel and Martha Aymar. 

April 14, 1789. — Marriage of Da?iiel Ay??iar and Catherine 
Scurtchman. 4 

The Poll List for elections to the assembly, February, 1761, 
contains the names James, John, and Daniel Amaur. 5 

Of the sons of Jean Eymar, Jean, the eldest, continued to wor- 
ship in the French Church and his children were baptized there 
until its closing in 1776 for an interval of twenty years. He must 
be the Jean Aymar, one of a committee of seven, appointed No- 
vember 23, 1772, to procure a minister to officiate in both French 
and English. 8 On January 26, 1796, he was elected a trustee of 
the reorganized church. 6 

For some years previous to his decease, he resided at the corner 

1 Collections of the Huguenot Society of America, vol. i., pp. 219, 310. . . 

* Manuscript papers of Evert and Gerardus Bancker, City Surveyors. 

* Surrogate's Office, New York, I,iber 34 of Wills, p. 302. 
4 Register of Trinity Church, New York. 

• Memorial History of New York, Wilson, vol. ii., p. 317. 

• Collections of the Huguenot Society of America, vol. i., pp. Ixix., lxxi. 


of Bee km an and Nassau streets, on property bought from James 
Collar J, May 19, 17S4. 1 

Daniel and Jean Jacques Aymar left the French Church, the 
former certainly, the latter possibly, going to "Old Trinity," a 
step which may have influenced them in the struggle now at hand. 
Trinity Church was a potent factor in moulding the social and 
political sentiment of the day and the interests and inclinations of 
many of its parishioners caused them to view the impending up- 
setting of established conditions with disfavor. When the storm 
finally broke, they remained loyal, sacrificing fortune and property 
by confiscation. 

The Revolution brought the three brothers and their maturer 
sons face to face with the choice between king and colony. Like 
their Huguenot father, they were called on to decide a problem 
of vital importance to themselves and to their families. It was 
not as then a question of religion, but one fraught w T ith no less 
domestic significance for them. Testimony based on individual 
knowledge and tradition shows their sympathies to have been with 
the mother country. 

From local documents and newspapers we are enabled to catch 
glimpses of them at that epoch. 

Among the disaffected persons from whom arms were taken 
under an act of the Continental Congress of March 10, 1776, w 7 as 
John Amar, who forfeited a gun valued at eight shillings. 3 

An address of the citizens of New York to the British com- 
manders, Admiral Richard, Lord Viscount Howe, and General 
Sir William Howe, October 16, 1776, bears the signatures of 
James Amar, Daniel Aymar, Daniel Aymar, and William Aymar. 3 

James Aymar was an officer in the New York Loyalist Militia, 
serving as first lieutenant in Captain Edward Pryor's Company, 
in 1776, and as second lieutenant in Captain John George Leake's 
Seventeenth Company and Captain Balthazar Creamer's Thirtieth 
Company, in 17 79-80. 4 

An incendiary proclamation of Major- General James Robertson, 
inspired by rumors of the contemplated burning of the city by the 
rebels, designates Daniel Aymar, of the Montgomery W T ard, and 
James Aymar, of the North Ward, to superintend and summon a 

1 Register's Office, New York, Liber 41 of Conveyances, p. 163. 

* Calendar of Historical Manuscripts delating to the War of the Revolution, vol. i., p. 261. 

* New York City during the American Revolution, p. 119. 

* New York Biographical and Genealogical Record vol. ii., p. 156. 



watch and to furnish fifteen men each night, to meet at the Guard 
Room, near Cuyler's Sugar House. 1 

With the termination of hostilities dawned a calamitous era for 
adherents to the crown. Most of the colonies respected the ordi- 
nary 7 rules of warfare and decreed amnesty to their late opponents, 
but the feeling against the New York Loyalists was particularly 
bitter and numbers of them withdrew 7 from the city w T hen it w r as 
evacuated by the British. 

James Aymar was a grantee of the township of Clements, Nova 
Scotia, in 1784.* His stay there was brief, for his name appears 
in the New York Directory for 1787. 

John Aymar 1 went to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, w 7 here the crown 
granted him one town and one water lot. 4 It is highly probable 
that he is the John Aymar referred to in the following notice: 

11 To be sold, a new commodious house, fituated on Cruger's 
Wharf, at No. 3, with four rooms on the firft floor, and a conve- 
nient barn and two rooms over head, w 7 ith two large cellars, fit to 
contain one hundred puncheons, and a large yard fenced in, fuitable 
for any family, fuch as Merchants or Public Bufineff. Twenty-one 
years of the leafe is unexpired, and is valued at Three Hundred 
Pounds; the owner of the Houfe will take Two Hundred and 
Fifty pounds in Weft-India Produce, and the remainder in Cafh. 
Any perfon defirous or would w T ifh to purchale the Houfe, and 
know the fituation, may apply to John Aymar. 

" N. B. — If not difpofed of before Thurfday next, it will on 
that day be fold at Public Vendue, at Three O'clock, by 

11 Hughes and Montgomery." 5 

11 This is to inform the loyalists that have figned in Captain 
Aymar' s Company for Port-Rofeway," that they muft have their 
baggage on board the Nancy, lying at the Ordnance Wharf, on 
Monday next, and to anfwer the Mufter on Wednefday next, if not, 
their names will be returned to the Board, and other peoples 
taken in to fupply their places, and never hereafter be allowed a 
paffage by Government. ' ' 7 

1 Gaine's New York Gazette and Weekly Mercury, Jan. 13, 1777. 
a History of Annapolis County, N. S., Calnek-Savary, p. 246. 

* Descendants of John (11) Aymar still live in Nova Scotia. 

* Loyalists 0/ the American Revolution, Sabine, vol. ii., p. 474. 

• Rivington's Royal Gazette, Saturday. Aug. 23, 1783. 

• Shelburne, N. S. 

7 Rivington's Royal Gazette, Saturday, Sept. 27, 1783. 


i 7 8 

And we find this further allusion to Captain Aymar, after the 
Nayicy reached her destination: 

11 There were more than fifty companies of Loyalists who went 
to Shelburne from Xew York in 1783. They associated them- 
selves in 1 companies ' for the purpose of settlement merely, and 
it does not follow that they had been in arms during the war, 
although their captains were commissioned by Sir Guy Carleton. 
These companies were mustered at Shelburne late in the Summer 
of 17S4 for the purpose of checking the roll of those entitled to pro- 
visions from the English government. A few members had 
already scattered. Captain Aymar' s company at that time num- 
bered 23 men, 14 women and 16 children: total 53." 1 

Francis Aymar was one of the grantees of, and settled at, St. 
John, New Brunswick. 2 He occupied Lot No. 1125, at the corner 
of St. James and Germain streets. " This part of St. John was 
taken up by those who came from New York in the Autumn of 
1783 and was, and is, called ' Lower Cove.' " 3 He eventually 
returned to the United States, and lived alternately in Eastport, 
Maine, New York, Bergen, New Jersey, and St. Andrews, New 

An exception to this rule should likewise be set down. John 
Amarr was a private in Colonel Goose van Schaick's First New 
York Line Regiment, 1776-79. 4 

And now it seems well to conclude this sketch, from which w r e 
may gain a slight knowledge of some of the earlier New York 
Aymars. Their descendants in the male lines are not numerous 
and in the city to which their ancestors came so long ago the name 
is almost extinct. A comprehensive genealogy, in course of prep- 
aration, offers a sure foundation for the existing generations. 


I. Jean (i) Eymar, 5 or Aymar, d. in New York, 1755; mar. 
Francoise Belon, alive Oct. 27, 1765 6 ; and had issue 7 : 

1 Communication from Rev. W. O. Raymond, St. John, N. B. 

a Loyalists of the American Revolution, Sabine, vol. i., p. 198. 

1 Communication from the Rev. W. O. Raymond. St. John, N. B. 

* New York in the Revolution as Colony and State, p. 18. 

8 Will of John Eymar, "of the City of New York," dated Mar. 31, 1749, probated Mar. 
21, 1755, mentions wife, Frances ; eldest son, John ; sons, Daniel and James ; daughters, 
Judith (wife of Daniel Hutcheson), Magdalen, Lucretia, Charlott, Mary, and Jean. (Sur- 
rogate's Office, New York, Liber 19 of Wills, p. 214.) 

• Collections of the Huguenot Society of America, vol. i., p. 277. 
T Order of births uncertain. 


(2) Judith, mar., firstly, in New York, 1739, Daniel Hutcheson 
(or Hutchison). Issue. Judith Ayinar mar., secondly, in New 
York, July 2, 1758, James Alexander. 

(3) Madeleine, mar. in New York, 1749, Francois, bap. in 
New York, Apr. 6, 1707; son of Jacques Magn} T (Many) and 
Anne Yinceut. Issue. 

(4) Lucrece, mar., firstly, in New York, Gerard Jamain; mar., 
secondly, in New York, Jan. 14, 1759, Pierre Magny (Many). 
Issue. 1 

(5) Jean, b. 1728; of whom hereafter. 

(6) Charlotte, mar. in New York, Oct. 27, 1765, John Moffit, 
d. in New York, 1780. Issue. 

(7) Marie, b. in New York, Nov. 18, 1731 ; mar. in New York, 
Feb. 3, 1755, Pierre Rougeon, d. in New York, 1767. Issue. 

(8) Daniel, b. in New York, Nov. 17, 1733; of whom here- 

(9) Jean Jacques, b. in New York, Aug. 2, 1735; of whom 

(10) Jeanne, b. in New York, Aug. 7, 1739; mar. in New 
York, Feb. 3, 1756, Dennis Wortman. 

II. Jean (5) Aymar, 2 b. 1728; d. in New York, Sept. 4, 1796; 
eldest son of Jean Eymar, or Aymar, and Francoise Belon; mar., 
firstly, in New York, Elizabeth Dobbs; and had issue: 

(11) John, b. in New York, June 5, 1751; of whom hereafter. 

(12) William, b. in New York, Feb. 3, 1754; of whom here- 

(13) Daniel, b. in New York, Mar. 7, 1756; of whom hereafter. 

(14) Mary, b. in New York, June n, 1759; d. young. 

Jean (5) Aymar mar., secondly, in New York, May 16, 1762, 
Jeanne, b. in New York, Dec. 19, 1742; d. in New York, Aug. 
30, 1823; interred in St. John's 4 Cemetery, New York; daughter 
of Daniel Raveau and Marie Raven; and had issue: 

(15) Mary, 3 b. in New York, June 27, 1763; d. unmar. in New 

1 Collections of the Huguenot Society of America, vol. iii., p. 2. " Notes on Some Hugue- 
not Families," Waters : " Peter (4) md. Jan. 14, 1759, Lucy Jamain & prob. had issue." 

* Administration on estate of John Aymar, " Cooper," to widow, Jane Aymar, July 23, 
1805 (Surrogate's Office, New York, Liber 9 of Letters of Administration, p. 10S). 

* Will of Mary Aymar, ; ' one of the daughters of John Aymar, deceased, Gentlewoman," 
dated Aug. 12, 1833, probated April 30, 1838, mentions late sister, Elizabeth Winn ; brother, 
Peter ; sisters, Frances (widow of James Webb) and Ann (widow of George Alexander 
Noble). (Surrogate's Office, New York, Liber 7S of Wills, p. 367.) 

i So 

York, Mar. S, 1838; interred in St. Luke's churchyard, 1 New 

(16) Frances, b. in New York, Nov. 17, 1764; d. in New 
York, 1766. 

(17) James, b. in New York, Nov. 22, 1765; of whom hereafter. 

(18) Frances, b. in New York, Dec. 30, 1767; d. in New 
York, Dec. 17, 1845; interred in St. Luke's churchyard, 1 New 
York; mar. in New York, circa 1802, James Webb, d. in 
New York, Dec. 23, 1830; interred in St. Mark's churchyard, 2 
New York. Issue. 

(19) Peter, b. in New York, Dec. 14, 1769; of whom hereafter. 

(20) Abraham, b. in New T York, July 25, 1771; d. young. 

(21) Elizabeth, 3 b. in New York, Aug. 19, 1773; d. in New 
York, Nov. 21, 1S31; interred in St. Luke's churchyard, 1 New 
York; mar. in New York, Dec. 19, 1807, Matthew Winn. No issue. 

(22) Magdalene, b. in New York, Jan. 26, 1775. 

(23) Abraham, b. in New York (?), Oct. 11, 1777; d. in New 
York (?), 1778. 

(24) Charlotte, b. in New York (?), Dec. 25, 
New York (?), 17S0. 

(25) Ann, b. in New York, June 25, 1784; d. in New York, 
Aug. 8, 1866; interred in Rural Cemetery, Albany, N. Y. ; mar. 
in New York, May 31, 1S04, George Alexander, b. in Albany, 
N. Y., Oct. 22, 1777; d. in New York, Aug. 19, 1824; interred in 
St. John's Cemetery, New York; son of Cornelius Noble and Jane 
Wilson. Issue. 

II. Daniel (8) Aymar, 4 b. in New York, Nov, 17, 1733 ; d. in 
New York, June 25, 1815; interred in St. Esprit churchyard, New 
York; second son of Jean Eymar, or Aymar, and Francoise Belon ; 
mar. in New York, Sept. 24, 1756, Ann Magdalene, b. in New 
York, Nov. 18, 1738; d. in New York, May 177-; daughter of 
Francois Magny (Many) and Annatje Kip; and had issue: 

1 Removed to Grace churchyard, Jamaica, L. I. 

* Removed to Evergreens Cemetery, Brooklyn, L. I. 

3 Will of Elizabeth Winn, "one of the daughters of John Aymar, deceased, and the 
widow of Matthew Winn," dated June 28, 1831, probated Jan. 6, 1832, mentions brother. 
Peter; sisters.. Mary, Frances (widow of James Webb), and Ann (widow of Alexander A. 
Noble). (Surrogate's Office, New York, Liber 68 of Wills, p. 321.) 

* Will of Daniel Aymar, "of the City of New York, in the State of New York, Gentle- 
man," dated June 19, 1813, probated Sept. 19, 1815, mentions children, John, Francis. 
Catharine (wife of Peter Einbury), Hannah, and Margaret (wife of David Jacobs). 1 Sur- 
rogate's Office, New York, Liber 52 of Wills, p. 471.) 


(26) John, b. in New York, Jan. 23, 1758; of whom hereafter. 

(27) Francis, b. in Xew York, Apr. 24, 1760; of whom here- 

(2S) Daniel, b. in Xew York, Aug. 27, 1761; d. young. 

(29) Hannah, b. in New York, Sept. 12, 1762; d. young. 

(30) Frances, b. in New York, Sept. 12, 1762; d. young. 

(31) Ann Magdalene, b. in New York, Nov. 14, 1763; d. 

(32) James, b. in New York, Dec. 2, 1764: d. young. 

(33) Ann Magdalene, b. in New York, Mar. g, 1766; d. young. 

(34) Catharine, b. in New York, Jan. 23, 1768; d. in New 
York, Mar. 26, 1856; interred in Greenwood Cemetery, Brooklyn, 
L. L; mar. in New York, Sept. 17, 1786, Peter, b. in New York, 
Mar. 15, 1766; d. in New York, Aug. 16, 1855; interred in Green- 
wood Cemetery, Brooklyn, L. L ; son of Peter Embury and Agnes 
Dunphy. Issue. 

(35) Hannah, 1 b. in New York, May 20, 1769; d. unmar. in 
New York, May 19, 1861; interred in Greenwood Cemetery, 
Brooklyn, L. I. 

(36) Margaret, b. in New York, Nov. 1, 1770; d. in New 
York, Aug. 19, 1854; interred in St. Mark's churchyard, New 
York; mar., in New York, Apr. 18, 1795, David, b. in New York, 
July 5, 1770; d. in New York, Nov. 27, 1837; interred in St. 
Mark's churchyard, New York; son of Daniel Jacot and Agnes 
Dunphy, widow of Peter Embury. Issue. 

(37) Magdalene, b. in New York, Apr. 11, 1772; d. young. 
II. Jean Jacques 2 (9) Aymar, 3 b. in New York, Aug. 2, 1735; 

d. in New York, May-June, 1797; third son of Jean Eymar, or 
Aymar and Francoise Belon; mar., firstly, in New York, Mar. 6, 
1760, Margaret Brown; and had issue: i 

1 Will of Hannah Aymar, " Singlewoman,"' dated Dec. 25. 1855, probated Aug. 6. i36i, 
mentions sisters, Catharine Embury and Margaret Jacot ; daughters (names not given) of 
brother, John D. ; children and grandchildren (names not given) of brother, Francis, 
"late of Eastport, Maine." (Surrogate's Office, New York, Liber 139 of Wills, p. 65.) 

* Absolute proof that Jean Jacques Aymar is the James Aymar who married Margaret 
Brown, etc., is lacking, but there is moral evidence to support this theory. The descent 
from James Aymar is clear. 

* Will of James Aymar, " of the City of New York, in the State of New York, Tobac- 
conist," dated May 13, 1797, probated June 28, 1797, mentions wife, Mary ; children, John, 
Mary (wife of John Hardenbrook), Margaret (wife of Thomas Marsh), Magdalene, and 
Samuel. (Surrogate's Office, New York, Liber 42 of Wills, p. 215.) His son James is not 

* Arrangement not fixed. Magdalene and Samuel were probably by the second 


1 82 

(38) John, b. in New York, circa 1763; of whom hereafter. 

(39) Mary, b. in New York; mar. in New York (?) Oct. 24, 
1787, John, bap. in New York, Sept. 27, 1761; d. in New York, 
Feb. 27, 1S32: interred in St. Stephen's churchyard, New York; 
son of Abel Hardeubrook and Rebecca Anthony. Issue. 

(40) Margaret, b. in New York; mar. Thomas Marsh, d. 
circa 1805. 

(41) James, born in New York; of whom hereafter. 

Jean Jacques (9) Aymar mar., secondly, in New York, Sept. 
25, 1774, Mary Mann; and had issue: 

(42) Magdalene, b. in New York. 

(43) Samuel, b. in New York. 

III. John (ii) Aymar, 1 b. in New York, June 5, 1751; d. in 
Oyster Bay, L. L, Oct.-Nov., 1797; eldest son of Jean Aymar 

and Elizabeth Dobbs; mar. Mary , b. Apr. 1, 1752; and had 


(44) David Peter, b. in New York, Aug. 27, 1783; of whom 

(45) Harriet, b. Aug. 9, 1785. 

III. William (12) Aymar, b. in New York, Feb. 3, 1754; 
second son of Jean Aymar and Elizabeth Dobbs; mar. Mary Ann 
Mercein (?); and had issue: 

(46) Elizabeth, b. 2 circa 17S3; d. in New York, July 31, 1833; 
interred in Methodist Episcopal Cemetery, New York; mar. in 
New York, Feb. 6, 1805, Joseph Robson, b. in New York, circa 
^774; d. in New York, May 2, 1821; interred in Zion churchyard, 
New York. 

III. Daniel (13) Aymar, b. in New York, Mar. 7, 1756; third 
son of Jean Aymar and Elizabeth Dobbs; mar. ; and had issue: 

(47) John Henry. 

III. James (17) Aymar, 3 b. in New York, Nov. 22, 1765; d. in 
Orangeburgh, N. Y., circa 1854; interred in Orangeburgh; eldest 
son of Jean Aymar and Jeanne Raveau; mar. Margaret Cahill, d. 
in Orangeburgh, N. Y. ; interred in Orangeburgh; and had issue: 

1 Will of John Aymar, " of the Township of Oyster Bay," dated Oct. 22, 1797, probated 
Nov. 25, 1797, mentions son and sole heir, Peter; and Elizabeth, daughter of brother, 
William. (Surrogate's Office, Queens County, L. I., Liber A of Wills, p. 393.) 

2 Administration on estate of Elizabeth Robson, "Widow," to uncle, William A. Mer 
cein, Aug. 3, 1833. (Surrogate's Office. New York, Liber 31 of Letters of Administration, 
P- 3370 

• Will of James Aymar, dated Aug. 18, 1843, probated Jan. 14, 1854. (Surrogate's Office, 
Rockland County, N. Y., Liber 9 of Wills, p. 89.) 


(48) Ann, b. in New York, Sept. 19, 1796; d. unmar. in New 
York, Feb. 6, 181S; interred in St. Esprit churchyard, New York. 

(49) Jane, b. in New York, May 29, 1798; d. unmar. in 
Orangeburg, N. Y. ; interred in Orangeburgh. 

(50) John James, 1 b. in New York, Aug. 4, 1800; d. in New 
York, Dec. 22, 1S69; interred in Trinity Cemetery, New York; 
mar., firstly, in New York, Sept. 24, 1833, Sarah Babb, d. in New 
York, Apr. 2, 1 86 1. No issue. John James Aymar mar., secondly, 

in New York, Mary C. B , b. in New York, Oct. 30, 1808; 

d. in New York, June 22, 1885; interred in Trinity Cemetery, 
New York. No issue. 

(51) William Nelson, b. in New York, July 25, 1802; of 
whom hereafter. 

(52) Mary Emeline, b. in New York, Apr. 10, 1805; d. in 
Nyack, N. Y., July, 1882; interred in Nyack; mar. in New York, 
Apr. 15, 1824, Joseph Miller Fowler. Issue. 

(53) Charles Edwin, 3 b. in New York, circa 1808; d. in 
Newark, N. J., Aug. 4, 1863; interred in Fairmount Cemetery, 

Newark; mar., firstly, Anna B , b. circa 1815; d. in Newark, 

N. J., Mar. 1, 1858; interred in Mount Pleasant Cemetery, 3 New- 
ark. No issue. Charles Edwin Aymar mar. , secondly, in Newark, 
N. J., Oct. 1, 1862, Julia Adelaide, b. in Newark (?), N. J., Aug. 
22, 1836; daughter of Abner Dodd and Ann Harrison. No issue. 

(54) George Washington, b. in New York, July 4, 181 1; of 
whom hereafter. 

(55) Eliza Margaret, b. in New York; d. in Nyack, N. Y. ; 
interred in Tappan, N. Y. ; mar. in Orangeburgh, N. Y., Teunis 
J. Blauvelt. Issue. 

III. Peter (19) Aymar, 4 b. in New York, Dec. 14, 1769; d. in 
Jamaica, L. I., May 1, 1847; interred in St. Luke's churchyard/ 
New York; second son of Jean Aymar and Jeanne Raveau; mar., 

1 Will of John James Aymar, "of the City of New York, in the County of New York, in 
the State of New York." dated Oct. u, 1S69, probated March 10, 1870, mentions wife. 
Mary; children of brother, William. James K., and William; sister, Eliza; niece, Mar- 
garet Ann (wife of Teunis Cooper, and daughter of sister, Mary Emeline Fowler). (Sur- 
rogate's Office, New York, Liber 192 of Wills, p. 202. ) 

"Administration on estate of Charles E. Aymar to Charles S. Macknet, Aug. 12, iS6y 
(Surrogate's Office, Newark, N. J., Liber 6 of Lecters of Administration, p. 254 ) 

s Removed to Fairmount Cemetery, Newark, N. J. 

* Will of Peter Aymar, probated June 24, 1847. CSurrogate s Office, Queen's County. L. 
I., Liber 4 of Wills, p. 213.) 

• Removed to Grace churchyard, Jamacia, L. I. 

1 84 

firstly, in Bergen. N. J., Mar. 5, 1797, Ann Eustatia, b. Sept. 4, 
1780; d. in New York, Sept. 15, 1799; daughter of David Hunt 
and Phebe Oakley; and had issue. 

(56) John William Hunt, b. in New York, Feb. 7, 1 1799; of 
whom hereafter. 

Peter (19) Aymar mar., secondly, in Bergen, N. J., Aug. n, 
1802, Elizabeth Bogert, b. in Tappan 2 (?), N. Y., Sept. 4, 3 17S5;" 
d. in New York, Jan. 22, 1821; interred in Dutch Middle church- 
yard, New York; daughter of James van Antwerp and Ann 
Bogert; and had issue: 

(57) James Dover, b. in New Y'ork, June 10, 1803; settled in 
Michigan, where he probably died; mar. in New York, Oct. 4, 
1827, Mary Anne Cooke. No issue. 

(58) Eliza Ann, b. in New Y'ork, Sept. 30. 1805; mar. in New 
York, Nov. 19, 1818, William L. Roff, d. in New York, June 13, 
1842. Issue. 

Peter (19) Aymar mar., thirdly, in Austerlitz, N. Y., Sept. 16, 
1822, Mary Sampson, b. in Roxbury, Mass., Sept. 1, 1796; d. in 
NewY r ork, Oct. 6, 1S43; interred in St. Luke's churchyard, 4 New 
York; daughter of John Swift and Ann Gridley; and had issue: 

(59) Samuel Swift, b. in New York, Nov. 1, 1823; of whom 

(60) Mary Jane, b. in New York, May 27, 1825; d. unmar. 
in New York, Mar. 21, 1844; interred in St. Luke's churchyard, 4 
New York. 

(61) Peter, b. in New York, Jan. 23, 1828; d. in New Y^ork, 
Mar. 5, 1832; interred in St. Luke's churchyard, 4 New Y'ork. 

(62) Benjamin Allen, b. in New York, Oct. 30, 1830; ot 
whom hereafter. 

(63) Harriet Ann, b. in New York, Sept. 6, 1832; d. in 
Brooklyn, L. I., Oct. 8, 1S83; interred in St. Paul's churchyard, 
East Chester, N. Y.; mar. in Jamaica, L. I., July 5, 1851, David, 
b. in New York, Nov. 14, 1827; d. in New Y'ork, July 29, 1877; 
interred in St. Paul's churchyard, East Chester, N. Y. ; son of 
Elias Guiou Drake and Catherine Maria Baker. Issue. 

(64) Elizabeth Aldrich, b. in New Y r ork, June 2, 1834; d. 

1 Other records, 13 and 15. 

* Bureau of Vital Statistics, New York. 
■ Other records, Sept. 11 and Nov. 8. 

* Removed to Grace churchyard, Jamaica, L. I. 



unmar. in Jamaica, L. I., Dec. 22, 1SS0; interred in Grace Church- 
yard, Jamaica. 

III. John 1 (26) Aymar,- b. in New York, Jan. 23, 1758; d. in 
New York, Oct. 20, 1S32; interred in St. Thomas's churchyard, 1 
New York ; eldest son Daniel Aymar and Ann Magdalene Magny ; 
mar., firstly, in New York, April 14, 1785, Jane, b. in New York, 
July 20, 1765; d. in New York, 1785-86; daughter of Pierre 
Lagear and Madeleine Garsin. No issue. 

John (26) Aymar mar., secondly, in New York, Apr. 22, 1787, 
Judith, b. in New York, Mar. 14, 1767; d. in New York, Septem- 
ber 19, 1799; interred in Reformed Dutch churchyard, New York; 
daughter of Benjamin Ouereau and Hannah Le Brun (Browne); 
and had issue. 

(65) Hannah, b. New York, Jan. 23, 17S8; d. in New York, 
Dec. 5, 1 8 13; interred in St. Esprit churchyard (?), New York; 
mar. in New York, Apr. 12, 18 10, Pexcel, b. in Westchester 
County, N. Y., Jan. 3, 1772; d. in St. Thomas, Danish W. I., 
Mar. 26, 1830; interred in St. Thomas; son of Pexcel Fowler 
and Ann Day. Issue. 

(66) Daniel, b. in New York, Apr. 8, 1790; of w r hom hereafter. 

(67) Benjamin, b. in New York, Dec. 17, 1791; of whom 

(68) William, b. in New York, Jan. 7, 1794; d. in New York, 
Dec. 16, 1794. 

(69) Ann Magdalene, b. in New York, Oct. 13, 1795; d. in 
Brooklyn, L. I., Jul y 21, 1879; interred in Greenwood Cemetery, 
Brooklyn; mar. in New York, Oct. 27, 1814, Pexcel, b. in West- 
chester County, N. Y., Jan. 3, 1772; d. in St. Thomas, Danish 
W. I., Mar. 26, 1830; interred in St. Thomas; son of Pexcel 
Fowler and Ann Day. Issue. 

(70) Jane, b. in New York, Oct. 14, 1797; d. unmar. in New- 
York, Oct. 23, 1828; interred in St. Thomas's churchyard, 3 New 

1 Wrote name John D. Aymar as early as 1787. 

2 Will of John D. Aymar, " of the City of New York, now retired from business," dated 
Jan. 3, 1832, probated Jan. 23, 1S33, mentions wife, Elizabeth ; daughters, Ann Magdalen 
Fowler, Judith, Caroline. Elizabeth, Louisa, and Hannah ; surviving children (names not 
given) of daughter, Hannah Fowler, and son, Daniel. (Surrogate's Office. New York., 
I,iber 69 of Wills, p. 595.) His sons, Benjamin, John Quereau, Samuel, and William 
waived an interest in his estate in favor of their mother and sisters. 

3 Removed to Greenwood Cemetery, Brooklyn, L. I. 


1 86 

(71) John Quereau, b. in New York, Aug. 25, 1799; of whom 

John (26) Aymar mar., thirdly, in New York, Aug. 14, 1800, 
Elizabeth, b. in New York, Oct. 13, 1771 ; d. in New York, Oct. 
2, 1854; interred in St. Thomas's churchyard, 1 New York; daugh- 
ter of Benjamin Quereau and Hannah L,e Brun (Browne); and 
had issue: 

(72) Samuel, b. in New York, Aug. 14, 1801; of whom here- 

(73) William, b. in New York, Sept. 4, 1802; of whom here- 

(74) Judith, 2 b. in New York, Mar. 9, 1805; d. unmar. in New 
York, Apr. 5, 18S8; interred in Greenwood Cemetery, Brooklyn, 
L. I. 

(75) Francis, b. in New York, Nov. 10, 1806; d. unmar. in 
New York, Feb. 2, 1827; interred in St. Thomas's churchyard, 1 
New York. 

(76) Elizabeth, b. in New York, Aug. 3, 1808; d. unmar. in 
New York, July 16, 1858; interred in St. Thomas's churchyard, 1 
New York. 

(77) Caroline, b. in New York, May 11, 18 10; d. unmar. in 
New York, Mar. 19, 1874; interred in Greenwood Cemetery, 
Brooklyn, L. I. 

(78) Louisa, b. in New York, Oct. 18, 1811; d. unmar. in New 
York, July 3, 1842 ; interred in St.Thomas'schurchyard, 1 New*York. 

(79) Hannah, b. in New York, Dec. o, 1813; d. in Hunting- 
ton, L. I., June 1, 1877; interred in St. John's churchyard, Hunt- 
ington; mar. in New York, June 11, 1839, Daniel Embury, b. in 
New York, Oct. 3, 1817; son of Joseph Kissam and Ann Mag- 
dalene Embury. Issue. 

III. Francis (27) Aymar, b. in New York, Apr. 24, 1760; d. 
in St. Andrews, N. B., Nov. 11, 1843; interred in Rural Cemetery, 
St. Andrews; second son of Daniel Aymar and Ann Magdalene 
Magny; mar., firstly, Phebe Compton, d. Dec. 17, 1808; and had 
issue 9 : 

1 Removed to Greenwood Cemetery, Brooklyn, L. I. 

1 Will of Judith Aymar, " of the City, County and State of New York," dated April 15, 
1887, probated June 26, 1888. (Surrogate's Office, New York, Liber 409 of Wills, p. I.) Her 
nieces, Harriet Aymar, Elizabeth Aymar, and Elizabeth I,. Crooke, were appointed 
execn trices. 

■ The elder children were all born, probably, in St. John, N. B.; the younger, perhaps in 
St. Martins, N. B. 


i8 7 

(So) Daniel, b. in St. John, N. B., Sept. 24, 1785; of whom 

(81) William, b. in St. John (?), N. B., Oct. 12, 1786; d. 
unmar. in St. Stephen, N. B., Oct. 27, 1862. 

(82) Ann Magdalene, b. in St. John, N. B., Oct. 20, 1788; d. 
in Eastport, Me., Sept. 3, 1869; interred in Old Burying Ground, 
Eastport; rnar. in Eastport, Me., Apr. 4, 1808, 1 Eouis Frederic, 
b. in Lubec, Me., May 10, 17S6 l ; d. in Lubec, Me., Apr. 26, 1816; 
interred in Lubec; son of Louis Frederic de Lesdernier and Sarah 
Brown. Issue. 

(83) Sarah, b. in St. John (?), N. B., July, 29, 1790; d. in St. 
John (?), N. B., Aug. 21, 1791; interred in Old Burying Ground, 
St. John. 

(84) John, b. in St. John, N. B., Mar. 23, 1792; of whom here- 

(85) Phebe, b. in St. John, N. B., Nov. 9, 1793; d. in New 
York, Aug. 29, 1878; interred in Marble Cemetery, New York; 
mar. William Day. No issue. 

(86) Sarah Sweet, b. in St. John, N. B., Oct. 22, 1795; d. 
in New York, Apr. 11, 1844; interred in Methodist Episco- 
pal Cemetery, New York; mar. in New York, Dec. 26, 1822, 
William Ferris Kells, b. in Bergen, N. J., circa 1800; d. in New 
York, Jan. 11, 1845; interred in Methodist Episcopal Cemetery, 
New York. Issue. 

(87) Hannah Conway, b. in St. John (?), N. B., July 7, 1797; 
d. Nov. 12, 1799. 

(88) Mary Conway, b. in St. Martins, N. B., June 26, 1799; 
d. in Castine, Me., July 24, 1886; interred in Castine Cemetery, 
Castine; mar. in Eastport, Me., Nov., 1828-29, Jonathan Bart- 
lett, b. in North Yarmouth, Me., Mar. 16, 1802; d. in Castine, 
Me., Dec. 26, 1876; interred in Castine Cemetery, Castine; son 
of Ebenezer Robbins and Mercy Bartlett. Issue. 

(89) Margaret, b. Feb. 2, 1801; d. in New York, Apr. 3, 
1839; interred in Marble Cemetery, New York; mar. Isaac D. 
Boyce. No issue. 

(90) Frances, b. July 26, 1802; d. unmar. in New York, Feb. 
11, 1842; interred in Marble Cemetery, New York. 

(91) Elizabeth, b. Feb. 15, 1804; d. unmar. in St. Andrews, 
N. B., Sept. 25, 1850; interred in Rural Cemetery, St. Andrews. 

1 Other records, April 24, 1808, and May 16, 1785. 


(92) Francis, b. in St. Martins, N. B., July 11, 1805; of whom 

(93) Eleanor, b. Apr. 14, 1S07; mar. Ferdon. Issue. 

(94) Catharine, b. Oct. 2, 1S0S; d. Oct. 2, 180S. 
Francis (27) Aymar mar., secondly, Mary Drake. No issue. 
III. John (38) Aymar, b. in New York, circa 1763; d. in New 

York, Dec. 26, 1820; interred in St. Paul's churchyard, New 
York; son of Jean Jacques Aymar and Margaret Brown; mar. in 
New York, Dec. 17, 1796, Sarah Cregier, 1 b. circa, 1768; d. in 
New York, Mar. 12, 1S4S; interred in Trinity Cemetery, New 
York; and had issue: 

(95) James Martin, b. in New York, Sept. 27, 1797; of whom 

(96) Mary Ann, 2 b. in New York, Apr. 6, 1799; d. unmar. in 
New York, Sept. 18, 1872; interred in Trinity Cemetery, New 

(97) John William Hardenbrook, 3 b. in New T York, Sept. 1, 
1802; d. unmar. in Brooklyn, L. I., Sept. 20, 1876; interred in 
Trinity Cemetery, New York. 

(98) Louisa, b. in New T York, Feb. 16, 1804; d. in Sing Sing,* 
N. Y., July 10, 1883; interred in Trinity Cemetery, New York. 

III. James (41) Aymar, b. in New York; son of Jean Jacques 
Aymar and Margaret Brown; mar. Susanna, d. Nov. 25, 1852; 
daughter of Eli as Marsh and Mary Davenport; and had issue: 

(99) James, b. Sept. 23, 17S9; d. 1790. 

(100) Elias J., b. May 19, 1791. 

(101) Margaret Marsh, b. June 14, 1793; d. Aug. 27, 1870; 
mar. Apr. 1, 1S15, Randolph, b. Feb. 21, 1788; d. Mar. 10, 1864; 
son of John Marsh and Sarah Fitz Randolph. Issue. 

(102) J. William, b. Sept. 4, 1795. 

IV. David Peter 5 (44) Aymar, b. in New York, Aug. 27, 
1783; sailed from Digby, N. S., for New York in 183 1, and is 

1 Will of Sarah Aymar, " of the City of New York, Widow," dated Feb. 10, 1848, probated 
April 24, 1848, mentions daughters, Mary Ann and Louisa : sons, James Martin and John 
William Hardenbrook. (Surrogate's Office, New York, Liber 95 of Wills, p. 51S.) 

- Administration on estate of Mary Ann Aymar to brother, J. W. H. Aymar, Oct. 7, 
1872. (Surrogate's Office, New York, Liber 101 of Letters of Administration, p. 266.) 

■ Will of John W. H. Aymar, "of the City, County and State of New York," dated Mar. 
t, 1873, probated Oct. 20, 1876, mentions sister. Louisa. (Surrogate's Office, New York, 
Liber 240 of Wills, p. 163.) 

* Now Ossining. 

• Used signature Peter and is so termed in the will of his father. 

1 8 9 

supposed to have been drowned; son of John and Mary Aymar; 
mar. Rebecca de Molidor, b. in New York (?), Apr. 21, 1782; 
d. in Pleasant Valley, N. S., Apr. 17, 1863; interred in Hill 
Grove Cemetery, Hill Grove, X. S. ; and had issue: 

(103) John Walter, b. in Pleasant Valley, N. S., Aug. 21, 
1S05; of whom hereafter. 

(104) James Moody, b. in Pleasant Valley, N. S., Aug. 1, 
1807; drowned in Digby Basin, N. S., Nov. 10, 1829; interred 
in Hill Grove Cemetery, Hill Grove, N. S. Unmar. 

(105) William, b. in Pleasant Valley, N. S., Nov. 12, 1809; 
of whom hereafter. 

(106) Mary Harriet, b. in Pleasant Valley, N. S., Apr. 25, 
1812; d. in Pleasant Valley, N. S., June 8, 1812; interred in Hill 
Grove Cemetery, Hill Grove, N. S. 

(107) Jane, b. in Pleasant Valley, N. S., Apr. 21, 1813; d. in 
Clements, N. S., Jan. 9, 1858; interred in Methodist Episcopal 
Cemetery, Clementsvale; mar. in Charlottetown, Prince Edward 
Island, N. S., Alpheus, b. in Clements, N. S., Dec. 2, 1813; d. in 
Clementsvale, N. S., Mar. 6, 1874; interred in Methodist Episco- 
pal Cemetery, Clementsvale; son of Abel Pyne and Mary de 
Molidor. Issue. 

(108) Henry, b. in Pleasant Valley, N. S., Feb. 18, 1816; d. in 
Acacia Valley, N. S., Oct. 23, 1842; interred in Hill Grove Ceme- 
tery, Hill Grove, N. S. ; mar. Sarah Fowler. No issue. 

(109) Charles Sloggett, 1 b. in Pleasant Valley, N. S., Feb. 
20, 1818; of whom hereafter. 

(no) Rebecca Ann, b. in Pleasant Valley, N. S., July 30, 
1820; d. in Bear River, N. S., Sept. 25, 1898; interred in Bear 
River Cemetery, Bear River; mar. Aaron; son of Silas Rice and 
Sarah Kniffen. Issue. 

(in) Mary Harriet, b. in Plesant .Valley, N. S., Jan. 23, 
1823; d. in Digby, N. S., June 2, 1861; interred in Hill Grove 
Cemetery, Hill Grove, N. S. ; mar. in Digby, N. S., Dec. 31, 
l8 50, Jonathan, b. in Bay View, N. S., Sept. 6, 1816; d. in 
Hampton, N. B., Feb. 10, 1872; interred in Hampton Cemetery, 
Hampton,- son of William Turnbull and Ann Burnham. Issue. 

IV. William Nelson (51) Aymar, 2 b. in New York, July 25, 

1 Perhaps a corruption of Slugard. 

* Administration on estate of William N. Aymar to son, James K. Aymar, Jan. 24, 1862. 
(Surrogate's Office, New Yor'& Liber 73 of Letters of Administration, p. 54.) 



1802; d. in New Orleans, La., circa 1840; interred in New 
Orleans; second son of James Aytnar and Margaret Cahill: mar. 
in New York, Apr. 22, 1S22, Ann, b. in New York, Nov. 17, 
1802; d. in Jersey City, N. J., Oct. 31, 1891; interred in Green- 
wood Cemetery, Brooklyn, L. I.; daughter of William Keen and 
Sarah Webb; and had issue: 

(112) James Repose, b. in New York, Sept. 20, 1823; d. in 
New York, Mar. 20, 1824: interred in St. John's Cemetery, New 

(113) William Repose, b. in New York, Nov. 30, 1825; of 
whom hereafter. 

(114) Louisa Medora, b. in New York, Mar. 2, 1838; mar. in 
New York, Mar. 5, 1856, William Morgan. Issue. 

(115) James Keen, b. in New York, Feb. 24, 1840; of whom 

IV. George Washington (54) Aymar, 1 b. in New York, 
July 4, 1811: d. in Brunswick, Ga., Oct. 17, 1880; interred in 
Oak Grove Cemetery, Brunswick; fourth son of James Aymar 
and Margaret Cahill; mar., firstly, in Savannah, Ga., Nov. 19, 
1834, Eliza Chase, b. in W r arwick, R. I., Apr. 30, 18 14; d. in 
Boston, Mass., Jan. 19, 1861; interred in Mount Hope Cemetery, 
Boston; daughter of John and Sarah Briggs; and had issue 3 : 

(116) Henry C, b. Sept. 5, 1835; d. in Boston, Mass., Feb. 6, 

(117) John J., b. Feb. 5, 1838; d. Feb. 23, 1838. 

(118) William N., b. May 19, 1839; d. May 31, 1839. 

(119) Thomas J., b. Aug. 13, 1840; d. June 3, 1842. 

(120) James M., b. Sept. 21, 1842; of whom hereafter. 

(121) Harrison C, b. July 6, 1845. 

George Washington (54) Aymar mar., secondly, in Brunswick, 
Ga., Apr. 29, 1858, Catharine McCombs, b. in North Carolina, 
Nov. 25, 1839; d. in Brunswick, Ga., June 2, 1894; interred in 
Oak Grove Cemetery, Brunswick; and had issue: 

1 WiU of George W. Aymar, " of the City of Brunswick, County of Glynn, State 01 
Georgia, of the age of 65 years, born 4 day of July, 181 1," dated Feb. 23, 1876, probated 
Dec. 8, T884, mentions wife, Catherine ; children, Lizzie Luriene and Margaret Catherine. 
(Surrogate's Office, New York, Liber 329 of Wills, p. 408.) 

1 The initials onty of the middle names of these children are known, but it would seem 
that John J. and William N. were baptized after their uncles, John James and William 
Nelson. The father evidently owed his presidential cognomen to the circumstance of be- 
ing born on July 4th, and his sons. Thomas J. and James M., may be Thomas Jefferson 
and James Madison, or James Monroe. 


(122) Mary Ella, b. in Brunswick, Ga., Mar. 21, 1859; d. in 
Brunswick, Ga., Xov. 29, 1S65; interred in Oak Grove Cemetery, 

(123) Charles Edwin, b. in Brunswick, Ga., Apr. 29, 1861; 
d. in Brunswick, Ga., Apr. 30, 1S61; interred in Oak Grove 
Cemetery, Brunswick. 

(124) Annie Laura, b. in Brunswick, Ga., Aug. 28, 1862; d. 
in Brunswick, Ga., Dec. 24, 1865; interred in Oak Grove Ceme- 
tery, Brunswick. 

(125) Arthur Worthington, b. in Brunswick, Ga., Oct. 23, 
1866; d. in Brunswick. Ga., Oct. 23, 1867; interred in Oak Grove 
Cemetery, Brunswick. 

(126) Elizabeth Lourine, b. in Brunswick, Ga., Apr. 19, 
1869. Unmar. 

(127) Margaret Catharine, b. in Brunswick, Ga., Nov. 5, 
1873; mar. in Brunswick, Ga., Dec. 20, 1894, Hugh Lamar, b. 
near Perry, Ga., July 17, 1870; son of George Washington Allen 
and Eliza Lamar. No issue. 

IV. John William Hunt (56) Aymar, b. in New York, Feb. 
7, 1799; d. in New York, Dec. 23, 1841; interred in St. Luke's 
churchyard, New York; son of Peter Aymar and Ann Eustatia 
Hunt; mar. in New York, July 7, 1831, Eliza Taylor, b. in New 
York, Oct. 6, 1802; d. in Prince George, Va., Oct. 3, 1875; in- 
terred in Prince George; widow of William L. Sonntag; and 
daughter of William Tabele; and had issue: 

(128) William Tabele, b. in New York, Nov. 16, 1832; d. 
unmar. in Prince George, Va., Sept., 1877; interred in Prince 

(129) George Taylor, b. in Madison, N. J., Sept. 2, 1S35; of 
whom hereafter. 

IV. Samuel Swift (59) Aymar, b. in New York, Nov. 1, 
1823; d. in Jamaica, L. I., May 10, 1897; interred in Grace 
churchyard, Jamaica ; eldest son of Peter Aymar and Mary Samp- 
son Swift; mar. in New York, May 28, 1844, Phebe Ann, 1 b. in 
Brushville, 2 L. L, May 4, 1821-22; d. in Jamaica, L. I., Feb. 11, 
1898; interred in Grace churchyard, Jamaica ; daughter of Teunis 
Everitt and Jane Bergen; and had issue: 

1 Will of Phebe Aymar, probated April i, 1898. (Surrogate's Office, Queens County, L. 
I., Liber 61 of Wills, p. 351.) 
■ Now Queens. 


(130) Mary Jane, b. in New York, May 7, 1845; d. unmar. in 
Jamaica, L. L, June 6, 1S74; interred in Grace churchyard, 

(131) Catherine Oldfield, b. in Jamaica, L. L, Sept. 6, 
1847. Unmar. 

(132) Samuel Everitt, b. in Brushville, L,. I., Aug. 2, 1849; 
of whom hereafter. 

(133) Isabelle Wheeler, b. in Brushville, L. I., Aug. 29, 
1853; mar. in Jamaica, L. I., Apr. 28, 1880, Francis Benito, b. in 
Jamaica, L. I., June 30, 1856; son of Pedro Andreu and Helen 
Jane Rawson. Issue. 

(134) Edward Everitt Swift, b. in Brushville, L. I., Nov. 
1, 1855; mar. in Jamaica, L. I., Aug. 16, 1884, Phebe Eliza, b. 
in New York, Dec. 8, 1855; daughter of Ferdinand Gustavus 
Mott Pettit and Mary Ann Saxton Soper. No issue. 

(135) Grace Leila, b. in Jamaica, L,. I., Apr. 9, 1859; d. in 
Jamaica. L. I., July 29, 1859; interred in Grace churchyard, 

IV. Benjamin Allen (62) Aymar, b. in New York, Oct. 30, 
1830; third son of Peter Aymar and Mary Sampson Swift; mar. 
in Dutch Flat, 1 Cal., Aug. 1, 1857, Elizabeth Angeline, b. in 
Rushville, Ind., Jan. 15, 1831: d. in Soquel, Cal., Mar. 15, 1894; 
interred in Soquel Cemetery, Soquel ; widow of James McCulloch ; 
and daughter of William Trotter and Sarah Angeline Freeland; 
and had issue : 

(136) Henry Singleton, b. in Dutch Flat, Cal., Apr. 15, 1859; 
d. unmar. in Soquel, Cal.. Apr. 14, 1893 I interred in Soquel 
Cemetery, Soquel. 

(137) Ira Allen, b. in Dutch Flat, Cal., Sept. 21, 1862; of 
whom hereafter. 

(138) Charles Cravens, b. in Dutch Flat, Cal., Aug. 1, 1864. 

(139) Benjamin Lewis, b. in Dutch Flat, Cal., June 14, 1868. 

IV. Daniel (66) Aymar, b. in New York, Apr. 8, 1790; d. in 
Newry, Ireland, Dec. 3, 1825; interred in Protestant Cemetery, 
Newry; eldest son of John Aymar and Judith Quereau; mar. in 
Bridgeport, Conn., Apr. 14, 18 14, Harriet, b. in Wilton, Conn., 
Dec. 13, 1788; d. in South Norwalk, Conn., May 20, 1870; 

1 An extinct raining town near Auburn. 


interred in Mountain Grove Cemetery, Bridgeport, Conn.^ daugh- 
ter of Seth Raymond and Elizabeth Squires; and had issue: 

(140) Jane Elizabeth, b. in Norwalk, Conn., Jan. 18, 1815; 
d. in New York, Aug. 9, 1822; interred in St. Esprit churchyard, 
New York. 

(141) Harriet, b. in New York, May 2, 1816. Unmar. 

(142) John Daniel, b. in New York, Sept. 20, 181 7; of whom 

(143) Charles Raymond, b. in New York, May 24, 1820; d. 
unmar. in South Norwalk, Conn., May 11, 1874; interred in 
Mountain Grove Cemetery, Bridgeport, Conn. 

IV. Benjamin (67) Aymar, 1 b. in New York, Dec. 17, 1791; 
d. in New York, Mar. 16, 1876: interred in Greenwood Cemetery, 
Brooklyn, L. I. ; second son of John Aymar and Judith Quereau; 
mar. in New York, Jan. 4, 1816, Elizabeth, b. in New York, 
Apr. 15, 1 791; d. in New York, Oct. 23, 1843; interred in St. 
Thomas' churchyard, 3 New York; daughter of Coertland van 
Beuren and Ann Wessells; and had issue; 

(144) Elvira Lynch, b. in New York, Mar. 16, 1817; d. in 
Newburgh, N. Y., Mar. 20, 1898; interred in Woodlawn Ceme- 
tery, New Windsor, N. Y. ; mar. in New York, Mar. 30, 1836, 
John Dash, 3 b. in New York, Mar. 18, 1811; d. in Newburgh, 
N. Y., Dec. 1, 1885; interred in Woodlawn Cemetery, New Wind- 
sor, N. Y. ; son of Michael van Beuren and Ann Dash. Issue. 

(145) Augustus James Musson, b. in New York, July 11, 
1819; of whom hereafter. 

(146) John Quereau, b. in New York, July 11, 18 19; d. 
unmar. in Fishkill Landing, N. Y., July 22, 1843; interred in St. 
Thomas's churchyard, 2 New York. 

(147) Eliza Dickson, b. in New York, Apr. 27, 1821; d. in 
New York, Feb. 22, 1850; interred in Greenwood Cemetery, 
Brooklyn, L. I.; mar. in New York, June 14, 1849, Samuel 
Stevens, b. in New York, Nov. 18, 1827; d. New Hamburgh, N. Y., 
July 27, 1892; interred in Greenwood Cemetery, Brooklyn, L. I. J 
son of Austin Ledyard Sands and Ann Maria Hodge. No issue. 

1 Will of Benjamin Aymar, "of the City of New York," dated Oct. 21, 1875, probated 
April 17, 1876, mentions children, Augustus, Elvira Lynch (wife of John D. van Buren), 
Mary Emily (wife of Samuel S. Sands), and Edmund B. (Surrogate's Office, New York, 
Liber 236 of Wills, p. 43.) 

• Removed to Greenwood Cemetery, Brooklyn, L. I. 

* Changed orthography of surname to Van Buren. 


i 9 4 

(148) Maria Louisa, b. in New York, Sept. 2, 1822; d. in 
New York, Dec. 30, 1847; interred in Greenwood Cemetery, 
Brooklyn, L. L; mar. in New York, June 6, 1843, Joseph, b. in 
New York; d. in Paris, France, July 19, 1875; interred in Green- 
wood Cemetery, Brooklyn, L. I. ; son of Joseph and Suzanne 
Gaillard. Issue. 

(149) Benjamin Nibbs, b. in New York, Dec. 8, 1823; d. un- , 
mar. in New York, Dec. 31, 1848; interred in Greenword Ceme- 
tery, Brooklyn, L. I. 

(150) Mary Donaldson, b. in New York, Nov. 10, 1825; d. 
in Crosby's Manor, N. Y., July 21, 1826. 

(151) Mary Emily Ellis, b. in New York, Nov. 5, 1828; d. 
in New York, June 24, 1879; interred in Greenwood Cemetery, 
Brooklyn, L. I.; mar. in New York, Apr. 15, 1852, Samuel 
Stevens, b. in New York, Nov. 18, 1827; d. in New Hamburgh, 
N. Y., July 27, 1892: interred in Greenwood Cemetery, Brooklyn, 
L. I. ; son of Austin Ledyard Sands and Ann Maria Hodge. Issue. 

(152) Edmund Brandt, b. in New York, Mar. 22, 1833; of 
whom hereafter. 

IV. John Quereau (71) Aymar, 1 b. in New York, Aug. 25, 
1799; d. in New York, Oct. 8, 1864; interred in Greenwood 
Cemetery, Brooklyn, L. I.; fourth son of John Aymar and Judith 
Quereau; mar. in Philadelphia, Pa., Dec. 23, 1825, Elizabeth, b. 
in Gosport, Va., July 16, 1802; d. in New York, Feb. 24, 1875; 
interred in Greenwood Cemetery, Brooklyn, L. I,; daughter of 
William Dickson and Mary Davis; and had issue: 

(153) Mary Dickson, b. in New York, Sept. 30, 1826; d. in 
New York, July 26, 1856; interred in Greenwood Cemetery, 
Brooklyn, L. L ; mar. in New York, Apr. 21, 1853, Joseph, b. in 
New York; d. in Paris, France, July 19, 1875; interred in Green- 
wood Cemetery, Brooklyn, L. I.; son of Joseph and Suzanne 
Gaillard. Issue. 

(154) Elizabeth, b. in New York, Dec. 30, 1827. Unmar. 
( x 55) John Quereau, b. in New York, Jan. 12, 1830; d. in New 

York, Apr. 13, 1831; interred in St. Thomas's churchyard, 2 New 

1 Will of John Q. Aymar, " of the City of New York, formerly a Merchant," dated July 
I, 1861, probated Nov. 10, 1864, mentions wife, Elizabeth ; daughter, Elizabeth ; and 
granddaughter, Aimee Elizabeth Gaillard. (Surrogate's Office, New York, Liber 157 of 
Wills, p. 188.) 

" Removed to Greenwood Cemetery, Brooklyn, L. I. 


IV. Samuel (72) Aymar, 1 b. in New York, Aug. 14, 1801; d. 
in Brooklyn, L. I., Feb. 11, 1879; interred in Greenwood Ceme- 
tery, Brooklyn, L. I.: eldest son of John Aymar and Elizabeth 
Quereau; mar. in Norwalk, Conn., Oct. 31, 1836, Mary, b. in 
Norwalk, Conn., May 21, 1815; d. in Brooklyn, L. I., Mar. 18, 
1888; interred in Greenwood Cemetery, Brooklyn, L. I.; daughter 
of James Seymour and Sarah Raymond; and had issue: 

(156) Mary Frances, b. in Norwalk, Conn., Aug. 12, 1837; 
mar. in Brooklyn, L. I., Sept. 12, i860, William Aymar, b. in 
New York, Dec. 15, 1S38; d. in New York, May 18, 1895; i u_ 
terred in Greenwood Cemetery, Brooklyn, L. L: son of John 
Fowler and Margaret Westervelt. Issue. 

(157) Frederick Seymour, b. in New York, Mar. 24, 1839; 
of whom hereafter. 

(158) Harriet Louise, b. in New York, Apr. 14, 1841; d. in 
New York, May 28, 1843; interred in Greenwood Cemetery, 
Brooklyn, L. I. 

(159) Louisa, b. in New York, June 14, 1843; mar - * n Brook- 
lyn, L. I., Feb. 4, 1875, Robert, b. in New York, Mar. 25, 1843; 
son of John Dash van Buren and Elvira Lynch Aymar. Issue. 

(160) Annie Seymour, b. in Brooklyn, L. I., May 23, 1847; 
d. in Brooklyn, L. I., Sept. 11, 1847; interred in Greenwood Ceme- 
tery, Brooklyn. 

IV. William (73) Aymar, 2 b. in New York, Sept. 4, 1802; d. 
in New York, Dec. 10, 1884; interred in Greenwood Cemetery, 
Brooklyn, L. I.; second son of John Aymar and Elizabeth Que- 
reau; mar. in Bridgeport, Conn., Nov. 21, 1838, Eliza Frances, b. 
in New York, July 22, 1812; d. in New York, Apr. 20, 1851'; 
interred in Greenwood Cemeter} r , Brooklyn, L. L; daughter of 
Anson Hubbell and Eliza Squire; and had issue: 

(161) W t illiam, b. in New York, Sept. 22, 1842; d. in New 
York, Apr. 20, 1843; interred in Greenwood Cemetery, Brooklyn, 
L. I. 

1 Will of Samuel Aymar, " of Brooklyn, Kings County, New York," dated Dec. 26, 1878, 
probated Mar. 2, 18S0, mentions wife, Mary ; son, Frederick ; daughter, Mary Frances 
(wife of William A. Fowler); and daughter, Louise (wife of Robert van Buren). (Surro- 
gate's Office, King's County, L. I., Liber 81 of Wills, p. 384.) 

■ Will of William Aymar, " of the City, County and State of New York," dated Dee. 26, 
1883, probated June 8, 1886, mentions sister, Judith ; niece, Harriet, and nephew, John 
D., children of deceased brother, Daniel ; etc. (Surrogate's Office, New York, Liber 344 
of Wills, p. 472.) 

' The date in Greenwood Cemetery— Nov. 21, 1858 — is incorrect. 


(162) Mary Catharine, b. in New York, July 20, 1844, d. in 
New York, Apr. 13, 1846; interred in Greenwood Cemetery, 
Brooklyn, L. I. 

(163) Eliot Quereau, b. in New York, Feb. 2, 1851; d. in 
New York, Apr. 15, 1852; interred in Greenwood Cemetery, 
Brooklyn, L. I. 

IV. Daniel (80) Aymar, b. in St. John, N. B., Sept. 24, 1785; 
d. in Eastport, Me., Oct. 21, 1850; interred in Old Burying 
Ground, Eastport; eldest son of Francis Aymar and Phebe Comp- 
ton; mar., firstly, in Eastport. Me., July 14, 1808, Elizabeth, b. 
in Eastport, Me., Nov. 11, 1791; d. in Eastport, Me., Jan. 22, 
1820; interred in Old Burying Ground, Eastport; daughter of 
Elias and Joanna Mabee; and had issue: 

(164) Phebe, b. in Eastport, Me., Jan. 26, 1810; d. unmar. in 
Addison Point, Me., June 4, 1S64; interred in Church Hill Ceme- 
ery, Addison, Me. 

(165) Elias, b. in Eastport, Me., Jan. 30, 1812; d. in Eastport, 
Me., Dec. 9, 1S19; interred in Old Burying Ground, Eastport. 

(166) Francis, b. in Eastport, Me., Mar. 30, 1814; of whom 

(167) Betsey, b. in Eastport, Me., Oct. 5, 1816; d. in East- 
port, Me., Nov. 18, 1818; interred in Old Burying Ground, East- 

(168) William de Lesdernier, b. in Eastport, Me., Oct., 
181 8; of whom hereafter. 

Daniel (So) Aymar mar., secondly, in St. John, N. B., Nov. 10, 
1829, Mary, b. in St. John, N. B., June 4, 1802; d. in St. John, 
N. B., Feb. 8, 1S42; interred in Old Burying Ground, St. John; 
daughter of Jeremiah Drake and Catherine Mabee; and had 

(169) John Robert, b. in Eastport, Me., Aug. 31, 1830; 
drowned near Eastport, circa 1834. 

(170) Annie, 1 b. in Eastport, Me., July 17, 1832; mar. in East- 
port, Me., Jan. 4, 1852, Nelson, b. in Eastport, Me., July 7, 1809; 
d. in East Boston, Mass., July 18, 1883; interred in Woodlawn 
Cemetery, Maiden, Mass.; son of Elijah Harrington and Martha 
Sadler. Issue. 

(171) Sarah Jane, b. in Eastport, Me., Feb. 11, 1834; mar. in 
Eastport, Me., June 2, 1861, Rishworth Mason, b. in Perry. Me., 

1 Received the name Ann. 

i 9 7 

Oct. 7, 1S24; d. in Eastport, Me., July 3, 1900; interred in New 
Cemetery, Eastport; son of Samuel Tuttle and Abigail Small. 

(172) Daniel, b. in Eastport, Me., Mar. 11, 1836; a sailor, 
from whom nothing has been heard since 1877, at which time he 
was unmar. 

(173) David, b. in Eastport, Me., Dec. 22, 1838; d. in East- 
port, Me., 1S39; interred in Old Burying Ground, Eastport. 

(174) Lucy Wheeler, b. in Eastport, Me., Nov. 30, 1839; d. 
in St. John, N. B., Mar. 7, 1900; interred in Fern Hill Cemetery, 
St. John; mar., firstly, in Eastport, Me., June 6, 1861, Gilbert 
Merritt, b. in St. John, N. B., Oct. 30, 1830; d. in St. John, N. 
B., Aug. 12, 1866: interred in Fern Hill Cemetery, St. John; son 
of James Robinson and Elizabeth Merritt. Issue. Lucy Wheeler 
Aymar mar., secondly, in St. John, N. B., Nov. 18, 1884, Moses 
Clendening, b. in St. Davids, N. B.. Aug. 29, 1827; son of Dun- 
can Barbour and Hannah Clendening. No issue. 

( 1 75) John Robert, b. in St. John, N. B., Feb. 1, 1842; of 
whom hereafter. 

IV. John (84) Aymar, b. in St. John, N. B., Mar. 23, 1792; 
d. in Eastport, Me., Sept. 5, 1877; interred in Rural Cemetery, 
St. Andrews, N. B.; third son of Francis Aymar and Phebe 
Compton; mar., firstly, in Eastport, Me., Feb. 18, 1818, Lydia, b. 
in Eastport, Me., Oct. 9, 1800; d. in St. Andrews, N. B., Mar. 10, 
1829; interred in Rural Cemetery, St. Andrews; daughter of 
Elias and Joanna Mabee; and had issue: 

(176) Charles Edmond, b. in Eastport, Me., July 1, 1820; d. 
unmar. in New York, Oct. 18, 1891; interred in New York Bay 
Cemetery, Bayonne, N. J. 

(177) Ann Eliza, b. in St. Andrews, N. B., Aug. 17, 1822; d. 
unmar. in Eastport, Me., Dec. 25, 1886; interred in New Ceme- 
tery, Eastport. 

(178) Mary Ellen, b. in St. Andrews, N. B., June 15, 1824; 
mar; in St. Andrews, N. B., Sept. 18, 1848, Benjamin Franklin, 
b. in St. George, N. B., Mar. 11, 1824; son of Benjamin Milliken 
and Katherine W T hite. Issue. 

(179) John, b. in St. Andrews, N. B., Oct. 7, 1826; d. unmar. 
at sea, circa 1845. 

(180) Francis, b. in St. Andrews, N. B., Dec. 21, 1828; d. 
unmar. in Montreal (?), Can., circa 1850. 

i 9 8 

John (84) Aymar mar., secondly, in St. Andrews, N. B., July 
29, 1832, Catharine Johnson, b. in St. Andrews, N. B., circa 1807; 
d. in St. Andrews, N. B., Aug. 10, 1835; interred in Rural Ceme- 
tery, St. Andrews; and had issue: 

(181) William Henry, b. in St. Andrews, N. B., May 24, 
1833; of whom hereafter. 

(182) Daniel Philip, b. in St. Andrews, N. B., June 22, 1835; 
d. in St. Andrews, N. B., Aug. 29, 1835; interred in Rural Ceme- 
tery, St. Andrews. 

John (84) Aymar mar., thirdly, in St. Andrews, N. B., July 10, 
1845, Ann, b. in St. Andrews, N. B., circa 1802; d. in Eastport, 
Me., Feb. 5, 1883; interred in Rural Cemetery, St. Andrews; 
daughter of Joseph Walton. No Issue. 

IV. Francis (92) Aymar, b. in St. Martins, N. B., July 11, 
1805; d. in Charlestown, Mass., July 27, 1880; interred in Mount 
Hope Cemetery, Boston. Mass.; fourth son of Francis A)miar and 
Phebe Compton ; mar., firstly, in St. Andrews, N. B., July if, 
1830, Mary Ctong, 1 b. in Eastport, Me., Oct. 8, 1804; d. in East 
Cambridge, Mass., Feb. 17, 1844; interred in Old Burial Ground, 2 
Cambridgeport, Mass. . daughter of Elias and Joanna Mabee; and 
had issue: 

(183) Lydia Ann, b. in St. Stephen, N. B., Aug. 27, 1831; d. 
in St. Stephen, N. B., July 5, 1835; interred in Old Burying 
Ground, St. Stephen. 

(184) Louisa Caroline, b. in St. Stephen, N. B., Jan. 31, 
1833; d. in St. Stephen, N. B., Aug. 10, 1833; interred in Old 
Burying Ground, St. Stephen. 

(185) William Henry, b. in St. Stephen, N. B., May 6, 1834; 
d. in St. Stephen, N. B., Aug. 8, 1834; interred in Old Burying 
Ground, St. Stephen. 

(186) Mary Elizabeth, b. in St. Stephen, N. B., Aug. 5, 
1836; mar. in Boston, Mass., May 1, 1856, Charles, b. in Quincy, 
Mass., June 10, 1825; son of Jonathan Fiske Wellington and 
Abigail Copeland. No issue. 

(187) Louisa, b. in St. Stephen, N. B., May 31, 1839; d. in 
St. Stephen, N. B., Sept. 25, 1840; interred in Old Burying 
Ground, St. Stephen. 

(188) Caroline, b. in St. Stephen, N. B., May 31, 1S39; d. in 

1 Probably assumed middle name— pronounced Katong. 
* Reinterred in New Cemetery, Cambridgeport, Mass. 

i 9 9 

St. Stephen, N. B., Sept. 20, 1S40; interred in Old Burying 
Ground, St. Stephen. 

(189) Francis, b. in St. Stephen, N. B., Feb. 26, 1841; of 
whom hereafter. 

(190) Florine, b. in St. Stephen, N. B., Oct. 9, 1842; d. un- 
mar. in Dorchester, Mass., Sept. 15, 1863; interred in Mount Hope 
Cemetery, Boston, Mass. 

Francis (92) Aymar mar., secondly, in Boston, Mass., Mar. 12, 
1845, Lydia Jane, b. in Bristol, Me., Jan. 16, i8u; d. in Somer- 
ville, Mass., May 11, 1S90; interred in Mount Hope Cemetery, 
Boston, Mass.; daughter of Nathan Thomas and Elizabeth Mor- 
ton; and had issue: 

(191) James Henry, b. in East Cambridge, Mass., Nov. 16, 
1845; d. * n Boston, Mass., June 19, 1849; interred in Old Burial 
Ground, 1 Cambridgeport, Mass. 

(192) Jane Helen, b. in Boston, Mass., June 23, 1849. Unmar. 

(193) Frances Maria, b. in Boston, Mass., July 15, 1853. 

IV. James Martin (95) Aymar, 2 b. in New York, Sept. 27, 
1797; d. in Brooklyn, L,. L, Mar. 25, 1855; interred in Trinity 
Cemetery, New York ; elder son of John Aymar and Sarah Cre- 
gier; mar. in New York, June 11, 1820, Sarah, b. in New York, 
circa 1800; d. in Wallingford, Conn., Jan. 1, 1857; interred in 
Trinity Cemetery, New York; daughter of John Mitchell and 
Priscilla Bagot; and had issue: 

(194) Mary Louisa, b. in New York, circa 1823; d. in Brook- 
lyn, L. I., Oct. 27, 1862 ; interred in Trinity Cemetery, New York; 
mar. in Brooklyn, L,. I., May 23, 1855, Henry Hazard, b. in New 
York, May 31, 1825; son of Joseph Warren Reeve and Elizabeth 
Johnson. Issue. 

(195) William, b. in New York, June 26, 1825; d. in New 
York, April 26, 1832; interred in St. John's Cemetery, New York. 

(196) Sarah Ann, b. in New York, Oct. 12, 1828; d. in New 
York, Apr. 12, 1832; interred in St. John's Cemetery, New York. 

(197) Charles Henry, 2 b. in New York, Mar. 26, 1831; d. 

1 Reinterred in New Cemetery, Cambridgeport, Mass. 

* Administration on estate of James M. Aymar to daughter, Mary Louisa Aymar, April 
I2 » l8 55- (Surrogate's Office, Kings County, L. I., Liber 9 of Letters of Administration, p. 

8 Will of Charles Henry Aymar, " of the City of Brooklyn, Kings County, State of New 
York, Paper Ruler," dated June 28, 1874, probated Jan. 14, 1885, mentions sister, Adaline 
(wife of Daniel L. Dodge). (Surrogate's Office, Kings County, L. I., Liber 107 of Wills, p. 394.) 


unmar. in Brooklyn, L. L, Oct. 4, 1884; interred in Trinity 
Cemetery, New York. 

(198) Francis Henry, b. in New York, Mar. 26, 1831; d. in 
New York, Aug. 29, 1S32; interred in St. John's Cemetery, New 

(199) Adaline, b. in New York, May 12, 1835; mar. in New 
York, Feb. 22, 1S65, Daniel Lewis, b. in New York, Aug. 14, 
1 83 1 ; d. in Asbury Park, N. J., May 12, 1900; interred in Trinity 
Cemetery, New York; son of Daniel Dodge and Jemima Lewis. 
No issue. 

V. John Walter (103) Aymar, b. in Pleasaut Valley, N. S., 
Aug. 21, 1805; d. in Digby, N. S., Dec. 11, 1870; interred in 
Forest Hill Cemetery, Digby ; eldest son of David Peter Aymar 
and Rebecca de Molidor; mar. in Digby, N. S. f Jan. 15, 1828, 
Sophia, b. in Digby, N. S., May, 1804; d. in Digby, N. S., Aug. 
28, 1858; interred in Old Episcopal Burying Ground, Digby; 
daughter of Jacob Brewer and Elizabeth van Tassell; and had 
issue 1 : 

(200) Elizabeth Lindsey, b. in Digby, N. S., Oct. 30, 1831; 
mar. in Lynn, Mass., Nov. 10, 1880, William Emery, b. in Ken- 
nebunk (?), Me ; d. in Dennis, Mass., Jan. 9, 1892; interred in 
Dennis Burying Ground, Dennis; son of David Lord and Lucy 
Chase. No issue. 

(201) Celia Jane, b. in Digby, N. S., Sept. 18, 1833; d. in 
Bear River, N. S., Mar. 17, 1891; interred in Baptist Cemetery, 
Clementsvale, N. S. ; mar. in Digby, N. S., Alpheus, b. in Clem- 
ents, N. S., Dec. 2, 1813; d. in Clementsvale, N. S., Mar. 6, 
1874; interred in Methodist Episcopal Cemetery, Clementsvale; 
son of Abel Pyne and Mary de Molidor. Issue. 

(202) Harriet Rebecca, b. in Digby, N. S., Sept. 7, 1834 (?); 
mar. in Yarmouth, Mass., Jan. 10, 1884, John Gerry, b. in Read- 
ing, Mass., July 12 (?), 1821; d. in Dennis, Mass., Dec. 12, 1897; 
interred in Dennis Burying Ground, Dennis, son of John Rayner 
and Sophia Gerry. No issue. 

(203) Mary Catharine, b. in Digby, N. S., 1835; mar. in 
Cleveland, O., Oct. 24, 1862, Charles Henry, b. in Montreal, Can., 
Nov. 15, 1S30; son of Joseph and Charlotte Dessotell. Issue. 

* Some of the birth dates are inaccurate. Elizabeth, Adolphus, David, and Emma 
adopted middle names 


(204) Charles Randolph, b. in Digby, N. S., Mar. 12, 1836 
(?); of whom hereafter. 

(205) Adolphus Walter, b. in Digby, N. S., Jan. 22, 1839; 
of whom hereafter. 

(206) David Wallace, b. in Digby, N. S., Mar. 17, 1842 (?); 
d. in Mobile, Ala., Nov. 1, 1S60; interred in Magnolia Cemetery, 

(207) Lavinia Sophia, b. in Digby, N. S., Dec. 18, 1847 (?); 
mar. in Digby, N. S., Nov. 26, 1870, John Thomas, b. in Digby, 
N. S., Aug. 20, 1S44; son of David Beman and Elizabeth King. 

(208) Emma Rhodes, b. in Digby, N. S., June 11, 1849 (?); 
mar. in Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. 20. 1874, Charles Carroll, b. in 
Allenstown, N. H., 1842; son of George Hilton and Mary Tilton. 

V. William (105) Aymar, b. in Pleasant Valley, N. S., Nov. 
12, 1809; d. in Pleasant Valley, N. S., Apr. 15, 1881; interred in 
Hill Grove Cemetery, Hill Grove, N. S. ; third son of David Peter 
Aymar and Rebecca de Molidor; mar. in Digby, N. S., 1831, 
Kezia, b. in Pleasant Valley, N. S., Sept. 15, 1805; d. in Pleasant 
Valley, N. S., Feb. 8, 1878; interred in Hill Grove Cemetery, 
Hill Grove, N. S. ; daughter of Stephen Warne and Dorcas Mc- 
Intyre; and had issue: 

(209) James Moody, b. in Pleasant Valley, N. S., May 6, 1833. 

(210) Amanda, b. in Pleasant Valley, N. S., Feb. 10, 1835; d. 
in Hill Grove, N. S., Feb. 26. 1S82; interred in Hill Grove Ceme- 
tery, Hill Grove; mar. in Hill Grove, N. S., Dec. 25, 1862, Leslie 
Moffit, b. in Digby, N. S., Sept. 13, 1830; son of Alexander Craig 
and Eleanor Watt. Issue. 

(211) Amberzein, b. in Pleasant Valley, N. S., Feb. 5, 1S37: 
mar. in Lynn, Mass., Apr. 22, i860, James Harding, b. in Brigh- 
ton Mass., Jan. 30, 1835; d. in Lynn, Mass., Sept. 23, 1S71; 
interred in Eastern Burial Ground, Lynn; son of Francis William 
Broad and Harriet Harding. Issue. 

(212) Charles Slugard, b. in Pleasant Valley, N. S., Feb. 16, 
1839; of whom hereafter. 

(213) Fowler, b. in Pleasant Valley, N. S., Oct. 20, 1842; d. 
in Pleasant Valley, N. S., Jan. 6, 1844; interred in Pleasant Val- 
ley Cemetery, Pleasant Valley. 


(214) William Henry, b. in Pleasant Valley, N. S., Apr. 24, 
1846; of whom hereafter. 

(215) David, b. in Pleasant Valley, N. S., Apr. 10, 1848; d. 
unmar. in Weymouth, N. S., Apr. 17, 1868; interred in Hill 
Grove Cemetery, Hill Grove, N. S. 

V. Charles Sloggett (109) Aymar, b. in Pleasant Valley, 
N. S., Feb. 20, 1818; d. in Digby, N. S., Mar. 15, 1857; interred 
in Hill Grove Cemetery, Hill Grove, N. S. ; fifth son of David 
Peter Aymar and Rebecca de Molidor; mar. in Hill Grove, N. 
S., 1851, Sarah, b. in Hill Grove, N. S., Alar. 18, 1833; d. in 
Weymouth, N. S., July 16, 1879; interred in Green Point Ceme- 
tery, Weymouth; daughter of Jesse Keene Warne and Sarah Ann 
Balcom; and had issue: 

(216) Drusilla A. Warne, b. in Digby, N. S., 1854; d. in 
Bear River, N. S., July 10, 1881; interred in Digby Cemetery, 
Digby, N. S. ; mar. Alexander Rice. Issue. 

(217) Charles William, b. in Digby, N. S., 1856; drowned 
in Halifax Harbor, N. S. ; interred in Green Point Cemetery, 
Weymouth, N. S. Unmar. 

V. William Repose (113) Aymar, b. in New York, Nov. 30, 
1825; second son of William Nelson Aymar and Ann Keen; mar., 
firstly, in New York, Mar. 3, 1846, Julia Caroline Fitzener, b. in 
New York, Jan. 21, 1828; d. in Jersey City, N. J., Sept. 21, 1869; 
interred in Greenwood Cemetery, Brooklyn, L. I. , daughter of 
Jacob Blackwell and Mary Ann Bayard; and had issue: 

(218) Mary Ann, b. in New York, Jan. 21, 1847; mar. in New 
York, Sept. 28, 1864, Edw T ard Livingstone, b. in Charlton, 
Mass., Sept. 28, 1836; son of David Perry and Elizabeth Ann 
Ryder. Issue. 

(219) William Nelson, b in New York, Mar. 25, 1851; d. in 
New York, July 7, 1852; interred in Greenwood Cemetery, Brook- 
lyn, L. I. 

(220) William Mesier, b. in New York, June 28, 1853; d. in 
New York, July 7, 1858; interred in Greenwood Cemetery, Brook- 
lyn, I/. I. 

(221) Emma Louisa, b. in New York, Oct. 25, 1855; mar. in 
Jersey City, N. J., Sept. 14, 1882, Abram Ballard, b. in New- 
Brunswick, N. J., Jan. 4, 1856; son of Benjamin Ballard Davis 
and Frances Lowe. Issue. 

(222) Martha Eugenia, b. in New York, July 25, 1858; d. in 


New York, July 19, 1859; interred in Greenwood Cemetery, 
Brooklyn, L. I. 

(223) Albert Edward, b. in New York, Oct. 11, i860; of 
whom hereafter. 

(224) Gertrude Virginia, b. in New York, Aug. 28, 1863; 
d. in New York, Jan. 2, 1S66; interred in Greenwood Cemetery, 
Brooklyn, L. I. 

(225) Estelle Repose, b. in New York, Nov. 18, 1866. Un- 

William Repose (113) Ay mar mar., secondly, in Jersey City, 
N. J., Sept. 18, 1872, Maria Elizabeth, b. in New York, Dec. 22, 
1843; daughter of James Demarest Ackerman and Maria Elizabeth 
Chapman; and had issue: 

(226) Isabel Maria, b. in Jersey City, N. J., Mar. 19, 1874; 
d. unmar. in Jersey City, N. J., Jan. 19, 1895; interred in Green- 
wood Cemetery, Brooklyn, L. I. 

(227) Charles William, b. in Jersey City, N. J., Jan. 3, 1877. 

(228) James Ackerman, b. in Jersey City, N. J., Apr. 27, 
1879; d. in Jersey City, N. J., Sept. 1, 1879; interred in Green- 
wood Cemetery, Brooklyn, L. I. 

(229) Edith May, b. in Jersey City, N. J., May 3, 1S80. 

(230) Ralph Emerson, b. in Jersey City, N. J., Nov. 22, 1882; 
d. in Jersey City, N. J., July 5, 1883; interred in Greenwood 
Cemetery, Brooklyn, L. I. 

(231) Edwin Fletcher, b. in Jersey City, N. J., Sept. 15, 

V. James Keen (115) Aymar, 1 b. in New York, Feb. 24, 1840; 
d. in New York, May 4, 1881: interred in Woodlawn Cemetery, 
New York; third son of William Nelson Aymar and Ann Keen; 
mar. in New York, Apr. 11, 1866, Joanna Alletta, b. in New 
York, Dec. 10, 1842; daughter of Philo Cole and Harriet Clark; 
and had issue: 

(232) Emma Louise, b. in New York, June 15, 1867. Unmar. 

( 2 33) Harriet Isabel, b. in New York, June 19, 1869. Unmar. 

(234) Louis Russell, b. in New York, Aug. 3, 1873; d. un- 
mar., July 2, 1901. 

1 Administration on estate of James K. Aymar to widow, Joanna Alletta Aymar, May 
16, :88i. (Surrogate 's Office, New York, Liber 130 of Letters of Administration, p. 13.) 


(235) Pierre Nelson, b. in New York, May 31, 1875. Un- 

V. James M. (120) Aymar, b. Sept. 21, 1842; d. in Boston, 
Mass., Apr. 4, 1868; fifth son of George Washington Aymar and 
Eliza Chase Briggs; mar. in North Sedgwick, Me., Jan. 7, 1865, 
Minerva Etta, b. Feb. 25, 1848; d. in North Sedgwick, Me., Oct. 
22, 1869; interred in North Sedgwick; daughter of Henry and 
Susan Carter and had issue: 

(236) Frances Eliza, b. in North Sedgwick, Me., May 25, 
1866; d. in North Sedgwick, Me., Mar. 20, 1871; interred in 
North Sedgwick. 

V. George Taylor (129) Aymar, b. in Madison, N. J., Sept. 
2, 1835; second son of John William Hunt Aymar and Eliza Tay- 
lor (Tabele) Sonntag; mar. in Madison, N. J., Sept. 6, 1857, 
Jennie Caroline, b. in Chatham, N. J., Aug. 27, 1841; daughter 
of Thomas Wright and Lydia Ann Cooper; and had issue: 

(237) William Hunt, b. in Greenvillage, N. J., Oct. 16, 1858; 
d. unmar. in Newark, N. J., Nov. 17, 1884; interred in Fairmount 
Cemetery, Newark. 

(238) Ella, b. in Morristown, N. J., Apr. 10, 1873. Unmar. 
V. Samuel Everitt (132) Aymar, b. in Brushville, E. I., 

Aug. 2, 1849; elder son of Samuel Swift Aymar and Phebe Ann 
Everitt; mar. in Brooklyn, L. L, Dec. n, 1873, Allie, b. in Pen- 
sacola, Fla., Dec. 9, 1848; daughter of Samuel Jefferson Seeley 
and Eydia Overton; and had issue: 

(239) Harry Crane, b. in Brooklyn, L. I., Apr. 28, 1875; 
mar. in Brooklyn, L. I., Aug. 6, 1900, Sarah Belle, b. in Rutland, 
Mass., July 10, 18S1; daughter of Albert David Roper and Mary 
Jane Dyer. No issue. 

(240) Ethel Everitt, b. in Brooklyn, L. I., July 13, 1878; 
mar. in Brooklyn, E. I., Feb. 21, 1900, Henry George, b. in New 
York, Dec. 7, 1869; son of Henry George Dodman and Frances 
Victoria Jones. No issue. 

V. Ira Allen (137) Aymar, b. in Dutch Flat, Cal., Sept. 21, 
1862; second son of Benjamin Allen Aymar and Sarah Angeline 
(Trotter) McCulloch; mar. in Oakland, Cal., June 2, 1887, Ada 
Matilda, b. in St. John, N. B., June 28, 1864; daughter of John 
James Nichols and Olive Ann Pomeroy; and had issue: 

(241) Clarence Allen, b. in Oakland, Cal., July 23, 1889. 

(242) Verna Olive, b. in Oakland, Cal., Jan. 13, 1891 


V. John Daniel (142) Aymar, b. in New York, Sept. 20, 
1817; d. in Jersey City, N. J., May 5, 1885; interred in Jersey 
City Cemetery, 1 Jersey City; elder sou of Daniel Aymar and Har- 
riet Raymond; mar. in Somersworth, N. H., Feb. 28, 1849, 
Harriet Atwood," b. in Stafford County, N. H., Sept. 15, 1831: 
daughter of John Jay Downe and Sarah Wentworth; and had 

(243) Ella Pauline, b. in Portland, Me., Feb. 19, 1850; d. in 
New York, Sept. 30, 1S51 ; interred in Mountain Grove Cemetery, 
Bridgeport, Conn. 

(244) John Wentworth, b. in New York, Jan. 6, 1855; of 
whom hereafter. 

V. Augustus James Musson (145) Aymar, 3 b. in New York, 
July 11, 1819; d. in Flushing, L. I., Dec. 18, 1891; interred in 
Greenwood Cemetery, Brooklyn, L. L; eldest son of Benjamin 
Aymar and Elizabeth van Beuren; mar. in New York, June 23, 
1845, Zenobia Magdalena, b. in Guayanilla, Island of Puerto Rico, 
W. I., Dec. 15, 1827; d. in Barcelona, Spain, Aug. 20, 1895; * n " 
terred in Cementerio Nuevo, Barcelona; daughter of Guiseppe 
Lucca and Luisa Balleste; and had issue: 

(245) Louisa Elizabeth, b. in New York, Apr. 5, 1846; d. in 
Guayanilla, Island of Puerto Rico, \V. I., Nov., 1847; interred 
in Greenwood Cemetery, Brooklyn, L. I. 

(246) Ysabel de LA NiEVE, b. in Guayanilla, Island of Puerto 
Rico, W. I., Aug. 5, 1850; mar. in Guayanilla, Island of Puerto 
Rico, W. I., Mar. 9, 1879, Raimundo Jose Luis, b. in Pamplona, 
Spain, Mar. 15, 1846; son of Jose Camprubi y Forrens and Salus- 
tiana Escudero y Carasa. Issue. 

(247) Jost Benjamin Augustus, b. in Guayanilla, Island of 
Puerto, Rico, W. I., Nov. 12, 1853; mar - m New York, Mar. 2, 
1897, Lillian, b. in New York; widow of Eugene SchiefTeliu 
Blois; and daughter of Nicholas Bergasse La Bau and Mary Alicia 
Vanderbilt. No issue. 

V. Edmund Brandt (152) Aymar, 4 b. in New York, Mar. 22, 

1 Removed to Pine Grove Cemetery, Lynn, Mass. 

* Married in New York, July 23, 1S89, George Franklin Seymour. 

•Will of Augustus Aymar, " of New York," dated July 17, 18S0, probated Nov. 29, 1892; 
mentions wife, Zenobia ; son. Jose ; daughter, Isabel (wife of Raimundo Luis Camprubi) ; 
and sister, Elvira I,, van Buren. (Surrogate's Office, New York, Liber 484 of Wills, p. 216.) 

*Will of Edmund Brandt Aymar, dated Nov. 7, 1865, probated Nov. 14, 1876, mentions 
*ife, Elizabeth Fitz Randolph. (Surrogate's Office, New York, Liber 247 of Wills, p. 14.) 


1833; d. in New York, Oct. 16, 1876; interred in Greenwood 
Cemetery, Brooklyn, L. I.; fourth son of Benjamin Aymar and 
Elizabeth van Beuren: mar., firstly, in New York. Nov. 28, 1857, 
Eleanor Kingsland, b. in New York, Jan. 23, 1834; d. in New 
York, Dec. 23, 1S59; interred in Woodlawn Cemetery, New York; 
daughter of Richard Smith Clark and Mary Caroline Reynolds; 
and had issue: 

(248) Edmund Brandt, b. in New York, Sept. 7, 1858; of 
whom hereafter. 

Edmund Brandt (152) Aymar mar., secondly, in New York, 
May 31, 1865, Elizabeth Fitz Randolph, b. in New Castle, Del., 
Oct. 29, 1827; widow of Charles Augustus Tracy; and daughter 
of Evan Henry Thomas and Phebe Ann Hazard; and had issue: 

(249) Louisa, b. in New York, Feb. 19, 1866; mar. in East 
Orange, N. J., Feb. 27, 1889, Charles Alfred, b. in Louisville, 
Ky., Apr. 9, 1865; son of Charles Henry Vose Christian and 
Harriet Chester Smith. Issue. 

(250) Benjamin, b. in New York, Apr. 24, 1867. Unmar. 

(251) William Howard, b. in New Hamburgh, N. Y., Aug. 
9, 1868; of whom hereafter. 

(252) Herbert Fitz Randolph, 1 b. in New York, Nov.; 8, 
1869. Unmar. 

V. Frederick Seymour (157) Aymar, b. in New York, Mar. 
24, 1839; son of Samuel Aymar and Mary Seymour; mar. in 
Stockbridge, Mass., Sept. 10, 1863, Mary, b. in Stockbridge, 
Mass., Mar. 20, 1841; daughter of Seth Seymour and Emily 
Williams; and had issue: 

(253) William Seymour, b. in Brooklyn, L. I., Dec. 10, 1864; 
d. in Brooklyn, L. I., Jan. 28, 1867; interred in Greenwood 
Cemetery, Brooklyn. 

(254) Frederick Seymour, b. in Brooklyn, L. I., Dec. 19, 
1866. Unmar. 

(255) Louis Samuel, b. in Stockbridge, Mass., Jan. 7, 1868; 
d. in Brooklyn, L. I., July 17, 1868; interred in Greenwood 
Cemetery, Brooklyn. 

(256) Grace, b. in Brooklyn, L. I., July 13, 1874; d. in Stock- 
bridge, Mass., Mar. 3, 1896; interred in Stockbridge Cemetery, 

V. Francis (166) Aymar, b. in Eastport, Me., Mar. 30, 18 14; 

1 Baptized Herbert Randolph. 


d. in Addison Point, Me., Apr. 25, 1889; interred in Church Hill 
Cemetery, Addison, Me.; second son of Daniel Ayrnar and Eliza- 
beth Mabee; mar., firstly, in St. John, N. B., circa 1836, Judith, 
b. in St. John, X. B., circa 1S07 (?)■ d. in St. John, N. B., Oct. 
20, 1843; interred in Old Burying Ground, St. John, daughter of 
Jeremiah Drake and Catherine Mabee and had issue: 

(257) Elizabeth, b. in St. John, N. B., Sept. 21, 1838; d. in 
St. John, X. B., Mar. 22, 1840; interred in Old Burying Ground, 
St. John. 

(258) Sarah, b. in St. John, X. B., Dec, 4, 1840. Unmar. 

(259) Hannah Amelia, b. in St. John. X. B., Sept. 30, 1843; 
d. in St. John, X. B., Aug. 30, 1844; interred in Old Burying 
Ground, St. John. 

Francis (166) Ay mar mar., secondly, in Providence, R. I., Dec. 
25, 1847, Emily Rushbrook, b. in Gilmanton, 1 X. H., Xov., 1823; 
d. in Addison Point, Me., July 12, 1891; interred in Church Hill 
Cemetery, Addison, Me.; daughter of Dudley Gale and Mary 
Lyford; and had issue: 

(260) Elva Rushbrook, b. in Addison Point, Me., Oct. 9, 
1848; mar. in Addison Point, Me., June 17, 1869, William Augus- 
tus, b. in Addison Point, Me., Xov. 1, 1838, son of Joseph Sawyer 
and Mary Yeaton. Issue. 

(261) Lelia Frances, b. in Addison Point, Me., Sept. 1, 1850; 
mar. in Addison Point, Me., Sept. 13, 1876, Benjamin Franklin, 
b. in Dedham, Mass., May 27, 1851; son of Franklin Smith and 
Bidelia Mullen. Issue. 

(262) Angeretta, b. in Addison Point, Me., July 9, 1855; 
mar. in Addison Point, Me., Aug. 25, 1883, Andrew Fillmore, b. 
in East Addison, 2 Me., Sept. 1, 1850; d. in Portland, Me., 1900: 
interred in Church Hill Cemetery, Addison, Me. ; son of Temple 
Cook Coffin and Margaret Sawyer Hall. Issue. 

(263) Mellie Gertrude, b. in Addison Point, Me., Dec. 15, 
1858; mar. in Addison Point, Me., Mar. 1, 1879, James Henry, b. 
in Columbia, Me., June 12, 1847; son of Levi Leighton and Betsey 
Small. Issue. 

V. William de* Lesdernier (168) Aymar, b. in Eastport, 
Me., Oct. 18, 1818; d. in Eastport, Me., May 20, 1883; interred 
in Old Burying Ground, Eastport; third son of Daniel Aymar and 
Elizabeth Mabee; mar. in St. John, X. B., Sept. 19, 1840, Cather- 

1 Now Belmont, ■ Now Westcogus. 



ine Jane, b. in St. John, X. B., Nov. 30, 1819; d. in Eastport, Me., 
Apr. 29, iSSr ; interred in Old Burying Ground, Eastport; daugh- 
ter of Jeremiah Drake and Catherine Mabee; and had issue: 

(264) Mary, b. in St. John, N. B., July 14, 1841; mar. in East- 
port, Me., Oct. 31, 1S64, James Henry, b. in St. John, N. B., Feb. 
19, 1S39; son of William B. Frost and Emma Jane Spurr. No, 

(265) John Beckford, b. in Eastport, Me., Aug. 27, 1843; °f 
whom hereafter. 

(266) Frederick, b. in Eastport, Me., June 19, 1846; d. in 
Eastport, Me., July 7, 1847; interred in Old Burying Ground, 

(267) Lewis Frederick, b. in Eastport, Me., Jan. 23, 1851; 
d. unmar. in Eastport, Me., Feb. 17, 1874; interred in Old Bury- 
ing Ground, Eastport. 

(26S) Helen, b. in Eastport, Me., July 31, 1854; mar. in East 
Boston, Mass., Nov. 27, 1884, Otis Henry, b. in Gloucester, Mass., 
Aug. 13, 1S57; son of Stephen Sumner Rich and Caroline Ford. 

V. John Robert (175) Aymar, b. in St. John, N. B., Feb. 1, 
1842; fourth son of Daniel Aymar and Mary Drake; mar., firstly, 
in Watertown, Mass., Jan. 10, 1871, Mary Frances, b. in Chicago, 
111., July 28, 1840; d. in East Baldwin. Me., May 24, 1881; in- 
terred in Pine Grove, Cemetery, Westbrook, Me. ; daughter of 
William Anson Sabine and Elia Gozodrich; and had issue: 

(269) Ann Louisa, b. in Watertown, Mass., Dec. 1, 1871. Un- 

(270) Maud Frances, b. in Portland, Me., Jan. 17, 1874. 

(271) Lucy Sabine, b. in Portland, Me., Jan. 24, 1877. Un- 

John Robert C175) Aymar mar., secondly, in Bangor, Me., Oct. 
12, 1886, Mary, b. in St. George, N. B., July 13, 1858; daughter 
of William Sloan and Sarah Brittany. No issue. 

V. W t txliam Henry (181) Aymar, b. in St. Andrews, N. B., 
May 24, 1833; d. i Q Covington, La., Mar. 25, 1900; interred in 
Rural Cemetery, St. Andrews, N. B. ; elder son of John Aymar 
and Catharine Johnson ; mar. in New Orleans, La., June 23, 1866, 
Elizabeth, b. in Palermo, Sicily. Mar. 27, 1834; daughter of Noble 
Luke Sparks and Marie Rizzo; and had issue: 


(272) Wilton Embury, b. in New Orleans, La., Feb. 26, 1867. 

(273) Louise Alma, b. in New Orleans, La., Feb. 26, 1867. 

(274) Corinne Camille, b. in St. Andrews, N. B., Aug. 29, 
1868. Unmar. 

(275) Ormond Rodney, b. on Buena Vista Plantation, 1 St. 
James Parish, La., Dec. 19, 1869. Unmar. 

(276) Catharine, b. in New Orleans, La., Apr. 10, 1871. 

(277) Florence Elizabeth, b. on Buena Vista Plantation, St. 
James Parish, La., Dec. 10, 1873. Unmar. 

(278) Elmore, b. on Buena Vista Plantation, St. James Parish, 
La., July 2, 1877. Unmar. 

(279) John, b. on Buena Vista Plantation, St. James Parish, 
La., Jan. 21, 1881. Unmar. 

V. Francis (189) Aymar, b. in St. Stephen, N. B., Feb. 26, 
1841 ; second son of Francis Aymar and Mary Ctong Mabee; mar. 
in Boston, Mass., Jan. 3, 1867, Lucy Frances, b. in Augusta, Me., 
Dec. 13, 1841; daughter of Gilbert Henry O'Reilly and Anna 
Marsylvia Whitcomb; and had issue: 

(280) Francis Whitcomb, b. in Boston, Mass., Oct. 14, 1867; 
of whom hereafter. 

(281) Gilbert Henry, b. in Minneapolis, Minn., Jan 29, 1870; 
of whom hereafter. 

(282) Arthur Wellington, b. in Boston, Mass., Jan. 4, 1872; 
d. in Boston, Mass., Dec. 20, 1872; interred in Cambridge, Mass. 

(283) Joseph James, b. in South Boston, Mass., Sept. 30, 1873; 
d. in South Boston, Mass., Oct. 9, 1874; interred in Cambridge, 

(284) Mary Augusta, b. in South Boston, Mass., Aug. 11, 
1875. Unmar. 

(285) Lucy Frances, b. in Charlestown, Mass., Sept. 1, 1877; 
mar. in Medford, Mass., June 20, 1900, John Joseph, b. in Rox- 
bury, Mass., July 9, 1875; son of Michael Noreau and Mary Eliza- 
beth Malley. Issue. 

(286) Anna Marsylvia, b. in Somerville, Mass., July 5, 1883. 

VI. Charles Randolph (204) Aymar, b. in Digby, N. S., 

1 About ten miles from Donaldsonville. 


Mar. 12, 1836 (? ); eldest sou of John Walter Ayinar and Sophia 
Brewer; mar. in Meteghan, N. S., 1S54 (?), Mary Elizabeth, b. in 
Meteghan, X. S., Aug. iS, 1836; daughter of Joseph Jules Comeau 
and Mary Jane Gaudet; and had issue: 

(287) Henry William, b. in Meteghan, N. S., Nov. 30, 1856; 
of whom hereafter. 

(288) George, b. in Meteghan, N. S., July 20, 1861; d. in 
Meteghan, X. S.; interred in Meteghan Cemetery, Stella Maris. 

(289) Mary Elizabeth, b. in Meteghan, N. S., Oct. 15, 1869; 
d. in Meteghan, X. S.; interred in Meteghan Cemetery, Stella 

(290) Annie Evangeline, b. in Meteghan, N. S., August 22, 
1873; mar. in Meteghan, N. S., Feb. 9, 1897, Armand Bazil, b. in 
Mavilette, X. S., Aug. 23, 1869; son of Mark Dedier Deveau and 
Honoriue Monique Robicheau. Issue. 

VI. Adolphus Walter (205) Aymar, b. in Digby, N. S., Jan. 
22, 1839; second son of John Walter Aymar and Sophia Brewer, 
mar., firstly, in South Boston, Mass., Oct. 24, 1864, Mary Mehit- 
abel, b. in Brighton, Mass., June 29, 1839; d. in Boston, Mass.; 
Mar. 6, 1878; interred in Old Eastern Burial Ground, Lynn, 
Mass., widow of Henry Francis Fuller; and daughter of Francis 
William Broad and Harriet Harding; and had issue: 

(291) Harriet Sophia, b. in Chelsea, Mass., Aug. 28, 1868. 

(292) Mary Florence, b. in Chelsea, Mass., July 10, 1871. 

(293) Jennie Mabel, b. in Chelsea, Mass., Oct. 6, 1873; d. in 
Lynn, Mass., Nov. 9, 1874; interred in Old Eastern Burial 
Ground, Lynn. 

Adolphus Walter (205) Aymar mar., secondly, Minnie M . 

No issue. 

VI. Charles Slugard (212) Aymar, b. in Pleasant Valley, 
N. S., Feb. 16, 1839; second son of William Aymar and Kezia 
Warne; mar. in Hill Grove, X. S., Dec. 24, 1862, Olive Reliefa, 
b. in Hill Grove, X T . S., Dec. 16, 1843; daughter of Samuel Trask 
Bacon and Susan Harris; and had issue: 

(294) Stanley Smith, b. in Hill Grove, N. S., Oct. 21, 1864; 
mar. in Roop's Point, N. S., July 9, 1894, Jessie, b. in Roop's 
Point, N. S., Mar. 21, 1865; daughter of Benjamin Winchester 
and Anne Roop. Xo issue. 


(295) William Moody, b. in Ay mar's Corner, N. S., Oct. 22, 
1876. Unmar. 

(296) Susie Pauline, b. in Aymar s Corner, N. S., Oct. 21, 
1S79. Unmar. 

VI. William Henry (,214) Aymar, b. in Pleasant Valley, 
N. S., Apr. 24, 1S46; fourth son of William Aymar and Kezia 
Warne; mar. in Hill Grove, X. S., Jan. 24, 1872, Hannah, b. in 
Hill Grove, X. S., Aug. 28, 1S47; daughter of William Henry 
Marshall and Hannah Wilson; and had issue: 

(297) Ralph Rupert, b. in Digby. X. S., May 27, 1876; d. in 
Digby, X. S., Apr. 10, 1S7S; interred in Baptist Cemetery, Digby. 

(29S) Carrie Saunders, b. in Digby, X. S., Xov. 22, 1877; 
d. in Tower City, X. Dak., May 22, 1SS2; interred in Tower City. 

(299) Harry Milton, b. in Pleasant Valley, X. S., Jan. 10, 
1880. Unmar. 

(300) Sabra Lillian, b. in Page, X. Dak., Dec. 16, 1884. 

(301) Ena Belle, b. in Page, X\ Dak., Mar. 6, 1888. 

(302) Amber Mildred, b. in Page, X. Dak., Jan. 4, 1892. 
VI. Albert Edward (223) Aymar, b. in Xew York, Oct. n, 

i860; third son of William Repose Aymar and Julia Caroline 
Fitzener Blackwell; mar. in Xew York, Apr. 3, 1893, Pauline, b. 
in Jersey City, X. J., May 4, 1874; daughter of Christian Freik- 
necht and Sena Meyer: and had issue: 

(303) Julia Caroline, b. in Jersey City, X. J., Dec. 8, 1894. 

(304) Albert, b. in Jersey City, X. J., Xov. 18, 1896. 

(305) Edward, b. in Jersey City, X. J., May 24, 1898. 

VI. John Wentworth f 244) Aymar, b. in Xew York, Jan. 6, 
1855; son of John Daniel Aymar and Harriet Atwood. Downe; 
mar. in Jersey City, X. J., Xov. 16, 1886, Jane Vander Horst 
Hey ward, b. in Xew York, Oct, 10, 1859; daughter of Edmund 
Bowly and Jane Vander Horst Gignilliat Hey ward; and had issue: 

(306) John Wentworth, b. in Jersey City, X. J., Oct. 24, 

(307) George Seymour, b. in Jersey City, N. J., May 16, 
1891; d. in Jersey City, X. J., Dec. 13, 1891; interred in Pine 
Grove Cemetery, Lynn, Mass. 

VI. Edmund Brandt (248) Aymar, b. in Xew York, Sept. 7, 
1858; son of Edmund Brandt Aymar and Eleanor Kingsland 
Clark; mar. in Philadelphia, Pa., Feb. 13, 1884, Emilie, b. in 
Philadelphia, Pa., Xov. 29, 1858; widow of Henry Augustus 


Burroughs; and daughter of Joseph Trowbridge Bailey and 
Catherine Goddard Weaver; and had issue: 

(30S) Eleanor Kingsland, b. in Germantown, Pa., Nov. 14, 

(309) Edmund Brandt, b. in Wiekford, R. I., July 3, 1887. 
VI. William Howard (25 1) Aymar, b. in New Hamburgh, 

N. Y., Aug. 9, 1S6S; second sou of Edmund Brandt Aymar and 
Elizabeth Fitz Randolph (Thomas) Tracy; mar. in Orange, N. 
J., June 11, 1S90, Maud Peurhyn, b. in New Haven, Conn., Nov. 
19, 1866; daughter of Charles Henry Vose Christian and Harriet 
Chester Smith; and had issue: 

(310) Gordon Christian, b. in East Orange, N. J., July 24, 


VI. John Beckford (265) Aymar, b. in Eastport, Me., Aug. 
27, 1843; d. in Neponset, Mass., Aug. 7, 1886; interred in Old 
Burying Ground, Eastport, Me.; eldest son of William de Lesder- 
nier Aymar and Catherine Jane Drake; mar. in St. Stephen, N. 
B., Oct. 25, 1865, Elmira Pendleton, 1 b. in Gouldsborough, Me., 
Sept. 16, 1S47; daughter of Leonard Burrill Tracy and Martha 
Clark Stover; and had issue: 

(311) Frank, b. in Eastport, Me., June 25, 1866; d. in East- 
port, Me., Jan. 26, 187S; interred in Old Burying Ground, East- 

(312) William Robinson, b. in Eastport, Me., June 9, 1868. 
VI. Francis Whitcomb (280) Aymar, b. in Boston, Mass., 

Oct. 14, 1867; eldest son of Francis Aymar and Lucy Frances 
O'Reilly; mar. in Boston, Mass., Oct. 14, 1891, Julia, b. in Bos- 
ton, Mass., Oct. 14, 1866; daughter of James Allan Mosher and 
Julia Murphy; and had issue: 

(313) Francis Allan, b. in Brooklyn, L. I., Nov. 9, 1892; d. 
in Brooklyn, L. I., Nov. 9, 1892; interred in Evergreens Ceme- 
tery, Brooklyn. 

VI. Gilbert Henry (2S1) Aymar, b. in Minneapolis, Minn., 
Jan. 29, 1870; second son of Francis Aymar and Lucy Frances 
O'Reilly; mar. in Lynn, Mass., Oct. 23, 1895, Elsie Mae, b. in 
Lynn, Mass., Nov. 11, 1872; daughter of Jacob Flint, Frost and 
Iantha Record ; and had issue : 

(314) Gilbert Henry, b. in Somerville, Mass., Dec. 22, 1896. 
(3 X 5) Violet Mae, b. in Somerville, Mass., Nov. 18, 1899. 

1 Married in East Boston, Mass., Dec. 22, 1896, Nelson Hay ward Fuller. 


VII. Henry William (287) Aymar, b. in Meteghan, N. S., 
Nov. 30, 1856; elder son of Charles Randolph Aymar and Mary 
Elizabeth Comeau; mar. in Meteghan, N. S., Aug. 22, 1887, Mary 
Emily, b. in Meteghan River, X. S., Dec. 25, 1862; daughter of 
Vincent Eugene Comeau and Sophie Mary d'Entremont; and 
had issue: 

(316) George, b. in Meteghan, N. S., June 3, 1888. 

(317) Frederick, b. in Meteghan, N. S., Sept. 12, 1890. 

(318) Mary Elizabeth, b. in Meteghan, N. S., Sept. 14, 1892. 

(319) Charles Edward, b. in Meteghan, N. S., Dec. 27, 1895. 

(320) Benjamin, b. in Meteghan, N. S., Nov. 1, 1897. 

(321) Randolph, b. in Meteghan, N. S., Nov. 10, 1S99. 

Authorities: Registers of French Church du St. Esprit, Dutch 
Reformed Church, Trinity Church, and First and Second Presby- 
terian Churches, New York ; Aymar and other Bibles and family 
memorials; various printed genealogies; New York newspapers; 
records of Surrogate's and Register's Offices, and Bureau of Vital 
Statistics, New York; and an extensive correspondence. 

Special thanks for information are due to Miss Harriet Aymar, 
South Norwalk, Conn. ; James M. Aymar, Page, N. Dak. ; Charles 
S. Aymar, Digby, N. S.; Charles R. Aymar, Meteghan, N. S.; 
Adolphus W. Aymar, Boston, Mass.; Miss Mary F. Aymar, 
Lynn, Mass.; Mrs. William E. Lord, Lynn, Mass.; William R. 
Aymar, Jersey City, N. J.; Mrs. James K. Aymar, New York; 
Miss Elizabeth L. Aymar, Brunswick, Ga. ; the late Samuel S. 
Aymar, Jamaica, L. I.; Miss Catherine O. Aymar, Jamaica, L. 
L; Benjamin A. Aymar, Placerville, Cal.; Miss Agnes A. Mil li- 
ken, Eastport, Me.; Mrs. John W. Aymar, Jersey City, N. J.; 
Mrs. George F. Seymour, Springfield, 111.; Mrs. Charles A. 
Christian, East Orange, N. J. ; Senora Raimundo J. L. Camprubi, 
Farragona, Spain; Miss Elizabeth Aymar, New York; Frederick 
S. Aymar, Stockbridge, Mass.; Jose Aymar, New York; Mrs. 
Robert van Buren, Norwalk, Conn.; the late Mrs. John D. van 
Buren, Newburgh, N. Y. ; Mrs. Robert L. Crooke, New York; 
Mrs. Nelson Harrington, East Boston, Mass; John R. Aymar, 
Bangor, Me.; Moses C. Barbour, St. John, N. B.; Miss Sarah 
Aymar, North Weymouth, Mass.; Mrs. William A. Sawyer, 
Addison Point, Me. ; Mrs. Benjamin F. Smith, North Weymouth, 
Mass.; Mrs. Andrew F. Coffin, Portland, Me.; Mrs. James H. 

2I 4 

Leighton, Addison Point, Me.; Mrs. James H. Frost, Merriam 
Park, Minn.; Mrs. Otis H. Rich, Roslindale, Mass.; Fred. A. 
Broad, Lynn, Mass. ; Leslie M. Craig, Pleasant Valley, N. S. ; 
the late William H. Aymar, New Orleans, La.; Wilton E. Aymar, 
New Orleans, La.; Francis Aymar, Medford, Mass.; Miss Jane 
H. Aymar, East Somerville, Mass. ; Mrs. Charles Wellington, 
Dorchester, Mass.; Francis W. Aymar, New York; Gilbert H. 
Aymar, Boston, Mass. ; Harry L. Y. Beman, Digby, N. S.; J. Ed- 
ward Marsh, New York; Robert Talmage, New York; the late 
Daniel L. Dodge, Asbury Park, N. J.; Miss Louisa A. Gilbert, 
Ossining, N. Y.; Mrs. George T. Aymar, Morristown, N. J.; 
Mrs. John C. Leighton, Portland, Me.; Miss Mary J. Robbins, 
Bridgeport, Conn.; Miss Alice V. Drake, Flushing, L. I.; the 
late Miss Margaret Jacot, New York; Samuel G. Payne, Cohoes, 
N. Y.; Dr. Alexander Hadden, New York; and Aymar Embury, 
New York. 

Thanks are also due to John D. van Buren, Newburgh, N. Y.; 
Mrs. Joseph A. Fowler, Providence, R. I.; Mrs. Charles H. Desso- 
tell, Detroit, Mich.; Miss Elizabeth G. Tuttle, Eastport, Me.; 
Mrs. Thomas I. Shepherd, St. Louis, Mo.; Mrs. John G. Rayner, 
Dennis, Mass.; Walter C. Hilton, Lynn, Mass.; B. Aymar Sands 
and Robert C. Sands, New York; Mrs. D. A. Mathews, Brook- 
lyn, L. I.; Mrs. A. S. Bonney, Dedham, Mass.; Mrs. Horatio N. 
Hardy, Brooklyn, L. I.; Charles W. Pyne, Lynn, Mass.; Her- 
bert H. Pyne, Somerville, Mass.; and Henry H. Reeve and Miss 
Mary E. Reeve, South Norwalk, Conn. 

Acknowledgment of courteous assistance should be made to 
Robert H. Kelby, Librarian of the New York Historical Society, 
Rev. Morgan Dix, Rector of Trinity Church, Otto Meurer, Super- 
intendent of Trinity Cemetery, and Charles T. Marvin, New 
York; Rt. Rev. George F. Seymour, Springfield, 111.; Isaiah W. 
Wilson, New Tusket, N. S.; Rev. H. A. Harley, Rector of Holy 
Trinity Church, Digby, N. S.; Rev. James N. Supple, Charles- 
town, Mass.; Judge A. W. Savary, Annapolis Royal, N. S.; Rev. 
O. S. Newnham, Rector of St. Stephen, N. B.; Rev. J. A. Rich- 
ardson, Rector of Trinity Church, St. John, N. B.; Rev. W. S. H. 
Morris, Rector of Shelburne, N. S. ; and Rev. Alfred Bareham, 
Rector of St. Martins, N. B. 




A belief that all the Ay mars in this country were of one descent 
originally caused much perplexity. Research was directed by 
this theory, until the frequent appearance of unfamiliar names led 
to the conviction that it was no longer tenable, an hypothesis 
proven by more recent investigations. As a result, the genealo- 
gies of four distinct Ayinar families were compiled, any clue to 
whose mutual relationship must be sought elsewhere than in 

John Peter Aymar was born and brought up in Bordeaux, 
France, and was a member of a Protestant family. So marked 
was his dislike for Catholics, that he would not pass in the shadow 
of a church of that faith and invariably crossed the street to avoid 
doing so. He emigrated to San Domingo, where he became a 
planter. During a slave insurrection, he escaped from the island 
with his cousin, John David Aymar, and came with him to New 

Although he had never spoken of other relatives, on his death- 
bed he mentioned two sisters, one living in New Orleans and one 
in Puerto Principe. 

He married Charlotte, daughter of Captain William Belden, of 
Connecticut, owner of a line of packets running out of Boston 
Harbor, and granddaughter of Col. Belden, of the Continental 
Army. She was the widow of an Englishman named, perhaps, 
Reid, with one son, Charles, born in 1812, who adopted the sur- 
name of his stepfather. This son afterwards went to Brazil, 
entered the navy, and rose to the rank of admiral in the service 
of Dom Pedro. 

John David Aymar was a merchant and may have left issue, 
whose whereabouts is unknown. 1 


I. John Peter Louis David (i) Aymar, b. in Bordeaux, 
France, Aug. 5, 1781; d. in New York, July 26, 1839; interred in 
Methodist Episcopal Cemetery, New York; mar. in, or near, New 

1 Communications from Albert F. Aymar, Chicago, 111. 


Haven, Conn., 1815, Charlotte, b. near New Haven, Conn., July 
4, 1791; d. in Morrisania, N. Y., July 6, 1862; interred in Metho- 
dist Cemetery, Morrisania; widow of Reid (?); and daughter 

of William Belden; and had issue: 

(2) Louis David, b. in New York, Mar. 14, 1816; of whom 

(3) Marcia Malvina, b. in New York, Feb. 20, 1818; d. in 
Salem, Oreg., 1897; mar - * n York, John Williams. Issue. 

(4) John Peter, b. in New York, Dec. 29, 18 19; of whom 

(5) Charlotte Louisa, b. in New York, Aug. 14, 1822; d. in 
New York, Aug. 31, 1S23; interred in Methodist Episcopal Ceme- 
tery, New York. 

(6) Lucia Adaline, b. in New York, July 3, 1824; mar. in 
New York, William Richard Derr. Issue. 

(7) Amelia Theresa, b. in New York, Jan. 10, 1827; d. in 
New York, Nov. 17, 1S27. 

(8) William Thorn, b. in Brooklyn, L. L, June 23, 1830; of 
whom hereafter. 

(9) Walter Belden, b. in Paterson, N. J., Sept. 8, 1832; of 
whom hereafter. 

(10) Albert Fisher, b. in New York, Nov. 3, 1834; of whom 

II. Louis David (2) Aymar, b. in New York, Mar. 14, 1816, 
d. in Brooklyn, L. I., Nov. 14, 1872; interred in Greenwood 
Cemetery, Brooklyn; eldest son of John Peter Louis David Ay- 
mar and Charlotte (Belden) Reid (?); mar. in New Utrecht, L. I., 
Jan. 1, 1837, Jane, b. in New Utrecht, L. I., June 6, 1820; d. in 
Brooklyn, L. I., Jan. 13, 1SS6; interred in Greenwood Cemetery, 
Brooklyn, daughter of Winant Bogert and Ruth Stillwell; and 
had issue: 

(11) Louis Winant, b. in New York, Dec. 5, 1841; of whom 

(12) John Peter, b. in New York, 1845; d. in New York, 
Dec. 15, 1845. 

(13) Albert Belden, b. in New York, Feb. 27, 1846; of whom 

(14) Sarah Jane, b. in New York, Aug. 1, 1849; mar - m 
Brooklyn, L. I*, June 21, 1868, Oscar Rogers, b. in White Plains, 
N. Y. ; son of Nelson Seymour and Rebecca Gregg. Issue. 


II. John Peter (4) Aymar, 1 b. in New York, Dec. 29, 1S19; 
in Isle of Wight, England, June 5, 1S43 ; interred in Isle of Wight: 
second son of John Peter Louis David Ajonar and Charlotte (Bel- 
den) Reid (?); mar. in New York, Elizabeth Devine 3 ; and had 

(15) John Peter, b. in New York, Aug. 31, 1841; d. in New 
York, July 14, 1843; interred in Methodist Episcopal Cemetery, 
New York. 

II. William Thorn (8) Aymar, b. in Brooklyn, L. I., June 
23, 1830; d. in Fordham, N. Y., Mar. 16, 18S3: interred in 
Woodlawn Cemetery, New York; third son of John Peter Louis 
David Aymar and Charlotte (Belden) Reid (?); mar. in New 
York, Jane Sylvester, d. in New York, Mar. 15, 1901 ; and had 

(16) William Frederick Sylvester, b. in New York, Nov. 
1, 1855; of whom hereafter. 

(17) Oscar Cook, b. in New York. Unmar. 

(18) Jeanette, b. in New York, Nov. 9, 1858; d. in New 
York, Aug. 18, 1859. 

II. Walter Belden (9) Aymar, b. in Paterson, N. J., Sept. 
8, 1832; d. in Baraboo, Wis., June, 9 1891: interred in Baraboo; 
fourth son of John Peter Louis David Aymar and Charlotte (Bel- 
den) Reid (?); mar. in Elmira, N. Y., Oct. 23, 1855, Maggie, b. 
in Northumberland, Pa., Nov. 12, 1830; daughter of Matthias 
Manley and Nancy Sherer; and had issue: 

(19) Charlotte Louisa, b. in Elmira, N. Y., Jan. 1, 1857; 
mar. in City of Mexico, Mexico. May 13, 1874, Harry, d. Nov. 
28, 1889; son of John and Catherine Wambold. Issue. 

II. Albert Fisher (10) Aymar, b. in New York, Nov. 3. 
1834; fifth son of John Peter Louis David Aymar and Charlotte 
(Belden) Reid (?); mar. in Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 1, 1866, Nellie, 
b. in White Plains, N. Y., Apr. iS, 1849; daughter of John La 
Beal and Emma Bedouin; and had issue: 

(20) Walter Belden, b. in Hastings, Minn., Aug. 27, 1S67: 
d. in Hastings, Minn., Sept. 27, 1867; interred in Mounds Ceme- 
tery, Hastings. 

1 Administration on estate of John P. Aymar, " Equestrian," to William M. Mitchell, 
Public Administrator, Nov. 27, 1843. (Surrogate's Office, New York. Liber 43 of Letters ol 
Administration, p. 330.) 

" Married, secondly, Robert Ellingham. 


(21) Edwin" Henry, b. in Berrien Springs, Mich., June 2, 187 1. 

(22) Mae Eugenie, b. in Morrisania, N. Y., Jan. 27, 1873. 

III. Louis Winant (ii) Aymar, b. in New York, Dec. 5, 
1841; eldest son of Louis David Aymar and Jane Bogert; mar., 
firstly, in New York, May 27, 1S64, Mary, b. in New York, 1846; 
d. in Brooklyn, L. L, Nov. 4, 1872; interred in Greenwood Ceme- 
tery, Brooklyn: daughter of John and Amanda Boyd; and had 

(23) Emma Estelle, b. in Brooklyn, L. I., Apr. 20, 1866; 
mar. in Brooklyn, L. I., June 6, 1888, Randolph Williams, b. in 
Brooklyn, L. I., 1S66. Issue (?). 

Louis Winant (11) Aymar mar., secondly, in New York, Jan. 
20, 1876, Charlotte, b. in New York, Feb. 26, 1846; daughter of 
John Studley King and Laura Wadsworth: and had issue: 

(24) Josephine, b. in Brooklyn, L. L, June 1, 1878; d. in 
Brooklyn, L. I., June 1, 1878; interred in Greenwood Cemetery, 

(25) Charlotte Wadsw t orth, b. in Brooklyn, L. L, Oct. 5, 
1879; d. in Brooklyn, L. I., Dec. 21, 1880; interred in Green- 
wood Cemetery, Brooklyn. 

(26) May Belle, b. in Brooklyn, L. I., Apr. 17, 1882. 

III. Albert Belden (13) Aymar, b. in New York, Feb. 27, 
1846; d. in New York, Apr. 7, 1889; interred in Greenwood Ceme- 
tery, Brooklyn, L. I.; third son of Louis David Aymar and Jane 
Bogert; mar. in New York, Oct. 28, 1868, Julia, daughter of John 
and Amanda Boyd; and had issue: 

(27) Catherine, b. Mar., 1874. 

III. William Frederick Sylvester (16) Aymar, b. in New 
York, Nov. 1, 1855: elder son of William Thorn Aymar and Jane 
Sylvester; mar.; and had issue: 

(28) Neva. 

Authorities: Louis W. Aymar, Brooklyn, L. L; Albert F. 
Aymar, Chicago, 111.; Mrs. Walter B. Aymar, New York; Aymar 
Bible; and Bureau of Vital Statistics, New York. 

Shortly before his death, which occurred in 1884, William (73) 


Ayniar, of the New York family, spoke of an Aymar (a William 
Aymar, if memory serves) who had come from France to New 
York about forty years earlier and entered business in the lower 
part of the city. 

Doggett's New York Directory for 1844 contains the name of 
William Aymar, manufacturer, 391 Broome Street, and that for 
1845, the name of William Aymar, cap-manufacturer, 190 Spring 
street. From the latter date until 1870, when the entries cease, 
William Aymar lived in Spring street, and he may be, and prob- 
ably is, the William Aymar referred to above and the William 
Cyril Ayrnar of the annexed genealogy. 

It will be observed that William Cyril Aymar died in 1870, and 
that his eldest son, Charles Francis Aymar, was born in New 
York, in 1844. 

His granddaughter, Miss Eleanor S. Aymar, has very kindly 
furnished a list of his descendants. 


I. William Cyril (i) Aymar, b. in Paris, France; d. in Lake- 
land, L. I., Jan. 1, 1870; interred in Hauppauge Cemetery, Hap- 

pauge, L. I. ; mar. Sophie Desiree , b. in Paris, France, circa 

1816; d. in Brooklyn, L. I., Oct. 18, 1880; interred in Calvary 
Cemetery, Blissville, L. I.; and had issue: 

(2) Charles Francis, b. in New York, July 22, 1844, of whom 

(3) Francis Joseph, b. in New York, Oct. 22, 1846; d. unmar. 
in Brooklyn, L. I., Aug. 22, 1891; interred in Evergreens Ceme- 
tery, Brooklyn. 

(4) Melanie, b. in New York, Sept. 15, 1848; d. in Brooklyn, 
L. I., Mar. 12, 1895; interred in Evergreens Cemetery, Brooklyn; 
mar. in Lakeland,. L. I., Nov., 1872, Philip Howard, b. in New 
York, Dec. 23, 1845; d - in Brooklyn, L. I., Mar. 12, 1891; interred 
in Evergreens Cemetery, Brooklyn; son of Abram Howard Dela- 
mater and Mary Ann Hoy. Issue. 

(5) Cyril, b. in New York, May 27, 1853; d. in New York, 
July 8, 1853; interred iti Calvary Cemetery, Blissville, L. I. 

II. Charles Francis (2) Aymar, b. in New York, July 22, 
1844; in Brooklyn, L. I., Oct. 18, 1882; interred in Evergreens 
Cemetery, Brooklyn; eldest son of William Cyril and Sophie De- 
siree Aymar; mar. in Brooklyn, L. I., Aug. 22, 1872, Deborah, 


b. in Brooklyn, L. I., July 13, 1855; daughter of George Spooner 
Butts and Eleanor Spencer; and had issue: 

(6) William George, b. in Brooklyn, L. I„ July 11, 1873. 

(7) Eleanor Sophie, b. in Brooklyn, L. I., Feb. 10, 1876. 

(8) Lauretta, b. in Brooklyn, L. I., May 30, 1878; d. in 
Brooklyn, L. I., July 19, 1880; interred in Evergreens Cemetery, 

(9) Deborah Eleanor, b. in Brookyn, L,. I., May 23, 1880. 

The recent arrival in this country of descendants of a Huguenot 
family of Aymar which left France two centuries ago, is interest- 
ing, and if further records can be secured they may prove of the 
utmost value in throwing light on the foreign lineage of the New 
York Aymars, w r hose forefathers traditionally fled to German}', 
and may lead to the discovery of a mutual ancestry for the various 
Aymar families in the United States. 

" Our ancestors lived in the southern part of France, whence 
they emigrated on account of religious persecution and settled in 
Wiirttemburg, Germany, where they w r ere given a tract of land by 
Archduke Carl. This took place as nearly as I can ascertain 
about the year 1700. 

4 4 My grandfather, Frederich Aymar, lived in Barenthal, Wiir- 
temburg. He had three sons. Frederich, the eldest, emigrated 
to America in 1851, and settled in Newark, N. J. I have not 
heard from him in the last thirty years. . . . 

" The second son of my grandfather, Jacob, was my own father. 
. . . The names of my brothers are Frederich and Wilhelm. 
Frederich died while in military service in Stuttgart. Wilhelm is 
living in Pfortzheim and is engaged in the jewelry business. I 
left Germany in 18S1, and came to St. Paul. . . . 

11 The youngest son of my grandfather was named John. He 
had two sons. . . 

11 My grandfather had a brother Jacob who had three sons, 
Jacob, John, and Charles. Jacob was married and lived in Col- 
mar, France. He died about fifteen years ago. John is also dead 
and Charles, the youngest, is living in Germany." 1 

1 Communication from Jacob Aymar. bt. Paul, Minn. 



I. Jacob (i) Aymar, b. in Wiirtemberg, Germany, July 25, 
1851; son of Jacob Aymar and Margaret Mueller; mar., firstly, 
in Barenthal, Germany, Mar. 15, 1873, Margaret, b. in Serres, 
Germany, Feb. 19, 1852; d. in Barenthal, Germany, Apr. 1, 1878; 
interred in Barenthal; daughter of Pierre Gille and Jeanne Jour- 
dan; and had issue: 

(2) August Fredebich, b. in Barenthal, Germany, Jan. 2, 
1874; of whom hereafter. 

(3) Fredericka Katherine, b. in Barenthal, Germany, Mar. 
15, 1876. Unmar. 

Jacob (1) Aymar mar., secondly, in Barenthal, Germany, July 
25, 1879, Katherine, b. in Serres, Germany, Apr. 27, 1843; 
daughter of Pierre Gille and Jeanne Jourdan; and had issue: 

(4) Charlotte Jeanne, b. in Barenthal, Germany, Dec. 6, 
1879. Unmar. 

(5) Edwin Henry, b. in Lakeland, Minn., Dec. 12, 1881. 

II. August Frederich (2) Aymar, b. in Barenthal, Ger- 
many, Jan. 2, 1874; son of Jacob Aymar and Margaret Gille; 
mar. in St. Paul, Minn. Nov. 16, 1895, Ida Mae, b. in St. Paul, 
Minn., June 7, 1877; daughter of James Goldsmith and Mary 
Goodson; and had issue: 

(6) James Edward, b. in St. Paul, Minn., May 5, 1896. 

(7) Robert, b. in St. Paul, Minn., July 25, 1898. 

Authority: Jacob Aymar, St. Paul, Minn. 

The following lists have been arranged with a desire to obviate 
confusion for the family genealogist of the future. They are not 
exhaustive, and many additions to them can probably be made. 

The first comprises those who bear the name Aymar by inherited 
right; the second, those who use it by courtesy; and the third, 
those who have adopted, or received, it, in place of other surnames. 



Frances Aymar Aguilo. 

Edith Aymar Andreu. 

Fred Ayraar Broad. 

Lola Aymar Bunce. 

Augusto Juan Jose Camprubi 
y Aymar. 

Augusto Salustiano Felix pil- 
lion Camprubi y Aymar. 

Jose Augusto Luis Raimundo I 
Camprubi y Ayraar. 

Raimundo Augusto Lucca 
Camprubi y Aymar. 

Zenobia Salustiana Edith Sal- 
vadora Camprubi y Aymar. 

Kenneth Aymar Christian. 

Harry Aymar Cronkright. 

Elizabeth Aymar (Kissam) 

Francis Aymar de Lesdernier. 
William Aymar de Lesdernier. 
Isabelle Aymar Drake. 
Aymar Embury. 
Aymar Embury, Jr. 
Edmund Aymar Embury. 
Caroline Aymar Fowler. 
James Ayniar Fowler. 
William Aymar Fowler. 
Frank Aymar Harrington. 
Katharine Aymar (Sands) 

Charles Aymar Hopper. 
William Aymar Jacot. 
Aymar Johnson. 
William Aymar Kissam. 
William Aymar Kissam. 
Mary Aymar (Fowler) Lewis. 

Mary Aymar Lord. 
Caroline Aymar Man}-. 
Frances Aymar Mathews. 
Agnes Aymar Milliken. 
Ann Aymar Milliken. 
Louise Aymar Milliken. 
Mary Aymar Noble. 
Sarah Aymar Parker. 
Frederick Aymar Pa} r ne. 
Frances Aymar Robbins. 
James Ayrnar Robinson. 
Benjamin Aymar Sands. 
Harold Aymar Sands. 
Frank Aymar Sawyer. 
Sadie Aymar Sawyer. 
George Aymar Webb. 
Aymar van Buren. 
Frank Aymar van Buren. 


Emilie Aymar Bailey. 
Aymar Cater. 
Arthur Aymar Cater. 
Douglas Aymar Cater. 
Louise Aymar Cater. 
Louisa Aymar Gilbert. 
George Aymar Taber. 
John Quereau Aymar William- 


Charles Henry Aymar. 
Frank Aymar. 
Gloria Aymar. 
Louis Aymar. 
William Aymar. 


L— Aymar of New York 



20 Abraham 180 

23 Abraham 180 

205 Adolphus Walter 201 

304 Albert 211 

223 Albert Edward 203 

2S2 Arthur Wellington 209 

125 Arthur Worthington 191 

145 Augustus James Musson 193 

67 Benjamin 185 

250 Benjamin 206 

320 Benjamin 213 

62 Benjamin Allen 184 

139 Benjamin Lewis 192 

149 Benjamin Nibbs 194 

138 Charles Cravens 192 

176 Charles Edmond 197 

319 Charles Edward 213 

53 Charles Edwin 183 

123 Charles Edwin 191 

197 Charles Henry 199 

204 Charles Randolph 201 

143 Charles Raymond 193 

109 Charles Sloggett 189 

212 Charles Slugard 201 

217 Charles William 202 

227 Charles William 203 

241 Clarence Allen 204 

8 Daniel 179 

13 Daniel 179 

28 Daniel 181 

66 Daniel 185 

80 Daniel 187 

172 Daniel 197 

182 Daniel Philip 198 

173 David 197 

215 David 202 

44 David Peter 182 

206 David Wallace 201 

152 Edmund Brandt 194 

248 Edmund Brandt 206 


309 Edmund Brandt 212 

I 305 Edward 211 

134 Edward Everitt Swift 192 

231 Edwin Fletcher 203 

165 Elias 196 

100 Elias J iSS 

163 Eliot Quereau 196 

278 Elmore 209 

27 Francis 181 

75 Francis 186 

92 Francis * 188 

166 Francis 196 

180 Francis 197 

189 Francis 199 

313 Francis Allan 212 

198 Francis Henry 200 

280 Francis Whitcomb 209 

311 Frank 212 

266 Frederick 208 

317 Frederick 213 

157 Frederick Seymour 195 

254 Frederick Seymour 206 

213 Fowler 201 

288 George 210 

316 George 213 

307 George Seymour 21 r 

129 George Taylor 191 

54 George Washington 183 

251 Gilbert Henry 209 

314 Gilbert Henry 212 

310 Gordon Christian 212 

121 Harrison C 190 

239 Harry Crane 204 

299 Harry Milton 2ri 

108 Henry 189 

116 Henry C 190 

136 Henry Singleton 192 

287 Henry William 210 

252 Herbert Fitz Randolph 206 

137 Ira Allen 192 

17 James 180 

32 James 181 



41 James 182 

99 James 1S8 

22S James Ackerman 203 

57 James Dover 184 

191 James Henry 199 

115 James Keen 190 

95 James Martin 188 

104 James Moody 189 

209 James Moody 201 

120 James M 190 

112 James Repose 190 

1 Jean 17S 

5 Jean 179 

9 Jean Jacques 179 

11 John 179 

26 John 181 

38 John 182 

84 John 187 

179 John 197 

279 John 209 

265 John Beckford 208 

142 John Daniel 193 

47 John Henry 182 

50 John James 183 

117 John J. . . 190 

71 John Quereau 186 

146 John Quereau 193 

155 John Quereau 194 i 

169 John Robert 197 

175 John Robert 197 

103 John Walter 189 

244 John Wentworth 205 

306 John Wentworth 211 

97 John William Hardenbrook. 188 

56 John William Hunt 184 

247 Josd Benjamin Augustus. . . .205 

283 Joseph James 209 

102 J. William 188 

267 Lewis Frederick 208 

234 Louis Russell 203 

255 Louis Samuel 206 j 

275 Ormond Rodney 209 I 

19 Peter 180 

61 Peter 184 

235 Pierre Nelson 204 

230 Ralph Emerson 203 


297 Ralph Rupert 211 

321 Randolph 213 

43 Samuel 182 

72 Samuel 186 

132 Samuel Everitt 192 

59 Samuel Swift 184 

294 Stanley Smith 210 

119 Thomas J 190 

12 William 179 

6S William 185 

73 William 186 

81 William 187 

105 William 189 

161 William 195 

195 William .199 

168 William de Lesdernier 196 

181 William Henry 198 

185 William Henry 198 

214 William Henry 202 

251 William Howard 206 

237 William Hunt 204 

220 William Mesier 202 

295 William Moody 211 

118 William N 190 

51 William Nelson 183 

219 William Nelson 202 

113 William Repose 190 

312 William Robinson 212 

2 53 William Seymour 206 

128 William Tabele 191 

272 Wilton Embury 209 


199 Adaline 200 

210 Amanda 201 

302 Amber Mildred 211 

211 Amberzein 201 

262 Angeretta 207 

25 Ann 180 

4S Ann 183 

177 Ann Eliza 197 

269 Ann Louisa 208 

31 Ann Magdalene 181 

33 Ann Magdalene 181 

69 Ann Magdalene 185 



82 Ann Magdalene 187 

256 Anna Marsylvia 209 

170 Annie 196 

290 Annie Evangeline 210 

124 Annie Laura 191 

160 Annie Seymour 195 

167 Betsey 196 

77 Caroline . . .186 

188 Caroline 198 

298 Carrie Saunders 211 

34 Catharine 181 

94 Catharine 188 

276 Catharine 209 

131 Catherine Oldfield 192 

201 Celiajane 200 

6 Charlotte 179 

24 Charlotte 180 

274 Corinne Camille 209 

216 Drusilla A. Warne 202 

229 Edith May 203 

93 Eleanor 188 

308 Eleanor Kingsland 211 

58 Eliza Ann 184 

147 Eliza Dickson 193 

55 Eliza Margaret 183 

21 Elizabeth 180 

46 Elizabeth 182 

76 Elizabeth 186 

91 Elizabeth 187 

154 Elizabeth 194 

257 Elizabeth 207 

64 Elizabeth Aldrich 184 

200 Elizabeth Lindsey 200 

126 Elizabeth Lourine 191 

238 Ella 204 

243 Ella Pauline 205 

260 El va Rush brook 207 

144 Elvira Lynch 193 

221 Emma Louisa 202 

232 Emma Louise 203 

208 Emma Rhodes 201 

301 En a Belle 211 

225 Estelle Repose 203 

240 Ethel Everitt 204 

277 Florence Elizabeth 209 

190 Florine 199 



16 Frances 180 

18 Frances 180 

30 Frances 181 

90 Frances 187 

236 Frances Eliza 204 

193 Frances Maria 199 

224 Gertrude Virginia 203 

256 Grace 206 

135 Grace Leila 192 

29 Hannah 181 

35 Hannah 181 

65 Hannah 185 

79 Hannah 186 

259 Hannah Amelia 207 

87 Hannah Conway 187 

45 Harriet 182 

141 Harriet 193 

63 Harriet Ann .....184 

I 233 Harriet Isabel 203 

I 158 Harriet Louise 195 

j 202 Harriet Rebecca 200 

j 291 Harriet Sophia 210 

J 268 Helen 208 

226 Isabel Maria 203 

133 Isabelle Wheeler 192 

49 Jaue 183 

70 Jane 185 

107 Jane 189 

14c Jane Elizabeth 193 

192 Jane Helen 199 

10 Jeanne 179 

293 Jennie Mabel 210 

2 Judith 179 

74 Judith 186 

303 Julia Caroline 211 

207 Lavinia Sophia 201 

261 Lelia Frances 207 

78 Louisa 186 

98 Louisa 188 

159 Louisa 195 

187 Louisa 198 

249 Louisa 206 

184 Louisa Caroline 198 

245 Louisa Elizabeth 205 

114 Louisa Medora 190 

273 Louise Alma 209 


NO. NAME. ? i ; . PAGE. 

4 Lucrece. 179 

285 Lucy Frances 209 

271 Lucy Sabine 208 

174 Lucy Wheeler 197 

183 Lydia Ann 198 

3 Madeleine 179 

22 Magdalene 180 

37 Magdalene 181 

42 Magdalene 182 

36 Margaret 181 

40 Margaret 181 

89 Margaret 187 

127 Margaret Catherine 191 

101 Margaret Marsh 188 

148 Maria Louisa 194 

7 Marie 179 

222 Martha Eugenia 202 

14 Mary 179 

15 Mary 179 

39 Mary 182 

264 Mary 208 

96 Mary Ann 188 

218 Mary Ann 202 

284 Mary Augusta 209 

162 Mary Catharine 196 

203 Mary Catharine 200 

88 Mary Conway 187 

153 Mary Dickson 1 94 

150 Mary Donaldson 194 


186 Mary Elizabeth 198 

289 Mary Elizabeth 210 

318 Mary Elizabeth 213 

122 Mary Ella 191 

178 Mary Ellen 197 

52 Maty fimeline .183 

151 Mary Emily Ellis 194 

292 Mary Florence 210 

156 Mary Frances 195 

106 Mary Harriet 189 

in Mary Harriet 189 

60 Mary Jane 184 

130 Mary Jane 192 

194 Mary Louisa 199 

270 Maud Frances 208 

263 Mellie Gertrude 207 

85 Phebe 187 

164 Phebe 196 

no Rebecca Ann 189 

300 Sabra Lillian 211 

83 Sarah 187 

258 Sarah 207 

196 Sarah Ann 199 

171 Sarah Jane 196 

I 86 Sarah Sweet 187 

J 296 Susie Pauline 211 

\ 242 Verna Olive 204 

315 Violet Mae 212 

! 246 Ysabel de la Nieve 205 


Ackerman 203 

Alexander 179 

Allen 191 

Andreu 192 

Anna B 183 

Babb : 183 

Bacon 210 

Barbour 197 

Belon 178 

Bern an 201 

Blackwell 202 

Blauvelt 183 

Blois (La Bau) 205 

Bowly 211 

Boyce 187 

Brewer 200 

Briggs 190 

Broad 201 

Brown 181 

Burroughs (Bailey) 211 

Cahill 182 

Camprubi 205 

Carter 204 

Christian 206 

Christian 212 

Clark 206 



Coffin 207 

Cole 203 

Comeau 210 

Comeau 213 

Compton 186 

Cooke 184 

Craig 201 

Cregier 188 

Davis 202 

Day 187 

De Lesdernier 187 

De Molidor 189 

Desotell 200 

Deveau 210 

Dickson 194 

Dobbs 179 

Dodd 183 

Dodge 200 

Dodman 204 

Downe 205 

Drake 184 

Drake 188 

Drake, 196 

Drake 207 

Drake 207 

Embury 181 

Everitt 191 

Ferdon 188 

Fowler 183 

Fowler 185 

Fowler 185 

Fowler 189 

Fowler 195 

Freiknecht 211 

Frost 208 

Frost 212 

Fuller (Broad) 210 

Gaillard 194 

Gaillard 194 

Gale 207 

Hardenbrook 182 

Harrington 196 

Hilton 201 

Hubbell 195 

Hunt 184 

Hutchison 179 


Jacot 181 

Jamain 179 

Johnson 198 

Keen 190 

Kells 187 

Kissam 186 

Lagear 185 

Leighton 207 

Lord 200 

Lucca 205 

Mabee 196 

Mabee 197 

Mabee 198 

Magny 179 

Magny 179 

! Magny 180 

I Mann 182 

! Marsh 182 

Marsh .188 

Marsh 188 

Marshall 211 

Mary 182 

Mary C. B 183 

McCombs 190 

McCulloch (Trotter) 192 

Mercein (?) 182 

Milliken 197 

Minnie M 

Mitchell. 199 

Moffit 179 

! Morgan 190 

! Mosher 212 

! Nichols 204 

j Noble rSo 

I Noreau 209 

O'Reilly 209 

Perry 202 

Pettit 19 2 

Pyne 189 

Pyne 200 

Quereau 185 

Quereau i36 

Raveau 179 

Raymond 192 

Rayner 200 

Reeve r 99 



Rice 189 

Rice 202 

Rich 208 

Robbins 1S7 

Robinson 197 

Robson 182 

Roff 184 

Roper 204 

Rougeon , 179 

Sabine 208 

Sands 193 

Sands 194 1 

Sawyer 207 

Seeley 204 

Seymour 195 

Seymour 206 

Sloan 208 

Smith 207 

Sonntag (Tabele) 191 

Sparks 208 

Swift 184 

Thomas 199 

Tracy (Thomas) 206 

Tracy 212 

Turnbull 189 

Tuttle 196 

Van Antwerp 184 

Van Beuren 193 

Van Bureu 193 

Van Bur en 195 

Walton 198 

Warne 201 

Warne 202 

Webb 180 

Wellington 198 

Winchester 210 

Winn 180 

Wortman 179 

Wright 204 

II. — Other Aymar Families 



13 Albert Belden 216 

10 Albert Fisher 216 

2 August Frederich 221 

2 Charles Francis 219 

5 Cyril 219 I 

21 Edwin Henry 218 | 

5 Edwin Henry 221 j 

3 Francis Joseph 219 j 

1 Jacob 221 j 

6 James Edward 221 | 

4 John Peter 216 j 

12 John Peter 216 

15 John Peter 217 j 

1 John Peter Louis David 215 I 

2 Louis David 216 | 

11 Louis Winant 216 

17 Oscar Cook 217 

7 Robert 221 

9 Walter Belden .216 

20 Walter Belden 217 

1 William Cyril 219 

16 William Frederick Sylvester.217 


6 William George 220 

8 William Thorn 216 


7 Amelia Theresa 216 

27 Catherine 218 

X Charlotte Jeanne 221 

5 Charlotte Louisa 216 

19 Charlotte Louisa 217 

25 Charlotte Wads worth 218 

9 Deborah Eleanor 220 

7 Eleanor Sophie 220 

23 Emma Estelle 218 

3 Fredericka Katherine 221 

18 Jeanette 217 

24 Josephine 218 

8 Lauretta 220 

6 Lucia Adaline 216 

22 Mae Eugenie 218 

26 May Belle 218 

3 Marcia Malvina 216 

4 Melanie 219 

28 Neva 218 

14 Sarah Jane 216 




Bogert 216 

Boyd 218 

Boyd 218 

Butts 219 

Delamater 219 

. Derr 216 

Devine 217 

Gille 221 

Gille 221 

Goldsmith 221 


King 218 

La Beal 217 

Manley 217 

Reid (?) (Belden) 216 

Seymour 216 

Sophie D£siree 219 

Sylvester 217 

Wambold 217 

Williams 216 

Williams 218 


By Richard Despard Dodge (9) 

The following paper consists of extracts from a volume written by my grandmother 
Isabella Daly Despard (7), and presented to her daughter (8), my mother, in 1867. 

Occasional explanatory notes of my own have been inserted in brackets. For the 
purpose of facilitating identification, the number of the generation has been added in 
parentheses to most of the names, as in the case above. 

Read before the Society, January 26, 190c. 

The sources from which I have combin'd this sketch of the 
Despard family were notes written by Jane Despard (7), second 
daughter of Captain Philip Despard (6) of Laurel Hill, lent me 
by Gertrude Despard (7) of Donore; who has also been most kind 
in collecting some items and dates which have assisted my arrange- 
ments; also a few other notes of Eliza, the elder sister of Jane (7), 
entrusted to me by Richard of Donore. A table of descent given 
me several years ago by my cousin, Wheaton Bradish (7), whose 
maternal grandmother was a Despard (5), has helped me greatly. 
A retentive memory has contributed many circumstances. Inven- 
tion has no part in these pages. 

My acquaintance with the family began when I was about six 
years old, having accompanied my mother on a visit of a few days 
to Mr. and Mrs. Despard (5), of Coolraine, when they resided in 
Birr, or Parsonstown, for only a short period, I believe. 

When I was placed at a boarding school in Dublin, on the day 
I was eight years old, I met at the house of my uncle, Mr. 
Bradish (6), several of the name, particularly Eliza and Jane, men- 
tioned above, and old Aunt Kitty (6), sister of their father. Jane 
was then a lovely girl of 17 or 18 years of age. When her uncle, 
General John Despard (6) "was Governor of Newfoundland, she 
spent a few years with him, when she witness' d the circumstances 
hereafter detail' d in the career of her brother, Colonel William (7). 

Intervals occur'd, yet I still remember'd, and at last happily 
assum'd the name. Thus I heard much which I have written, 
much which unfortunately I cannot so arrange in my mind as to 



write it with satisfaction to myself. Delightful was that portion 
of my life which I pass'd among them, not as a graft, but as a 
natural member. I have not expressed one opinion of them 
which their manners and disposition do not justify. 


Their first British ancestor came to England in 1572. He fled 
from the Massacre of St. Bartholomew in the reign of Charles IX. 
of France, leaving position, rank and estates rather than forfeit 
his Huguenot principles. Traditions say in Ireland that he was 
a man of rank. 

(In the month of Ma}', 1847, Ii Isabella Despard (7), met on 
the Sarah Sands S.S. from New York to Liverpool, a French 
gentleman, Mons. Mendez, who, attracted by my name, sought an 
introduction. He told me there were still Viscounts D'Kspard, in 
the south of France between Toulouse and Narbonne, to wmich 
last-named city he was returning after a long residence in New 
Orleans as a merchant. The apostrophe in writing the name in- 
dicates nobility. It was so written in Ireland during at least 140 
years. When the elision was dropped, I do not exactly know. — 
I. D.) 

Be that as it may, he was a talented man, and having been 
mentioned as such to Queen Elizabeth, she sent him, Philip 
D'Espard (1), to Ireland as a commissioner for the partitioning of 
forfeited lands. He went first to the of Ireland and settled 
afterwards in the Queen's County. 

Whom Philip married is not known, — nation or name of his 
wife unrecorded, also of his son. The third generation was Wil- 
liam (3), Colonel of Engineers in 1685 under William III. (very 
many Huguenots were in his army, from France, the Netherlands, 
and in Ireland). 

(He had extensive iron-works for founding cannon at Cranagh, 
between Larch Hill and Mountrath. He, Colonel William (3), 
was the purchaser of the " Mountain Property " in Upper Ossory, 
from the "Hollow Sword-blade Company " in 1709; the deeds of 
sale were sign'd on Strongbow's monument in Christ Church 
Cathedral, Dublin. I take the mention of this Colonel from a 
pedigree drawn up by my cousin, Wheaton Bradish (7), grandson 
of Jane Despard (5), dau. and heiress of John, of Cartown (4), in 


which generation the apostrophe appears to have been dropped, 

and the name written since then Despard.) 

This Colonel William (3) had four sons, as follows: 

1st Branch. William (4), married Frances Green of Killaghy 


2d Branch. Henry of the Sword (4). 
3d Branch. John, of Cartown (4). 
4th Branch. Richard, of Cranagh (4). 

First Branch. 

William Despard (4) and his wife, Frances Green, had three 
sons, viz.: 

r. William (5), married Jane Walsh. 

2. Francis Green ( 5), of Killaghy Castle, wife unnamed. 

3. Richard, of Larch Hill (5), m. Frances Burton. 

He [William (4)] was a very clever lawyer. Before his death 
he betrothed her [his own wife] to his particularly valued friend, 
Councillor Hughes, appointing him one of the guardians of his 
sons. In one year this good man died of decline. He had sent 
his eldest stepson (5) to Eton College. The widow married again, 
a Baron Keating, and had two daughters. 

William Despard (4) was a determined Protestant. He ex- 
erted his superior talents warmly in the Irish House of Commons 
against the Popish party, in favor of the Hanoverian succession, 
in the latter end of the reign of Queen Anne, as she was supposed 
secretly to favor the Pretender; — and in our ancestor's will he 
directs, if any of his children should marry, or in any way connect 
themselves with persons professing the Popish religion, such child 
was to have but twenty pounds a year for maintenance during 

(William was himself so popular and influential in the county 
that he was in 17 15 returned to Parliament as Representative of 
the Borough of Thomastown, and also for the Count}- Kilkenny. 
He chose, as may be supposed, to sit for the county. In the 
Parliament of 17 19, however, he represented Thomastown, but 
appears to have soon after retired, or died.) 

Sons of William (4) and Frances, m. 1700 : 

1st, William (5), who built Coolraine, married Jane Walsh, 
whose brother, a clergy-man, had m. the only sister of William 


(5), which so offended him that he would not see her for some 
time. At length appeased, he went to visit her. He saw and 
loved her sister-in-law Jane; m. her on coming of age, without 
any marriage settlement, which might have secured, by prevent- 
ing his most unwise disposition of them, his then very extensive 
properties in Queens Co., Tipperary, Kildare, and Cork, &c. &c. 
to his heirs. I, Jane Despard (7) have heard an old gentleman, 
Mr. Hely, of Co. Kilkenny, say that if my grandfather [William 

(5) ] had only kept what his grandfather [the Col. of 1685] left, 
not to say improved it, he could at that period (1727), or rather 
his son, have had ,£25.000, twenty five thousand a year. Miss 
Walsh had ^500, which he presented to her sister. He leased 
away his property, not for gaming, drinking, or company-keeping, 
but to make votes for the Parnells. Charleville, worth to the 
Whites, in 1808, ^1500 a year, was given to a wiiipper-in, at one 
shilling an acre, or swapped for a pony. 

William (5) and Jane had six sons, viz. : 

1st, William (6); 2d, Philip (6); 3d, Green (6); 4th, John 

(6) ; 5th, Andrew (6); 6th, Edward Marcus (6), and two 
daughters, Catharine and Jane (6). 

William (6) m. Elizabeth Armstrong, of Gillam, Kings C°. 
She had ^3000. (A good portion in those days. — I. D.) [He 
built Alta- Villa and Shanderry.] In youth he was one of the 
pleasantest of men. (True, I remember him well. — I. D.) It 
has often been said that had he gone to the Bar, his wit and 
pleasant speech would have secured him another fortune. He 
was the first boy who clear' d the great Dyke called the Ha-ha, in 
Trinity College Park, in a standing leap. It is recorded there. 
He was also an admirable horseman. 

(He had three sons, Philip (7), Francis Green (7), and 
William (7), all in the army, and all died without issue. He 
had also two daughters, Elizabeth (7), m. in 1796 the Rev. 
Richard Despard (6) of Donore; and Mary (7), m. Moses Pirn, 
in 1805.) 

Philip (6) m. Letitia Croasdaile, of Rhin. 
They had three sons and two daughters. 

1st. William (7), Lieutenant-Colonel 7th Fusileers, m. Miss 
DeBlois; had two sons, Philip Henry (8) and George Packen- 
ham (8). 


2d. Phiup Pilkington (7), m. [1] Miss Gardner and [2] Miss 

3d. Henry (7), Major-General, m. Miss Rushworth. 
4th. Eliza (7), d. aged ninety-six. 

5th. Jane (7), d. about eighty [the author of the notes used by 
my grandmother in her history]. 

He [Philip (6)] gave 700 guineas for his commission in the 
Fusileer Guards, a Royal Regiment, all first Lieutenants, — no 2 n ^. 
He unfortunately left it on half-pay, retired to the Queens Co. — 
where he built Laurel Hill, a step he repented all his life, that is, 
leaving the regiment. Philip (6) never went anywhere that he 
was not beloved and respected, as shown on every occasion in the 
North of Ireland, especially on his death. 

In 1 815, being in London, he was accosted by a French officer, 
who claimed the name as belonging to his country, recognized the 
arms as those of the family, with some members of which he w T as 
acquainted; particularized one who some } r ears before commanded 
a French Protestant battalion in the Swedish service. 

(Sweden was then opposed to Napoleon, though Bernadotte, 
one of his own great officers, had become King of Sweden. — I. D.) 

Capt. Philip's daughters resided a few years at Tours. Mons. 
de Chabannes, an author, told Jane Despard (7) there w T ere fami- 
lies of Despards long settled on the banks of the Loire, still 
Protestants; also that a Count D'Espare had been beheaded for 
his part in defending Guienne, then belonging to the English, 
against one of the Charleses of France. 

(It was Charles 5th. — I. D.) 

Green (6), in the Navy. He was the bosom friend of Lord 
Longford's brother, Vice- Admiral Packenham, uncle of the 
Duchess of Wellington. 

He would have been married to Jane Despard (6) of Donore, but 
hearing that a brother officer was dangerously ill in the King's 
Co. he went to him. The officer died. Green returned home, 
having taken the fever, died in three days, leaving his property, 
Gosbrooke, opposite Larch Hill, to Jane. 

John (6), in the Army. (A general ; m. Miss Hesketh). 
He went out with the first Marquis Cornwallis at 13 years of 
age ; who was so fond of him that he was reported to be his son ; 


but Lord Allen, his relative, being also quarter' d at Gibraltar, 
soon disprov'd that report. He had the talent of creating the 
same feelings of attachment in all who knew him during his pro- 
longed life. He would have been a richer man. but that his wife, 
the sister of Sir Robert Hesketh, Bar!, one of the pleasantest of 
women, always had the house full of company. He was some 
years Governor of Newfoundland, and liv'd latterly at Oswestry, 

When the General (6), was Lieut. -Col. in the Fusileers, the 
Duke of Kent (father of Queen Victoria), was Colonel; and as 
the former happen'd to be of a most sweet disposition and humane 
temper, and the Duke very fond of the lash, they often differ' d 
in opinion. Lieut. -Col. Despard having been absent on leave for 
a year, the first and second days of his appearance on parade 
after his return, the men huzza' d, laid down their arms, hoisted 
him on their shoulders, and went round and round the parade, 
manifesting their joy thus twice in the day. After the second 
day, the Duke sent to him to say that, as a field officer, He need 
not attend at common parades. He was soon after placed on the 
staff, and when he call'd to take leave of the Duke, the latter took 
him by the hand, wished him even- happiness, and added: " If at 
any time I have done what displeased you, believe me I am heartily 
sorry for it." 

(This was a royal trait of a royal prince. The Duke of Kent 
was a martinet in the army, but with many noble feelings. — I. D.) 

Tradition says that he (6), was the best horseman in the 
Queens Co., galloping standing on the saddle, not sitting. 

Andrew (6) also in the Army, served in the 59* Reg' in which 
he was a pattern officer, as affirm' d of him by Lord Rossmore 
(who was also in that Regiment) many years afterwards. While 
recruiting in Liverpool, the townspeople raised a Reg £ in the 
American war. A deputation waited on him with the offer of a 
company in it, on account of his regular conduct, — no small 
proof of approbation from English commercial persons to an Irish- 
man in those times. 

He fought at Bunker's Hill, in the commencement of the 
Revolutionary War, and at other places in America. In 1798 he 
acted as amateur aide-de-camp to General Johnson, at the battle 
of Ross, by his enterprising vigilance pointing out where successes 


could be, and were, obtain' d. He died at the advanced age of 94 
or 95, a Colonel, uumarried. 

Edward Marcus (6). Also in the Army, d. un-m., a Colonel. 

[Note, by R. D. Dodge. This officer was a companion in cap- 
tivity of the celebrated Major Andre, in the early part of the 
Revolutionary War, when they appear to have been placed as, 
prisoners in the charge of a certain Mr. Cope, in Pennsylvania. 
The following extract from Sargent's Life of Andre, page 91, is 
of interest as referring to Col. Despard] : 

" This was an Irish officer, who, in 1781, very bravely supported 
Nelson in Nicaragua, and was executed for treason in 1803. He 
was one of the very few English officers that brought back from 
America democratical ideas. A democratical soldier was indeed 
an anomaly in the service of that day. ' Three distinguished 
heroes of this class,' wrote Scott to his son, 'have arisen in my 
time: Lord Edward Fitzgerald, Colonel Despard and Capt. Thistle- 
wood: and with the contempt and abhorrence of all men, they died 
the death of infamy and guilt.' Even in America Mr. Cope had 
warned Despard that his recklessness & disregard would certainly 
bring him to some bad end." 

[Those of us, however, who believe in the Fourth of July, will 
consider his fate glorious rather than grievous.] 

Reverting to Philip (6), who m. Letitia Croasdaile; they had 
3 sons and 2 daughters. 

William (7) the eldest, in the Fusileers, was aide and Secre- 
tary to his uncle, General John Despard (6), when governor of 
Newfoundland, where they remained six years, during which 
period William (7) acted as clergyman, there not being any in the 
place, putting on a black coat after parade, and in an appointed 
room in his uncle's house, read the whole service with a sermon to 
all church members, as well as to the military of the place. 

When of age, as chief magistrate, he married, baptized, read 
to the sick, and buried the dead. All these offices served to 
fortify those principles of religion which he had very early learned 
at home. When the General (6) resigned, William (7) rejoined 
his regiment as Captain of Grenadiers, and was the first man in 
Fort Bourbon, Martinique, when it was taken by assault. He 
was after that appointed aide to General Moore at Newfoundland, 


and had become such adept in the management of affairs in a 
colony, that Admiral Holloway, Naval Commander on the station, 
said that Moore could not have kept the situation without him. 
When the Fusileers were order' d to the Peninsula, he gave up the 
fine situation he held, which he need not have done, as the then 
Col. Packenham and he were as brothers, the same high-minded 
feelings actuating both. On his way home from Newfoundland 
to join his regiment, he was in London. Being presented to the 
Prince Regent, his Royal Highness paid him that elegant compli- 
ment: "Sir! in a regiment of heroes, I have heard your name 

He brought his character with him to Portugal. It is a pity 
he was not bred an Engineer, for a remark he made induced 
Wellington, while planning the fortifications of Torres Vedras, to 
request him to remain there with additional pay; that he declined, 
but consented to remain until his regiment was ordered up into 
action. In consequence of his superior officer, Sir William Myers, 
being killed at Albuera, the command devolved on him, and he 
was immediately appointed to the Majority. A soldier seeing 
him pass one day, said: — " There goes the best man in the army." 
Another said : — 1 ' My master never thought of himself ; he was out 
all night looking for the wounded, fearing that one might be left 
behind or neglected." The last action he was in was nearly at the 
close of the Peninsular War, when he was promoted to the L-- 
Colonelcy, but the very day, or a few days after his commission 
was signed in London, he died of his wcunds. 

(His promotion was at Victoria, his death-wounds at the battle 
of the Pyrenees. His loss was deeply deplored. — I.D.) 

He m. Miss De Blois, of Nova Scotia and had two sons, — 
Philip Henry (8) and George Packenham (8). 

Henry (7), third son of Philip & Letitia, m. Miss Rushworth 
of Isle of Wight. He was a Major General, and Colonel of the 
99* Reg^ He commanded all the troops in New Zealand, where 
he sustained a high character. See Sir John Ross's last voyage. 

The third son of William Despard (4) and his wife Frances 
Green, was the Rev? Richard Despard (5) of Larch Hill, 
Rector of Clonenagh, the old Irish name of the parish in which is 
the town of Mountrath. He m. Miss Frances Burton, of the 
family of the baronets of Burton Hall, County Carlow; a religious, 


good woman, who survived him till her grandson Richard (7) was 
a few years old. 

They had 5 sons and 1 dau. viz.: 

I* 1 William (6), in the 18* Dragoons, d. unmarried. 

2 nd Thomas (6), a physician, d. unmarried. 

3 rd Rev. Francis Green (6). These three all passed through 
Trinity College, Dublin. 

4 th 'Samuel (6). 

5 th Richard (6). 

6* Mary (6). 

The Rev. F. G. Despard (6) m. Feb. 24, 1781, Jane (6) 
daughter of John Humphreys and his wife Jane Despard (5). 
[His oldest son, my grandfather, Richard Despard (7), was born 
Dec. 22, 1781, at Larch Hill, of Despard descent on both sides.] 

The Rev. F. G. Despard (6) was college chum of the Right 
Hon. William Wellesley Pole, an elder brother of Wellington. 
The friendship continued, the Despard interest in the Queens C° 
being also important. Bally fin, M? Pole's residence, was seven 
miles from Larch Hill. . . . There young Richard (7), of Larch 
Hill was a frequent and favorite visitor. Thus the friendship was 
continued thro' three generations. Richard (7) had been intended 
for the church, but the disturbed state of Ireland in 1797, induced 
him to decide for the army. In that year Mr. Pole raised among 
his own tenantry a corps of Yeoman Cavalry, himself the captain, 
and the too youthful Richard (7) a lieutenant. Too young, in- 
deed, not yet sixteen, but preparatory to a commission in the army. 

During the Rebellion of '98, he was in the battles of Castle- 
comer, Carlow and Ross, in which Col. Andrew Despard (6) joined. 
Lord Mountjoy, Colonel of the Co. Dublin Militia, was kill' d in that 
battle. When not actually on service, Richard (7) was at Larch 
Hill. In that neighborhood most families kept guard at night, 
strengthened by trustworthy servants, or by yeomen. No guard 
was necessary at Larch Hill, as no man would molest that 
house. Richard (7) often went to Laurel Hill [his aunt's 
home], on that duty, always in full uniform; and returning 
home at early dawn of the summer mornings, met the rebel 
patrols. Being challenged he gave his name in full, " Richard 
Despard of Larch Hill," and immediately, invariably, received 
the order to "Pass on, and God bless ye." No one in that 


part of the country would injure any belonging to "Parson 
Frank" (6). 

After the rebellion Richard was appointed Nov. 28*, 1800, a cor- 
net in the 23 rd Light Dragoons, gazetted 4^ March, 1801; which 
regiment was reduced on the Peace of Amies, March 27, 1802. 
He was greatly liked by his brother officers, particularly Lord 
Portarlington and Lt. Col. Spencer, who entrusted him w T ith the 
command of his own troop. I have read some of the Colonel's 
letters to him, of both direction and approbation. 

Six months after the reduction of the 23 rd he join'd the 7* 
Dragoon Guards at Newcastle on Tyne. Both his commissions 
were obtained thro' the interest of the Right Hon. W™ Wellesley 
Pole. At Newcastle the only daughter of the general command- 
ing the garrison, whose fortune was ,£30,000, was fascinated by 
the handsome young Irishman. The fondness of her father 
induced him to sanction, and even to intimate her attachment. 
But the heart of Richard was one which " gold could never buy." 
The tale was told me after my marriage, by acquaintances in the 
regiment. I asked him if it was trne? He only laughed and 
colour'd, but could not deny the fact. . . . 

Here I will relate a veritable romance of private life. — 

On a cold, frosty day of February, 1800, Isabella was sent on a 
message by her mother, guarded against ?nud, the streets being 
frozen dry, by pattens, almost certain to cause a fall. (Pattens 
are oval iron rings set under wooden soles, strapped under and 
around the feet, only suitable for wet weather. They were 
superseded by sabots with thick cork soles.) As she walked 
along Ormond quay, a rush of gentlemen entering and leaving 
Finlay's Bank, so jostled her that she felt herself falling, when an 
arm was thrown around her, providentially saving her. She saw 
not her deliverer, but thenceforth the pattens were rarely used. 

On a certain evening of 1806, in the "sweet summer time," 
Mrs. Daly (6) and Isabella (7) were to take tea with their dear 
friends the Mazieres, in Gardiner's Row. To prolong their walk 
from their house in Synnott Place, they went round by Granby 
Row, up which a goat and her kid were leisurely coming. Isa- 
bella, pleased by the pretty young thing, laid her hand on its 
head. The goat rushed at her with butting horns, laying her 
prostrate on the flags. Providence sent her aid. A stranger raised 
her, and drove away the angry animal. Terrified, confused, she 


hastened onward, not looking at her champion. The injury to her 
arm she did not recover from for several weeks. 

In Juh', 1807 — Isabella prepared to visit her aunt, Mrs. White 
(6), at Springville, near Cork. . . . Eleven happy months 
flew past. The f h Dragoon Guards came to Cork on the 22 n . d June, 
1808 — Richard Despard (7), one of the officers, renewed a former 
intimacy with the family at Springville. He at once became at- 
tached to Isabella, upon which she was summoned home in July. 
He followed her in three weeks. They were engag'd — only 
one walk they had together. Very happy they both were. He 
reminded her of the two accidents which occur' d so long ago — 
at both times he had rescued her, — how else could he have known 
of them? On seeing her at Springville her face had appear' d 
as that of a vision in his dreams, perplexing and puzzling, he 
knew not why. But that morning, as he walk'd up Granby Row, 
the whole scene, goats and all, had flashed on his memory; — then 
the half-fall opposite the Bank: — and thus were the shadowy fea- 
tures identified with those which now were, and henceforth to be, 
the dearest to him on earth. . . . 

After those encounters, she hoped, trusted, pray'd silently that 
they should be destined for each other. So it proved. — Faithful 
and true he was, to the last hour of his subsequent life of 38 

Here I resume my memoir of Larch Hill. The following obitu- 
ary appeared in a Dublin paper w T hich I have still: 

"Died on the 18* November last (1818) at his seat, Queens 
County, much regretted, Francis Green Despard (6) Rector of 
Rathsarran, being the inheritor of those pious and virtuous quali- 
ties, which many years since distinguish' d his father, the Rev? 
Richard Despard of Larch Hill (5), he gained the respect and 
esteem of an extensive population. The feelings of his heart, the 
widow & the orphan can best testify, to whom the loss will be by 
them consider' d irreparable." 

Well might the widow 7 and the orphan mourn for the loss of 
their benefactor! When a tenant died on the glebe lands, Mr. 
Despard (6) never turned off the widow T and children, nor required 
any rent of them until the eldest son was able to earn it. Neither 
did he at any time charge a rent above what the tenant was justly 


able to pay. In the dreadful famine of 1817, he contributed equally 
to the parishes of Offerlane and Rathsarran. 

Thus it was: — On the 24 th of June, 1817, occur' d the most ter- 
rific storm I ever saw in Ireland. It began about noon, lasting 
twelve hours. Incessant lightning, frightful thunder, torrents of 
rain, and for one hour after its commencement, hail as large as 
walnuts thickly cover' d the ground. Sixty-five panes of glass 
were broken by it in Cartown House. The weather having been 
previously intensely hot and dry, the thatched houses (ours w T as 
so) were quickly penetrated by streams of water, requiring tubs, 
&c. &c. to catch them. The mountain rivulets — (our horses go- 
ing to bog for turf, cross' d those only fetlock deep; returning they 
were up to the girths) — swell' d in three hours to angry floods, 
carrying away two stone bridges near to the " Lover's Leap," at 
the foot of which, 150 feet below, flows the small, pretty, rapid 
river, the Delour, to which those rivulets are tributaries, all thus 
carried to the Nore. The original courses were fill'd up with 
earth, gravel and stones, and new ones forced by the raging 
waters. The weather was effectually broken. Rain day and 
night. Turf imbibing it like sponges, remained wet the rest of the 
year. Corn of every kind, reap'd unripe, grew in the stook. 
Potatoes mostly rotted in the ground — starvation, sickness, over- 
whelm' d the poor, and heavily tax'd the rich for their relief, and 
nobly they responded to the cry. Bvery gentleman in our neigh- 
borhood contributed. I have repeatedly reckoned more than 
seventy poor creatures at a time at the lawn on Larch Hill, be- 
ing supplied w T ith a good meal from the house, two servants bear- 
ing a tub of soup, thicken' d with oatmeal, vegetables and potatoes, 
wherewith to feed each hungry being, renewing the supply, till all 
were satisfied. 

No wonder that Mr. Despard (6) was lamented; that he was fol- 
low' d to his last resting place by a gathering more numerous than 
any individual there had ever before witnessed ! 

The fourth son of the Rev. Richard Despard of Larch Hill (5) 
was Samuel (6) who m. Letitia, dau. of Mr. McMahon, merchant 
of Dublin. He had four sons and three daughters, viz.: 

1. Richard (7) in the Army, Peninsular, d. unmarried. 


2. Samuel (7) in the Church. Rector of Newtown parish, West- 
meath; died, May 15. 1847, without issue; much beloved and 
greatly lamented. I copied the following from the Mail ; 

" The decease of this estimable man adds another to the melan- 
choly catalogue of clergymen of the Established Church, who have 
fallen victims to the discharge of their Christian duties to the 
poor, in this season of national calamity" (the famine) "and- 
whose deaths give evidence of charity, not limited to their special 
congregations, but to sufferers of -every class and creed." 

3 r ? sou. William Francis (7) in the if? Reg^ m. Louisa, dau. 
of Rev. Matthew West; died young, leaving: 

Samuel Dopping (8), settled in Australia. 

Louisa (8) m. Mack, do. do. do. 

William Francis (8), of Belfast, Ireland. 

4th son. Philip (7) married Anna Poe. 

The three daughters were Letitia, Frances, and Charlotte Maria. 
The fifth son of Rev. Richard of Larch Hill (5) was: 
Richard (6) m. Diana, sister of the above Letitia McMahon. 
He settled in Clarksburgh, West Virginia. His children were 
Jane, Frances Diana, Richard, Mary, Burton, and Charlotte. 

Second Bra?ich. Extinct. 

The second son of Col. William Despard (3) of the Engineers in 
1685, was Henry (4) of the Sword, called traditionally " the left- 
handed," or in Irish, " Kithogue," who, together with another 
Henry Despard of whom there is no further mention was cited 
before the Irish Parliament for a breach of the peace against St. 
Leger Gilbert. The "Swordsman" fought Conway of Cappa- 
narra, in which encounter, or consequent thereon, it is reasonable 
to suppose he lost his life, as he is no more mentioned. [He seems 
to have lived up to the Despard motto : " Pugno " (I fight).] 

Third Branch. 

The third son of Colonel William (3) of 1685, was John (4), of 
Cardstown or Cartown, he married Elizabeth Willington, had a 
son, John (5) Capt. of Dragoons who d. unmarried in 1748, and a 
dau. Jane (5) who inherited her father's property of ^1200. per 
annum. She m. (1744) John Humphreys (of very obscure parent- 
age), and had four sons and four daughters, viz.: 


1. Isaac Humphreys. 

2. William Humphreys. 

3. John Humphreys. 

4. Despard Humphreys. 

5. Elizabeth Humphreys m. Samuel Hutchinson. 

6. Mary Humphreys m. James Bradish, of Laurel Hill. 

7. Jane Humphreys m. Rev. Francis Green Despard (6), of ' 
Larch Hill. 

8. Sarah Humphreys m. Cochran Palmer. 

Fourth Brcuich. 

The fourth son of Colonel William (3) of 1685, was Richard 
(4), of Cranagh, m. Miss Warburton of Garryhinch, had 2 sons 
and 1 daughter. 

Lambert, the first son, d. without issue. 

George (5), the second son, was the first Despard who resided 
at Donore. He m. Gertrude Carden, of Lismore, and had 2 
sons and 5 daughters. The elder son, George (6), m. another 
Gertrude Carden and died without issue. The second son, Rev. 
Richard (6), m. in 1795 or 6, Elizabeth Despard (7) elder dau. 
of William (6) who built Shanderry. He had 2 sons & 1 
daughter. He died June, 1800, none more lamented, none more 
deserving. To this time (1867) the name of "Dick Despard of 
Donore ' ' calls up sweet and sad recollections in the few aged 
persons who remember him (of whom I am one) and in those who 
know his virtues traditionally. His widow, young and lovely 
when she lost him, d. 2 n . d February, 1838. Their eldest son, 
William Wellesley (7) b. Feb. 1798, m. Letitia Sandes, had 
7 sons & 4 dau. 

The second son of Rev. Richard (6) was : 

George (7), who entered the army in 1815. (Richard (7), of 
Larch Hill, gave him his sword), he m. Gertrude Carden, and left 
the army, and was a most highly esteem' d magistrate of the 
C? Meath. 

Observe : Three Georges of Donore, married successively three 
Gertrude Cardens. 

I may here sum up the character of the Despards, as written by 
Jane Despard (7) and corroborated by all who knew them. 


"As country gentlemen they were hospitable, unostentatious, 
social, adepts in all field sports and kind to the poor. As subjects, 
faithfully loyal, as landlords generous, unexacting, kindly, only too 
free in giving leases on the lowest terms, many forever, on which 
tenants have grown rich, the grantors suffering thereby from one 
generation to another. As soldiers, most brave and enterprising. 
As ministers of the Protestant Church, exemplary in life, humble, 
openhanded, visiting, consoling the sick, rich or poor ; reproving 
where needful, irrespective of rank, as became their sacred calling. 
In family circles, gentle, sweet- temper d, most amiable, and 
equally so to their servants." 

Landlords; clergymen; soldiers : — these w T ere the three denomina- 
tions of the Despard family. The first merchant of the name was 
William (7), 3'? son of the Rev. Francis Green Despard (6) of 
Larch Hill ; in Dublin in 1806, a truly honest man. 

And thus conclude these various pedigrees, interspersed w T ith 
circumstances for the truth of which I can vouch. The frequent 
mention of individual talent or beauty is no fancied attribution or 
picture. . . . 

Isabella Despard, 
Aged 82 years, 4 months and 13 days. 

Dublin, December 19, 1867. 



By Edward Stanley Waters, A.M. 1 

Of the early settlers of this name there were two distinct fami- 
lies, one Dutch, the other French, unless the former had previously- 
emigrated to Holland from France. 

Adriaen Vincent was here as early as 1645, (from Tournay ?) his 
dau. Hester being baptized July 16 of that year, according to the 
record of the Dutch Church of New York City. Other baptisms 
of the same church are as follows: 

Johannes, of Adriaen, Jan. 15, 1651. 

Susanna, of Annetje, May 25, 1665. 

Cornells, of Johannes, May 14, 1674. 

Marritye, of Jan, Jan. 22, 1679. 

Adrianus, of Jan, July 7, 1680. 

Magdalen, of Jan, July 20, 1684. 

In 1665 we find Adrian Vincent living in Broad St., in which 
street later lived Francis of the Huguenot stock. The proximity 
of these two families and the identity of their later Christian names 
have made the tracing out of the different lines a difficult task. 

In 1680 we find "Jan Vincent," also called "John Vincent," 
one of the " combining " coopers. 

In 1686 Jans Vincent and wife Annetje Jans are members of the 
Dutch Church. 

We read, too, among the 1 ' presentations " by the Schout of New 
Amsterdam, that of "Jan Vincent" and others, boys, for running 
about the streets fuddled last Thanksgiving-day. The Schout 
demanded that they be imprisoned two days on bread and small 

1 The materials for these notes were collected in 1882 in New York from the usual 
sources, public and private records, printed and manuscript. They have since been put 
into shape by the compiler at such a distance from these sources as to admit of no farther 
verification or correction of any errors which may exist. Read before the Society 
January 7, 1901. 



beer, but the decision was, that their parents do punish them and 
charge them not to repeat it. Madaleen Vincent & Foppe Rober- 
zen's wife were presented for throwing filth into the Graft, but the 
charge was not proved. Made, too was charged with abuse 
toward the Herr Schepen Wilhelmus Beeckman and his wife and 
others, saying to Beeckman' s wife, "Your man goes with the 
Heer Fiscal and spends and gambles my man's money, etc." 
11 Fine of sixty guilders and charged not to misbehave any more 
toward the Herren Magistrates." 
In the same church record is a baptism, Feb. 10, 1706, 

which, from the names of the sponsors, would imply that the 
father was of the Huguenot family, though I am unable to con- 
nect him with it. 

In the marriage records we find: 

"Sept. 15, 1656, Symon Fell of Diepe to Annaken Vincent, 
Amsterdam; May 23, 1673, Jan Vincent to Annetje Jans; Feb. 15, 
1680, Johannes Cassou, widr. to Annetje Vincent, widow." And 
in the Probate records: 

11 Letters of administration on the estate of Jacques Cassau, Mer- 
chant, deceased, were granted to John Vincent (Cooper), in behalf 
of the children of said Jacques Cassau and Susanna Fell his late 
wife deed., Nov. 13, 1682." Riker' s Hist, of Harlem mentions an 
"Inventory of Jac. Cousseau, Dec. 7, 1682, who md. in 1680 the 
widow of Simon Fell," [ancestor probably of Judge John Fell of 
New Jersey,] 1 ' a Huguenot from Dieppe. An Anna Vincent also, 
sister of John, C's admr. Martha C. md. Dan Potreau." 

John Vincent is found also holding various town offices from 
1679 to 1700. 

From what part of France the Huguenot family of this name 
originally emigrated to England previous to their departure for 
this country, the records give no information, but it was probably 
from the province of Saintouge, on the southwest seacoast, that 
stronghold of their faith. Neither is the exact date of their com- 
ing known, but probably they were a part of 14 the new come nat- 
uralized French" mentioned by Gov. Dongan, Feb. 22, 1687. 

Lea de Vow 



f Levi Finsang 
j Johannis Dykmau 
j Anna Vinsang, h. v. James 
Manny ' ' 


In 1682 Francis Vincent, his wife Anne, and children Anne 
and Francis, received letters of denization in London, and soon 
after, John, wife, Susanne, and son Levi did the same. 

Nov. 4, 16SS, their sister Madeleine appears in the first entry 
of the Record of the French Church in New York, the present 
feglise du Saint Esprit. 

Of the names of the parents of this family, no record appears, 
but the following is probably the right order of the births of the 

I. 1. John 1 Vincent (5) who md. Susanne Nuquerque, and 
d. 1705. Sept. 1, 16S9, Jean Vincent & Susanne, "sa femme," ap- 
pear as sponsors at the baptism of Susanne, " fille de Francois 
Basset absent et de Marie Madeleine Nuquerque sa femme." Apl. 
22, 1 701, John Vincent, Merchant, and his wife Susannah convey 
to Madeleine Pelletreau, wid. of John, deed., Merchant, for ^350, 
all that house, land, etc. situate on the Broadw T ay West, between 
the house of the widow of John Minerson on the N. & of Mr. Wm. 
Parker on the S., the East end fronting on the New St., etc. 
May 3, 1704, John " Vanzante " buys land of Geo. Harod. Apl. 
21, 1705, John Vincent, Leather dresser, buys of Daniel Honan, 
land, etc., by Maiden Lane Slip. Peter Newkirke deed, late an 

Jan. 26, 1698/9, John Vincent, Merchant, then " in good health," 
makes his will giving his property to his w. Susanna, his sole Ex- 
ecutrix. If she marry again, to have one half, and his children 
the other ; the eldest to have £10 over &. above his brothers & 
sisters as his birthright." Will proved Sept. 4, 1705. 

Dec. 4 that year, his widow having declined admn., it was 
granted to his brother Francis, and 

Dec. 12, his wid. Susa. & Levi, eldest son and heir of said John 
sell to Peter De Mill for ^125 the lot on the S. W. side of the slip 
at the end of Maiden Lane in Queen St., bought of Dan Honan, 
who bought it of Wm. Merritt of Orange Co., Gentn. 

II. 2. Francis 1 (ii) who md. Anne Guerry & d. 1733. We 
find him Constable of the South Ward Sept. 29, 1697, Freeman of 
the City, Aug. 9, 1698, Assessor 1701 & 3. He is called "Sayle- 
maker," and in a volume of Custom House accts., Lib. 30 of the 
Deeds, entries are found: 

To Fr. Vinsent for sailes, etc. for the ship Fortune, Nov. 27, 
^oo, £11. 15s. 


To Fr. Viusent for the Custom House barge, Oct. 15, 1700, £$. 

This occupation, as well as other naval ones, followed by vari- 
ous of his kinsmen, indicate a previous residence by the sea. The 
Huguenot makers of canvas and of sails were skilled in their 
trade and brought in improved knowledge of it from their mother 
country to their different destinations, much to the loss of the 
former, as was thought at the time. 

He was one of those who voted for Brandt Schuyler, Alderman, 
for the South Ward Sept. 28, 1701, and a signer of the "Petition 
of the French Protestant Refugees " 1707. The Inventory of Jean 
Machet deed. Feb. 20, 1699/700 mentions '* }£ of a sloop at sea 
sold to Francis Vincent £80. ' ' His name often occurs in the early 
records of the French Church & in the civic records of the time. 
His home was on the west side of Broad St. apparently the 
corner of the present Bridge St. 

Apl. 24, nth 3'ear of Wm. Ill, Evert Banker of ye Citty of 
Albany Mt. & w. Elizabeth convey to Francis Vincent of ye 
Citty of New York, Salemaker, for ^525 money of ye Province, 
that dwelling house & lott bd. by the broad street, S. by the 
dock do., W. by the house of Mary Franse, & N. by bridge 
street, in breadth towards the street on the N. side 2 rods, 7 feet, 
8 inches & on the S. 2 r. 5 f., in length on the W. side 3 r. & on 
the E. 2 r., 3 f. 3 in., which was transported by Thomas Rob- 
erts & Henry Jacobs & their wives to our deed. Mother Elizh. 
Banker May 8, 1693, the W. end of the house being joynt or party 
wall between sd. F. V. & M. F. etc. 

Witnesses Cornelius de Puyster, Mich. Handon & Wm. Huddle- 
ston appeared Aug. n, 1699, 

Recorded for Mr. Francis Vincent, Nov. ye 2d, 1699. 

Sept. nth, in the 6th year of our sovereign Lord King Geo. the II, 
he makes his will, ''being ancient, very sick and weak in bod)-, 
but of sound mind," etc. 

He gives to well-beloved eldest son Samuel six shillings in full. 

"To well-beloved dau. Ann Gilbert all linnen, etc., and my 
picture 1 which was drawn to represent my person." 

To grandson Francis Manny, son of James Manny deed, "my 
gun, my sword & my watch." 

To said grdson. F. M. & grandson Stephen Maynard all wear- 
ing apparel linen & woollen equally. 

1 Is this portrait known to be in existence ? 


The rest in trust to bis executors to be distributed as follows: to 
son Samuel & his heirs 1/6 

To dau. Aun Gilbert & her heirs 2/6 

To dau. Elizh. Maynard & her heirs 1/6 

To Esther Salter & her heirs 1 /6 

To grdau. Anne Madelaine Manny & her heirs 1 /6 

Francis Vincent's dau. Anne having married James Manny, 
and his dau. Marguerite, Jeremie, the brother of James, and each 
dau. having had a son Francis, a doubt might arise as to which 
Francis was the progenitor of the present descendants. 

But the above devise of one sixth of his estate to his grand- 
daughter Anne Madeleine (daughter of Jeremie) seems to clearly 
show that she was the sole survivor of her parents' family, while 
the gifts to his grandson "Francis, son of James Manny deed." 
identify in 1733, I think, the adult, who next year married 
Annetje Kip. 

[At the request of Mr. Waters, I have prepared this additional 
note, with the hope that it "may draw forth some positive in- 
formation on the point." 

His conclusion appears to be a natural one, and I should gladly 
accept it if it were not for the strong internal evidence of the fol- 
lowing data: 

Jeremie Magny and Marguerite Vincent had issue: Jeremie, 
Anne, Madeleine, and Francois. 

A Francois Magny married, June 15, 1734, Annetje Kip, by 
whom he had, with other issue, Jeremie, Anne Madeleine, Mar- 
guerite, and Jeremie. It seems improbable that Francois, son of 
Jacques Magny and Anne Vincent gave these children by a first 
marriage the names of his uncle (Jeremie), his aunt (Marguerite), 
and his cousin (Anne Madeleine), and I contend, therefore, that 
their father was Francois, the son of Jeremie Magny and Mar- 
guerite Vincent. 

A reason for non-participation in the estate of his grandfather, 
Francois Vincent, may perhaps be found in the date of baptism of 
his eldest son, Jeremie, something less than five months after the 
marriage of the parents. 

Ben t j. Aymar.] 


Dau. Ann Gilbert and loving friends Doctor John Dupuis & 
Joseph Leddle, pewterer to be Executors. 
Abraham Journeau 

C. D. Peyster Witnesses. Will proved Apl. 10, 1733. 

S. Johnson. 

Underneath the original of said foregoing will was a memoran- 
dum of satisfaction with it, except that the testator wished all his 
wearing apparel to be given to his grandson S. M., "which he 
discovered by signs the 29th day of February, 1732/3." 

Marie Leddel. Anne Dupuy Gallaudet. Ws. 

An inventory, taken July 1, 1734, mentions 

Two negro men, ,£143.0.0 

Sundry lots of goods by Mr. Thos. Hammond Apl. 24, 1733. 
Do. appraised by Coll. Lurting and bought by Mrs. Gilbert, 

Old Plate 77 oz. 11 pwts. 12 gr. at Ss. an oz ,£31.3.0. 
Bond dated June 30, 1718 of Chs. Crommeline & Fr. Vincent 
to Peter Van Wooglon ^"35, of which Mr. V. hath paid ^"30. 

Another July 25, 1718 of the same John Breested of ^43.4, 
which Mr. V. hath paid and hath Mr. C's bond. 

Anne Gilbert. 

Jos. Leddel. 

In the New York Gazette of April 16, 1733, appears a notice as 

"All persons that have any demands on the estate of Mr. 
Francis Vincent, late of the city of New York, sailmaker, de- 
ceased, are desired to give notice of the same unto John Depue or 
Joseph Leddel, executors, or to Mrs. Ann Gilbert, executrix to 
the said estate, in order to receive satisfaction. Also notice is 
hereby given that the dwelling-house of the said Francis Vincent, 
situate on the west side of the Broad Street near the Long Bridge 
is to be sold, together with two young negro men both good sail- 
makers, and sundry sorts of household goods. Those that incline 
to purchase the same or any part thereof may apply to the above 
mentioned executors." 

III. 3. Madelaine 1 Vincent who md. Jean Pelletreau, before 
1689 apparently & d. 1702. Her name occurs in the first baptis- 
mal record of the French Church & often afterwards. 

Her husband, Jean Pelletreau, Merchant, makes will Dec. 10, 


1 697, giving ^4 to the poor of the French Church, and the same 
sum to its reverend minister Peter Peyret. 

To his ueveu Elias Pelletreau all tools used about candle-making- 
& whalebone-cutting, etc. To his ueveu John P. ^25. The 
same to his niece Esther David. All the rest to beloved wife 
Magdalena Pelletreau alias Vincent. Proved Dec. 6, 1700. 

A conveyance to her from John Vincent in 1701 has been given 
above. Je. 2, 1702, 'Magdalena Pelletreau, alias Vincent,' 
widow of John P., Mt., being in good health etc. makes will, 
giving to the poor of the French Congregation of New Rochelle, 
£3., and to the same of N. Y. the same. To Elias P., Sen., 
iny neveue ^50. To John P., his eldest son "my plantation of 
New Rochelle with its houses gardens, etc.," & if he die, the 
same to go to his brethren, they or he paying their sister Magda- 
lena ^20. 

To John P., Sen., my neveue ^50. Same to neice Ester 

To Ester David my sister alias Vincent all clothes of silke wool 
or w T orsted & other apparel . 

Rest of estate to bro. John Vincent, sister Ester David and 
children of bro. Francis Vincent equally. Bros. John & Francis 
and bro. -in-law John David, executors. Proved Sept. 21, 1702. 

IV. 4. Ester 1 Vincent (19) who m. Jean David, perhaps son 
of Jean & Ester. An ' Esther David, widdow ' is found in the 
list of 'Freemen,' May 22, 1698. 

John 1 (1) by w T ife Susanne had issue : 

I. 5. Lett 2 Vincent who md. Esther, dau. of Frederic & 
Esther (Tourneur) De Vaux. His name as well as those of most 
of the others of these families, is found in the baptismal records 
of the French Church, as a sponsor. He survived his father. 1 

II. 6. Madelaine 2 Vincent (21) perhaps who married Jean 
David, & perhaps 2dly Jean Pelletreau, & sometimes called Marie 
Madelaine, the omission of one of the Christian names in the 
records being I find a not unusual custom, as well as the styling a 
married woman by her maiden name, a custom which adds to the 
uncertainties of the genealogist. 

III. 7. Jean 2 Vincent, who d. Aug. 4, 1690, aged 8 years. 

IV. 8. Susanne 2 Vincent b. May 30, presentee au St. 

1 Through a son, John 3 , was the ancester of the gallant General. Strong Vincent, slain 
at Gettysburg, and of Strong's brother Boyd, the P. E. bishop of Ohio. 


Baptesme par Laurant Cornifleau et Madelaine Vincent, Parrain 
et Marraine, Je. r, 1691. 

A Susanne Vincent md. David Wilson by whom she had a son 
Rene, b. Feb. 11, bapd. Mch. 6, 1705/6; Rene Rezeau & Marie 
Anne Guichan, Sponsors. 

V. 9. Elizabeth 2 Vincent bap. 1693. 

VI. 10. Marie Anne 2 Vincent b. between 8 & 9 p.m., Oct.- 
6, bapd. 13, 1696. Jean David & Marie Madelaine Vincent, Spon- 
sors. Perhaps md. Henry de Meyer as the same 'et Mdlle. Marian 
Vincent, son epouse' were sponsors for Jean, son of EHe 
& Sara (Butler) b. 16th, bapd. 27th of Aug. 1735. 

John 1 Vincent may have had other children, and there may be 
some doubt as to the above order of births. A Joan Vincent md. 
Frederic Fine, May 10, 1704. A Hester Vincent md. Sam. 
Thornton, Dec. 9, 17 10. D. Ch. Rec. 

A Marie also md. Joseph Leddel. A " Mdlle. Esther Vincent " 
was godmother to Jacques, sou of Dan. & Elizh. Menard, Jan. 14, 

Mention has been already made too of a John Vinsang Jr. in the 
Dutch Ch. record, where the other names are those of this family 

A John Vincent received naturalization at London, Mch. 11, 

Francis 1 (2) by wife Anne had issue : 

I. 11. Anne 3 Vincent (25) denizened 1 in London 1682, md. 
here about 1701, James Manny [Jacques Magny], who d. after 
1706; & md. 2dly after 1720 Gilbert. 

The surname of her first husband was variously spelled as above 
and also Many as by his present descendants. The name is also 
found in the records and elsewhere Manee, Mani, and Manney, and 
is borne as such by persons in N. Y. and its neighborhood at the 
present day, some of whom are of foreign origin — one, Benj. 
Joseph, [properly Meny] from Alsace, and others from Ireland, 
to which country there are traditions of Huguenot immigration. 

Manny is the spelling of the name by a prominent branch of the 
family, resident in the counties along the upper Hudson, whose 
traditions of Huguenot descent are positive; and whose personal 

1 Noting the receiving in olden times " the privileges of a native by the king's charter, 
ex donatione regis; old French, donaison, a gift; old English, deinzein, a trader within, 
as opposed to foreign, a trader without, the privileges of the city." 


resemblance to the known descendants of Jacques Magny is 
marked, not to mention the evidence of acquaintanceship and 
communication between them, with their implied blood relation- 
ship. But in spite of these the compiler has not been able with 
the data at his command to derive the two branches from one 
common stock, though by no means concluding that it is impos- 
sible so to do with ampler search. 

Among some of the descendants of this latter branch the tradi- 
tion holds, that their immigrant ancestor was a Huguenot though 
coming hither from Holland. Some foundation for this may per- 
haps be found, in the fact stated by Riker in his History of Harlem 
that "from Amsterdam in the ship Statyn sailed also Sept. 27, 
1663, Minne Johannes, also from Friesland, whose descendants in 
Rockland Co. have borne the name of Minne or Manny." 

In the N. Y. Reg. of Deeds, Lib. 18, is a conveyance of land in 
Haverstraw from Johannes Mynne to Albert, both of that place. 
Je. 19, 1694. The name of Magny is still found in Paris, and is 
that also of a small French village. Readers of Barry Lyndon too 
will recall the General and Chevalier de Magny. But it is also 
found in Sweden, and hence brought here, though derived, says 
its owner, from the Swedish Magnus. 

A fortunate and unusually minute entry in the records of the 
old French Church makes known to us the home of our immigrant 
in his native country. 

Nov. 9, 1692 was baptized " Marie, fille de Jean Coudret et de 
Marie quiton ' ' of St. George, Xaintonge, France, ' 4 presentee au 
St. Bapteme par Jacques Many de Mechen en la dite Province, 
parrain et Marie Geneuil 1 de Moyse en la dite Province, marraine. ' ' 

Another found in Lib. 18, page 257 of the Deeds, is as follows: 

I, Nicholas Hay ward, Notary & Tabellion Public, Dwelling in 
the City of London, admitted & sworn, doe hereby certifie & at- 
test that I have seen & perused Certain Letters Patents of Deniza- 
tion Granted by our Sovereign Lord & Lady, King William & 
Queen Mary, under the. broad seal of England, Dated the 15th 
day of April in the 5th year of their said Majesties' Reign, wherein 
among others are Inserted the names of John Magny, James 
Magny, Francis Bassett & Andrew John, who, though born beyond 
seas, are made their Majesties' liege subjects & to be held reputed 

* The next year, Oct. 29, she md. Jean Dubois of " Ubbert en Sentonge au royaume de 
France," by whom she had Marie Madeleine, b. Sept. 12, bap. 22, 1694. 


& taken as subjects born in this Kingdom of England, & may as 
such purchase buy sell & dispose of Lands, Tenements, etc. etc. 
& that the said J. M., J. M., F. B. & A. J. . . . are to enjoy 
all liberties . . ., in virtue of which the said Hay ward grants 
these presents to the above persons to avail them in time and place 

Nicholas Hayward & a seal. - 

Apl. 25, 1693. 
Entered Sept. 23, 1693. 

Oct. 12, 1700, Jacques Many & 'Anne Vencant ' were sponsors. 

Je. 29, 1 701, ' Anne Many ' was a witness at a marriage. 

Je. 11, 1702, the Sloop Jacob, Ja. Manney Mr., arrives from 
Jamaica with a cargo of Sugar, rum, negroes, dry-goods etc. con- 
signed to Abr. Delucena, Is. Marques & others. 

Jan. 25, 1702/3, the sloop Gift of God, James Manney, Mr., 
arrives from Boston consigned to Aug. Grasset, with Rum, Salt 
& nailes; rum, wine etc. to Benj. Funnell V; rum to Dan. Cromline; 
rum to Abrm. Gourneau. 

Another voyage Jan. 29, 1703. 

Nov. 9, 1703, James Many, Mariner, a 'Freeman' of the City 
of New York, and in the ' List of Inhabitants ' the same year, 
James Many, 1 male, 3 children. 

Feb. 2, 1703/4, he with Elias Boudinot presented the inventory 
of the estate of his brother John Many, deed. 

After this I find no further record of his name except in those 
of the baptisms of his children, the youngest April 6, 1707, but 
that of his wife occurs frequently as sponsor. 

Je. 6, 1721, she is called 'Widow' in an instrument by which 
Ann Cooper, dau. of John & Hannah deed, is bound to her as ap- 
prentice & servant for five years, but by the time of her father's 
will she had become Anne Gilbert. 

II, 12. Francis 3 Vincent (28) denizened 1682, md. Feb. 
14, 1700, Anne Lynch, perhaps nee Filhet. He apparently d. be- 
fore his father & childless. Dec. 28, 1698, was baptized Jacob, 
fils de Jacques Bargeau et Jeanne (de lachenal), b. 22d, pres. par 
M. Francois Vincent fils et Mdlle. Madelaine Vincent. 

III. 13. Samuel 2 Vincent (29), md. Marie , and 2dly 

Dec. 3, 17 17, Judith, wid. of Smith. 

May 1, 1722, Samuel Vincent, Mariner, a Freeman. 

x Father of Peter Faneuil, of Faneuil Hall fame. 


Oct. ii, 1734, Mrs. Judith Vincent personally appears at a 
meeting of the Common Council & prays that the Water Lott 
No. 2 on the Dock St. and wharfe fronting to her tenement may 
be granted to her son John Smith cl his heirs on the same conditions 
as to the other grantees & that the Mayor execute a quitclaim 
thereto. v 

N. Y. Gas. of May 1, 1736: 

* 1 Run away last Wednesday from Judith Vincent in Monmouth 
county New Jersey, an Indian man named Stoffels; speaks good 
English — about 40 years of age. He is a house carpenter, cooper, 
wheelwright and is a good butcher also. There is two others also 
gone with him, one being half Indian and half Negro, the other 
a Mulatto about thirty years old and plays upon the violin & has 
it with him. . . . N. B. It is supposed they are all gone 
together in a canow towards Connecticut or Rhode Island." 

IV. 14. Elizabeth 2 Vincent (30), md. Daniel Mesnard 
(Maynard) perhaps made 1 Freeman ' June 9, 1702. Her name 
often occurs as sponsor. 

V. 15. Ester 2 Vincent md. Salter, and probably had 

issue, though I have no record of it. 

VI. 16. Marguerite 3 Vincent (41) md. Jeremie Manny, 1 
probably a younger bro. of James & John, and probably of the 
same vocation as they. 

A similar certificate of Denization by the Notary Hay ward, 
dated Je. 22, 6th of Wm. & Mary (the Patent certifying his lib- 
erty to purchase or command a ship as any subject, being entered 
in the Custom House, London, by Wm. Watersou, Collr.), is 
recorded here Feb. 22, 1703. 

Both husband and wife seem to have survived their marriage but 
a few years. The absence of burial records in the Church Records 
is marked, and the removal of the gravestones from the old Hugue- 
not graveyard by the church in Pine St., and the almost incredible 
neglect of them afterward at the sale of the second church, in 
whose cellar they were, I am told, stored and with which they 
were sold, seem to preclude the hope of any information from them 
as to the date of death of most of the early Huguenots. In this 
connection it may not be out of place to express the hope that any 
one having any positive information as to the final disposition of 
these relics — a not impossible thing — may communicate it to the 
Huguenot Society. 


VII. 17- Elye 3 Vincent, b. abt 9 p.m. Dec. 12, 1692; bapd. 
Jan. 1, 1693; prob. d. young. 

VIII. 18. Benjamin 2 Vincent, b. Aug. 9, bap. 29, 1694; 
prob. d. young. 

Ester 1 (4) by husband, Jean David, had issue : 

I. 19. Daniel 3 David, b. Apl. 2, bap. 22, 1694. 

II. 20. Ezachiel 2 DAVID, b. July 3, bap. 5, 1696, Ezachiel 
Grassilier, Parrian, Susanne Pare, Marraine. 

Perhaps others. 

Madelaine 3 (6) by husband, Jean David, had issue. 

I. 21. Susanne 3 David, b. Nov. 6, bap. 19, 1699; " Live Vin- 
cent, Parrain, et Madelaine David Marraine." 

By husband Jean Pelletreau she had issue: 

II. 22. Susanne Madelaine 3 Pelletreau, b. Feb. 26, bap. 
Mch, 8, 1702, pres. par Jean Vinsent et Made. Pelletreau, signed 
Made. Vincent. 

III. 23. Jean 1 Pelletreau, bap. Mch. 18, 1705. 

IV. 24. Hester 3 Pelletreau, b. Oct. 3, bap. 5, 1707, pres. 
par " Live Vincent & Hester Vincent, famme de Jean David." 

Anne 2 (11) by husband James Manny had issue; 

I. 25. Marguerite 3 Many, perhaps md. Aug. 17, 1717, Ben- 
jamin Roumaye [Roumage], by whom she had Benj., 4 b, Je. 7, 
bap. 25, 1718; Marguerite, 4 b. Je. 28, bap. July 19, 1719; Joseph, 4 
b. Dec, 26, 1720, bap. Jan. 1, 1721. 

II. 26. James 3 Many, who probably d. young, though possi- 
bly the James, who joined in opposition to the dismissal of the 
Rev. Mr. Rou, Sept. 24, 1724. Sept. 30, 1705 was baptized 
" Jaque, fils de Jaque Maney et d'Anne Vincent sa femme ne le 23 
du dit mois, pres. par Francis Vincent et Jeanne Machet. 

"Signed F. Viencent 

" Jeanne Many." 

III. 27. Francis 3 Many, (44) b. 1707, md. Je. 15, 1734, 
Annetje (called also Anna & Hannah) Kip, 1 dau, prob. of Petrus 
& Immetje (Van Dyk), bap. Ap. 8, 171 1; md. 2dly. bef. 1750, 
Madeleine, dau, of Jean & Francoise (Belon) Aymar. H^ was bap- 
tized, as were two of his cousins, at the Dutch Church probably be- 
cause of the absence at the time of any minister of the French Church. 

"Apl. 6, 1707, Fransoa, of James Manney & Anna Finsang. 
Jeremiah Maney. Elizabeth Mainerd." 

1 Probably M the wife of Frenk Mcnnay interred Apr. i, 1748." Dutch Ch. record. 


His children by his first wife were also baptized in that church, 
which he probably attended during her life, but those by his 
second in the French, into which he was himself received later 
according to the following entry, the only one of its kind I think 
in that church's records. 

"6. 8 bre , 1764, apres le sermon . . . de preparation a la ste. 
bene le sieur francois Many ete Recu a la ste bene dans la 
Chambre du Consistoire suivant l'orde prescribe par la Discipline 
par le Pasteur soussigne qui l'a cydevant examine en particulier 
la ditte Reception faitte en presence des anciens de Teglise sus- 
signes; fait en Consistoire a la Nouvelle York le dite Jour 6 Oc- 
tobre, 1764. 

"J. P. Tetard, Pasteur. 
M Vallande ancn. 
" Daniel Bonnet." 
Sept. 12, 1737 in a Petition demanding the removal of the 
Sheriff of N. Y. his name appears, and 

Mch. 31, 1747, Francis Manny, Shipright, was made a Free- 
man. He w T as living I think in 1770. 
Francis 3 (12) by wife Anne had issue: 
I. 28. James 3 Vincent, b. Feb. 3, bap. 6, 1703/4. 
Jacques, fils de Francois Vincent & Anna felhet? pres. par 
Paul Drouilhet et Lydia Leventhorp. 
Samuel 2 (13) by wife Marie had issue: 

I. 29. Anne 3 Vincent, b. at Long Island Apl. 27, 17 15, bap. 
July 1, 1716. 

Anne nee a languille le 27 d'avril 1715, fille de Samuel et Marie 
Vincent, pres. par francois Vincent et Anne Many July 1, 1716. 
Elizabeth 2 (14) by husband Daniel Mesnard had issue: 

I. 30. Anne 3 Mesnard, b. Mch. 19, bap. 21, 1702/3, d. 

II. 31. Elizabeth 3 Mesnard, bap. Feb. 25, 1704/5. 

III. 32. James 3 Mesnard, b. Dec. 23, 1708, bap. Jan. 14, 1709. 

IV. 33. Francis 3 Mesnard, b. Mch. 23, bap. Je. 20, 1710, 
perhaps the " Mr. Mesnard " buried in Trinity Churchyard Sept. 
II, 1783- 

V. 34. John 3 Mesnard, bap. Mch. 21, 17 13/4, d. young. 

VI. 35. John 3 Mesnard, bap. Feb. 15, 1715/6. 

VII. 36. Stephen 3 Mesnard, b. Aug. 28, bap. Sept. 21, 
1717, named in his grdfr's will. 


VIII. 37- Anne 3 Mesnard, b. Mcb. ir, bap. 15, 1719; pres. 
par Jean du Puy et Made. Judith Vincent. 

IX. 38. Judith 5 Mesnard, bap. Ap. 2, 1721. 

X. 39. William 3 Mesnard, b. Oct. 27, bap. Nov. 10, 1723. 

XI. 40. Marguerite 1 Mesnard, b. Aug. 7, bap. Sept. 18, 

Perhaps others. 

A Francis Misnard md. Aeltie Van Deusen & had a son Jacob, 
bap. Feb. 4, 1739, Daniel Misnard & Klizh. Misnard, "J. D." 1 
sponsors. (D. C. Rec.) & Aug. 14, 1742, a Fr. Mesnard gives a 
power of Atty. to his wife Aeltie. 

Marguerite 2 (16) by husband Jeremie Manny had issue: 

I. 41. Jeremie 3 Many, bap. Ap. 30, 1707. 

Ap. 30, 1707, Jereniias, of Jeremiah Maney & Margreta Finsang. 
Fransoa Finsang. Magdalena Maney. 

II. 42. Anna Magdalena Many, 3 bap. May 29, 1709. 
Sponsors. Daniel Odee. Anna Fincang huys frau Van Jaemes 


As she received one sixth of her grdfr's estate, I take her to 
have been the only survivor of her family at the time. She per- 
haps was sponsor to Jeremias, 1 Nov. 3, 1734. 

III. 43. Francis 3 Many, b. Aug. 18, bap. 19, 1711; probably 
d. young. 

" Bateme. Aujourd'huy dimanche i9me. d'aoust 171 1, Monsr. 
Louis Rou notre Pasteur a Baptise francois many fils de Jere- 
mie Many et de margueritte Vincent ne la samedy au soir i8me 
de ce mois presente au St. Bateme par samuel Vincent et Eliza- 
beth maynard parain et mareinne. L. Rou min." 

Francis 3 (Manny) (27) by wife Annetye had issue: 

I. 44. Jeremias * Many, bap. Nov. 3, 1734, d. young. 
Witnesses. Petrus Kip & Anna Magdalena Manny, J. D. 

II. 45. Petrus 4 Many, bap. May 28, 1736. 

Ws. Daniel My nee & Immetye Van Dyke H. V. Van Petrus 

I know not who this Daniel was, unless of the Rockland Co. 

Peter* md. Jan. 14, 1759 Lucy Jamain & prob. had issue. 
Oct. 27, 1765. Marriage de Jean Moffatt et Charlotte Aimar 
* . . dans la maison du sieur Pierre Many jeune, en presence 

1 Young woman. 


de la mere, freres, soeurs et autres ? de la mariee, fait a la 

III. 46. Anna Magdalena 4 Many, bap. Je. 19, 1737, d. 

Ws. Richard Kip, Sara Kip, J. D. 

IV. 47. Anna Magdalena 4 Many, bap. Nov. 19, 1738. 
Ws. Richd. Kip, Sara Kip, J. D. 

Shemd. Sept. 24, 1755, Daniel, son of Jean and Francoise (Belon) 
Aymar, b. Nov. 17, bap. 28, 1733, d. Je. 25, 1815, by whom she 
had John 5 {alias) John D., who md. Apl. 14, 1785, Jeanne, dau, 
of Pierre and Madeleine (Garcine) Lajeur, b. Sept. 20, bap. Oct. 6, 
1765, who d. soon after marriage ; he md. 2dly Ap. 22, 1787, 
Judith Quereau by whom he had issue: Francis; 5 Catharine 6 
md. Peter Embury ; Hannah 5 d. unmarried aged abt. 90 ; Mar- 
garet 5 md. David Jacot ; perhaps others. 

V. 48. Margarite 4 Many, bap. Jan. 25, 1744. 

Ws. Dan. Mynards, Catherine Kip, H. V. Van Cornelis Bo- 
gard. She perhaps md. Sept. 24, 1763, Leonard De Klyn. 
May 14, 1796, an Ann Magdalen Decline md. John Bloodgood. 

VI. 49. Jeremia 5 Many, bap. Dec. 22, 1745. Ws. Cornelius 
Bogard, Elisabeth Mynard. 

VII. 50. Abraham 5 Many, bap. Ap. 17, 1747. Ws. Cor- 
nelius Bogard Jannetje, Pessel h. v. v. Richd. Kip. These last 
two sons probably d. in youth. 

By wife Madeleine he had issue: 

VIII. 51. Frances 5 Many, bap. Aug. 15, 1750, "dans ma 
maison, par moy soussigne etant malade, nee a la Nouvelle York 
le 8e de Juillet Dernier, fille de Francois Many et de Magdelaine 
Eymar sa femme, etant presentee au St. Baptesme par Jean Ey- 
mar et Francoise Belon sa Femme Parrain et Marraine. 

" Francois Many 
Rou. Ministre "Jean Eymar 

" Francoise Belon." 
A Frances Many md. Oct. 27, 1770, Samuel Wentworth. 

IX. 52. Vincent 6 Many, b. Nov. 30, bap. Dec. 9, 1753, pres. 
par Francois Many & Marguerite Salter. He prob. d. in youth. 

X. 53. Daniel 6 Many (56) b. Ap. 2, bap. 23, 1755, pres. par 
Jeremie Bandouin et Judith Aymar ; perhaps md. Mary •. 

XI. 54. Jean 5 Many, b. Oct. 7, bap. 9, 1757, "par M. Pierre 
Testard, Min. francois, en l'absance du min. soussigne, . . . 


dans la ruaison du Sieur Many pour cause de maladie (sans liver 
a consequence pour Lavenir) pres. par Jean aymar parain et 
Louise Aymar Jamain, marvaine. Francois Many, Jean Aymar, 
Luce Jamain." 

XII. 55. Francis 5 Many (59) May 9, 1759. "Le dir. jour a 
ete Batise par moy Pasteur soussigne. Francois, nls naturel et 
Legitime de Francois Many et de Magdeleine aymar sa femme, 
presente au St. Bateme par Pierre Lajur Pavain et Madelaine 
Garsain sa femme maraine, Ne le 19c avril der. le Pere Etant 
absant na point signe. 

"Jean Carle Past, " Pierre Lageur, 

M Jaque Desbrosses, " Madelen Garcine, 

" Vallade, ancien." 

He md. Dec. 25, 1779, Rachel, dau. of Jacques and Jeanne (Ja- 
bouin) Krouard, 1 b. Mch. 12, 1759, d. Dec. 27, 1839, just two days 
after the 60th anniversary of her marriage. He survived her 
hardly more than a year, dying Mch. 21, 1841, when he was laid 
by her side in the Marble Cemetery. In the directories he is found 
in 1790 in Little Dock St., in 1795 in Beaver St. and in 1796 and 
some time after at 76 Nassau, in which neighborhood many of 
his connection herein mentioned, Aymars, Lajeurs, De Klyns, 
Emburys and others at the same time lived ; a little later a migra- 
tion northwestward seems to have set in and these names are 
found somewhat in Church, Varick, and Washington Sts. and their 
vicinity, and later creeping gradually up-town, as the city grew 
in that direction so that at the time of his death, his home was in 
Carmine St. near Bedford, with his widowed dau. Rivers. 

He was a man, as remembered by his living descendants, of 
upright character and of a bright and kindly nature, qualities 
which also characterized his wife. 

Daniel 6 (53) by wife Mary had issue: 

I. 56. Child," b. abt 1774, d. Aug. 28, 1777. The inexactness 
and in completeness of the civic and church records, especially those 
of Trinity, which must account for many of the uncertainties of 
this compilation, are notable at this time of the Revolution. 

II. 57. Frances 8 Many, b. Je. 9, bap. 28, 1778, d. prob. Oct. 
8, 1779. Sponsors. The parents & Mary Rushong. 

III. 58. Mary- Many, b. Nov. 29, 1779, bap. Jan. 2, 1780. 
Sponsors. Alex. Cone, Mary King, Mary Aymar. 

1 Alias Heroy, Harway, Harvey, and Harraway. 


IV. 58^. Mary* Many, b. July 3, bap. Aug. 19, 1781. 
Sponsors. John & Magdalene Class & the mother. 
Probably others. 

Francis ' (55) by wife Rachel had issue (the baptisms were at 

I. 59. Ben t jamin 8 Many, b. Oct. 15, bap. 22, 1780. Sponsors. 
Simon Lugrant, John Lajore, Jane Smith. He d. June 27, 

II. 60. Francis ' Vincent Pipon Many (68) b. Jan. 5, bap. 
19, 1783. Sponsors. John Aymar, Mary Pipon, Francis Many. 

He md. April 19, 1806, Katherine, dau. of Wm. and Elizabeth 
(Sherman)? Devereux, of Shelburne, N. S., b. Mch. 16, 1786, 1 d. 
Aug. 1 86 1. 

He was a man of honorable and independent character, an 
earnest member of the Episcopal Church, and conscientiously 
active in civic affairs. 

His life was passed in the city of New York, and there he died 
Mch. 5, 1857, and was buried in Greenwood Cemetery, as was 
also his wife. 

III. 61. Jane 6 Elizabeth Many, b. Sept. 13, bap. 25, 1785. 
Sponsors, Francis Many, Jane Smith, Elizabeth Pipon. She md. 
Parker Reeves and perhaps left no issue. 

IV. 62. Benjamin 6 Smith 2 Many, b. Dec. 7, bap. 25, 1787. 
Sponsors, Francis Many, John Legear, Jane Smith. He md. & 
left issue, but I have no knowledge of them. He died before his 

V. 63. Rachel 5 Many, b. Dec. 23, 1789, bap. Apl. 9, 1790. 
Sponsors. Francis Many, Rachel Many, Jane Smith. She mar- 
ried her cousin Louis Rivers (Riviere) and d. bef. 1868. They had 

issue ; Rachel L- , who md. McClosky, and had Francis 8 

C, David W. 8 C, and Augusta 3 L. ; Mary 7 W., md. Wm. W. 

1 Family record. But a " Transcript of Baptisms from the Parish of Shelburne N. S. 
by Dr. Walter" gives " 17S5, Sept. 4, Katherine, dau. of Wm. & Elizh. Devereux. 1787, 
Aug. 12. Amelia Maria. Dau. of Wm. & Elizh. Devereux. 1787, Oct. 18, Wm. son of Wm. 
& Elizh. Devereux." The parents probably removed from New York to Shelburne about 
1783, Royalists, soon after the peace. Among the "Marriage Licenses," New York, is 
found, " Wm. Devereux to Elizh. Sherman, Apl. 12, 1765." 

Trinity Baptisms. " 1781. Sept. 30th. Edy, of Wm. & Elizh. Devereux, b. Je. 15, 1780. 
Sponsors. Wm. & Elizh. Young. The mother." 

"May 20th. Rebeckah, of Wm. & Elizh. Young, b. Apl. 30th. Sponsors. Wm. 
Devereux. Hannah Burn. Mary Webb." 

*Admn. of est. of a " Benj. Smith, Man\, deed, was granted to Wm. Trenholm, Mt., Mch. 
29, 1780. Alexr, Lochie & Robt. Service, Mts., sureties." 


Miles of Newark, N. J., and had Wm. 8 B., and Ann Frances, 7 of 
Union, N. J. 

VI. 64. John Pipon 8 Many, b. May, 1791, d. young. 

VII. 65. James 6 Many, (78) b. Je. 18, 1793, d. bef. his father; 
md. Cornelia Johnson ; his widow and children removed to Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 

VIII. 66. John Lajeur 8 Many, (86) b. July 9, 1798, d. abt. 
1826?; md. Apl. 30, 1821, Hester, dau. of Samuel 1 and Hannah 
(Quereau) Hone, b. Jan. 13, 1800 ; d. May 8, 1884. 

IX. 67. Magdalen 6 Many, b. Aug. — ; prob. d. young. 
Francis 8 V. P. 3 (60) by wife, Katherine had issue: 

I. 68. Catherine 7 Matilda Many, b. Jan. 8, 1807, d. in 
Brooklyn, May 14, 1861; md. James Brown, by whom she had 
James Eals, who md. Josephine Marvin & had George 9 M. and 
Joseph, 9 the latter dying in infancy: John Henry 8 Hobart b. Dec. 
1, 1828, who md. Anna C. Upjohn, and died Bishop of Fond du 

Lac: and Vincent William 8 Many, who md. Minnie & had 

Francis, 9 and May 9 ; living in 1867 at Charleston, S. C. 

II. 69. Vincent 7 William Many, (90) b. Je. 30, 1808, d. 
Oct. 1, 1855; m d- Oct- 2 4> l8 3 8 > his cousin Catherine 7 Hone Many, 
(86) b. Feb. 27, 1822, d. Feb. 25, 1867. 

III. 70. Isabella 7 Ball Many, b. July 17, 1810, d. Apl. 19, 

IV. 71. James Augustus 7 Many, b. Je. 3, 18 12, d. Nov. 21, 
1836, unmd. 

V. 72. Daniel Bowie 7 Many, b. May 11, 18 14, d. Mch. 18, 
1835, in Florida. 

VI. 73. Benjamin 7 Smith Many, (95) b. July 13, 1816, lived 
at Red Bank, N. J.; md. 1st Mary Ayres ; 2d Martha Bennett. 

VII. 74. Amelia 7 Many, b. Aug. 20, 1818, d. Mch. 26, 1858; 
md. Horace R. Hudson, by whom she had Horace Robinson, 8 
who md., and lived at Cohoes, N. Y.; Francis Vincent 8 Many, 
md. Apl. 26, 1 88 1, Mary Esther, 8 dau. of Vincent W T m. & Cath- 
erine (Hone) Many, b. Oct. 22, 1852, & had issue: Theodosia, 
D., md. Geo. Fitch, & had Mary, 9 and another ? John 8 Willard 8 
md. ; Catherine 8 Devereux; Maud, 8 d. young. 

VIII. 75. Francis 7 Many, (102) b. Jan. 14, 1821, md. Aug. 

1 Son of Philip, who md., Dec. 1763, Hester, dau. of Samuel, son of Samuel and Judith 
Piaud) Bourdet?. 

* The third initial of his name seems to have been rarely used by him. 



8, i853> Elizabeth Catterall, dau. of Walter & Mary (Catterall) 
Roome, b. in N. Y., August 8, 1837. For many years in active 
business in New York, he was also zealous in the affairs of the 
Church to the well-being of which he was devoted. His rural 
tastes and hospitable instincts found full satisfaction at his pleas- 
ant home, Pine Terrace, near Red Bank, N. J., where his later 
years were passed. 

He was much interested in the subject of his family history, re- 
garding which he had in earlier years made some researches, but 
did not live to see the completion of the present record. He died 
in New York, Apl. 24, 1892. 

IX. 76. Lewis Rivers 7 Many, b. Je. 3, 1823, d. Sept. 28, 1824, 

X. 77. Lewis 7 Many, (iio) b. Aug. 15, 1825, d. Apl. 21, 
1877; he md. Mary Smith. 

James 8 (65) by wife Cornelia had issue: 

I. 78. Cornelia 7 Many, md. Smith Hunter; lived at Lansing, 

II. 79. Catherine 7 W. Many, md. Bingham; lived at 

Milwaukee, Wis. 

III. 80. Maria 7 Antoinette Many, md. Stafford G. Lynch. 

IV. 81. Emma 7 Many. 

V. 82. John 7 J. Many. The preceding with their widowed 
mother were reported as living in Cleveland, O., in 1867. 

VI. 83. Joseph 7 N. Many, (113) d. bef. 1868; md. Matilda 
, who with her children prob. lived in Brooklyn, N. Y. 

VII. 84. William 7 W. Many, (117) d. bef. 1868, md. Caro- 
line , N. Y. 

VIII. 85. Jane 7 Ann Clark Many, d. bef. 1868, md. Cor- 
nelius Van Schoonhoven, by whom an only dau., Cornelia 8 Antoi- 
nette, living at that date with her father in N. Y. 

John 6 L. (66) by wife Hester had issue: 

I. 86. Catherine 7 Hone Many, b. Feb. 27, 1822, d. Feb. 
25, 1867; md. Oct. 24, 1838, her cousin Vincent 7 W r m. (69), & 
had issue. 

II. 87. Elizabeth 7 Gautier Many, b. July 31, 1823, md. 
Thomas Boyd Oakley, by whom she had, Frederick 8 Bronson, 
b. May 14, 1849, d. Oct. 4, 1876; Frances 8 Roome, b. Feb. 14, 
1851, d. Jan. 29, 1876. 

III. 88. Samuel 7 Hone Many, (121) b. May 1, 1825, md. 
Lavinia Westervelt. 


IV. 89. Margaret 7 Mary Many, b. Oct. 1826, d. . 

Vincent 7 Wm. (69) by wife Catherine 7 Hone had issue : 

I. 90. Caroline 3 Aymar Many, b. July 29, 1839, d. July 15, 
1861; md. Oct. 7, 1858. 

Sherman Prescott Colt, b. Dec. 2, 1834, and had Anson 9 Truman, 

b. Nov. 25, 1859, md. ; Vincent 9 William, b. Je. 3, d. Aug. 

15, 1861. 

II. 91. Smith' Anderson Many, b. Sept. 17, 1841, d. Je. 12, 

III. 92. Philip' Hone Many, (125) b. May 15, 1844, md. Je. 
25, 1884, Minnie Amelia Weed. 

IV. 93. Anna Gautier 8 Many, b. July 16, 1847, m &- Ma Y 
21, 1868, Marcus M. Wilcox, & had Harold 9 Morton, b. Sept. 24, 

V. 94. Mary Esther 8 Many, b. Oct. 22, 1852, md. Apl. 26, 
1881, Francis 3 V. M. Hudson, and had son, 9 b. Oct. 28, d. Nov. 
2, 1882; Francis 9 Vincent, b. Apl. 13, 1884; Theodore 9 Hudson, 
b. July 21, 1S85; Horace 9 Hone, b. Feb. 27, 1887. 

Benjamin 7 Smith (73) by wife Mary had issue: 

I. 95. Amelia Frances 8 Many, who md. John H. Johnston 
of N. Y. and had Albert Edward 9 ; Mary Frances 9 ; Bertha*; Grace 
McAlpine 9 ; Isabel, 9 d. an infant; Katherine 9 Devereux; Howard* 
d. an infant; Harold. 9 

II. 96. Mary 9 Agnes Many md. Thomas Robinson & had 
Henry 9 ; Emma 9 ; Mary 9 ; William 9 ; Bertha. 9 

III. 97. Millard 8 Fillmore Many, (126) who md. Elizabeth 

By wife Martha he had issue: 

IV. 98. Catherine 8 Devereux Many, .who md. Edward 
Lake and had six children. 

V. 99. Martha 8 Many who md. Timothy White and had 
Grace 9 ; Robert, 9 who d. in infancy. 

VI. 100. Benjamin 8 Many, who md. . 

VII. 101. Lily 8 Many, who md. . 

Francis, 7 (75), by wife Elizabeth C. had issue: 

I. 102. Walter 9 Roome Many, b. May 5, 1856, d. Feb. 16, 

II. 103. Francis 8 Vincent Many, b. Nov. 7, 1858, d. Dec. 
11, 1858. 

III. 104. Francis 8 Vincent Many, (129) b. Nov. 26, 1859, 


md. Dec. 17, 1890, Charlotte Hance, dau. of Michael and Sarah 
(Bennett) Taylor, b. Sept. 16, 1861, at Red Bank, N. J. 

IV. 105. James 8 Roome Many, (130) b. May 19, 1862, md. 
Sept. 28, 1886, Man- Frances, dau. of George Halstead and Phoebe 
(Catterall) Sutton, of Peekskill, b. Sept. 22, i860. 

V. 106. Robert Howland 8 Many, (133) b. Dec. 10, 1864, 
md. Apl. 21, 1892, Alice Post, dau. of George Whitney and Ade- 
laide (Post) Firth, b. June 6, 1868. 

VI. 107. Mary Devereux 8 Many, b. Apl. 20, 1867. 

VII. 108. Carrie" Seymour Many, b. Oct. 1, 1869. 

VIII. 109. Walter' Devereux Many, b. Jan. 18, 1872. 
Lewis, 7 (77) by wife Mary had issue : 

I. 1 10. Lewis 8 Devereux Many. 

II. in. Sydney 8 Genin Many'. 

III. 112. Mary 8 Amelia Many, who md. Thomas L. Burke 
& had Catherine 9 Genin; Lewis Devereux, 9 d. an infant. 

Joseph 7 N. (83) by wife Matilda had issue: 

I. 113. John Reese 8 Many. 

II. 114. Catherine 8 L. Many. 

III. 115. Emma 9 C. Many. 

IV. 116. Joseph 8 N. Many. 

William 7 W. (84) by wife Caroline had issue: 

I. 117. William 6 Many. 

II. 118. James 8 Many. 

III. 119. Emma 8 Many. 

IV. 120. Bbnjamin 8 Many. 

Samuel 7 H. (88) by wife Lavinia had issue: 

I. 121. John 8 Lajeur Many, who md. . 

II. 122. Vincent 8 William Many; who md. . 

III. 123. Elizabeth 9 Westervelt Many, who md. 

IV. 124. Edward 8 Fowler Many. 
Philip 8 H. (92) by wife Minnie A. had issue: 

I. 125. Albert 9 Weed Many, b. Jan. 5, 1885. 
Millard 9 F. (97) by wife Elizabeth had issue: 

I. 126. William 9 Many. 

II. 127. John 9 Many. 

III. 128. Laura 9 Many. 

Francis 8 V. (104) by wife Charlotte H. had issue: 

I. 129. Francis 9 Many, b. Feb. 21, d. Aug. 17, 1892. 


James 8 R. (105) by wife Mary F. had issue: 

I. 130. Elizabeth 9 Catterall Many, b. Sept. 24, 1887, at 
Dunbrody Grange, New Roekford, No. Dakota. 

II. 131. George Francis 9 Many, b. Aug. 8, 1889, a * Black 
Mountain, N. C. 

III. 132. Walter 9 Roome Many, b. Feb. 17, 1891. 
Robert 8 H. (106) by wife Alice P. had issue: 

I. 133. Virginia 8 Firth Many, b. Men. 14, 1893. 

II. 134. Francis 9 Vincent Many, b. May 19, 1894. 

III. 135. Alice Devereux Many, b. July 21, 1895. 



Many are the examples of a change of a French name into an 
English one, but in the case of this family the records afford 
a history of the change, gradual, and perhaps unique. Those of 
the present generation had even, and with good reason, lost know- 
ledge of the original name, and it was only from these records that 
it was recovered. 

Jacques Erouard md. Jeanne Jabouin (dau. prob. of Jean & 
Elizabeth,) and had: 

I. Probably James 3 who md. bef. Feb. 4, 1771 Catherine 
McCarty, both of them prob. victims of the yellow fever in 1795, 
she dying Oct. 5 & he Oct. 18. They had: 

James, 3 bap. at Trinity Je. 20, 1784, and probably others. 

II. Jeanne 2 who md. Louis Riviere (Rivers) by whom she had 
a son Louis, 3 who md. his cousin Rachel Many and had issue as 
before given. 

III. Marie, 2 b. Mch. 11, bap. 16, 1755, pres. par Pierre Vallade 
et Elizabeth Collon, Veuve Disleau. She md. David Coutant and 
had Jacob, 3 b. Mch. 29, bap. Apl. 18, 1779, who prob. d. Sept. 6, 
1826 leaving issue: Marie, 3 Isaac 3 and Louis 3 ; perhaps others. 

IV. Elizabeth, 3 b. Jan. 27, bap. Apl. 8, 1757, pres. par Jean 
Jabouin et Elizabeth sa femme, md. John Lajeur, who d. Nov. 18, 
18 18, in his 66th year, surviving his wife. In 1790 he was of 36 
Nassau St., afterward of Franklin, and at time of death 59 Dey St. 
He left twodaus. Mary, 3 & Elizabeth, 3 whomd. Oct. 29, 1823 Elias 
Baldwin & survived him, dying childless in 1866. 


V. Rachel, 2 b. 1759, md. Dec. 25, 1779 Francis Many & 
d. Dec. 27, 1839. Their children have been already given. 

VI. Elie 3 (Elias, Eleazar), b. Feb. 12, bap. 15, 1761, pres. par 
Mr. Elie Desbrosses et Madle. (Madeleine) Desbrosses. He was of 
Gold St. in 1790 (Elias Harraway), 18 Golden Hill St. in 1791. 

He md. Elizabeth & their children were baptised at Trinity, 

of whom I find, 1783, Aug. 24, b. 3, Eleanor 3 ; 1785 Nov. 6, 
b. Sept. 8, Francis 3 ; 1787 Dec. 2, b. Sept. 27, Eleanor 3 ; 1790, May 
21, b. Dec. 26, 1789, Elias.' 

VII. Esther 2 11 Pentecoste May 23, 1763 Esther Eroward fille 
de Jacque & Jeanne (Jabouin) pres. par Louis Riviere et Jeanne 
Erouard sa femme nee Apl. 30 a quequient ? dans ce Gouverne- 

ment." 1 She md. Williams, and was " lately deceased " in 

1844, leaving children. 

VIII. Louis, 2 "fils de Jacques heroy et Jeanne Jaboin son 
epouse, Aug. 28, 1768, ne Je. 25, pres. par Sieur Martin Brard et 
Madeleine Blanchard son epouse." In 1815 " Louis Harway " of 
155 Chatham St.; he md. & left issue, dying bef. 1844. 

IX. Madeleine. 2 "Fille de Jacques heroy et de femme 
Jeanne Jaboin (cydevant son epouse deduis peu Decedee) Feb. 4, 
1771, nee Jan. 21, pres. par Mr. Jacques Heroy le jeune et Cather- 
ine McCaty son epouse. Signed, James Harway." I think she 
died young. 

A Charles Erouard md. Esther Coutant & had Charkson, b. 
Nov. 27, 1760, bap. Jan. 20, 1761. He signed his name at the 
baptism, Charles Herouar. Esther w T as sponsor to Jacob, son 
of Jacob and Catherine (Coutant) Badeau, July 7, 1758, New 
Rochelle. A Jeanne Erouard as has been said married Louis 
Riviere; they had Pierre Rene, b. Oct. 28, bap. Nov. 6, 1763; 
Louis, b. Jan. 1, bap. 17, 1768; Jeanne, b. Sept. 28, bap. Oct. 20, 

A Louis Riviere, b. at La Rochelle in France made a renuncia- 
tion of Papistry, Martin Brard at Paris & Jean Laborde. Fr. Ch. 
Rec. Jan. 16, 1763. 

The " Citation " to the heirs of Elizabeth Baldwin deed., dated 
Nov. 28, 1867, gives many of the descendants of different branches 
of this family. The name is spelled therein Harvey, Harway and 
Harroway. Elsewhere Harraway, Arwar, Erward, and Heroy. 

1 The above is a transcript of the New Rochelle record. Perhaps Kakiat (now Ramapo), 
Rockland County. 



In the records of the Dutch Church of New York City we find 
names similar to this. Among the baptisms are Nov. 10, 1734, 
Jacob of Joris Walgraaf & Magdalena Eesjer, Hendrik Labach, 
Catherine Lesjer. 

Dec. S, 1734, Albert of Petrus Lachier & Fytje Sabrisco, Albert 
Sabrisco, Rachel Sabrisco, J. D. 

July 28, 1736, Jan. of Peter Loojze & Antje Andriesse, Casparus 
Blank, Eugeltje Van de Water, H. V. V. Adriaan Hoogland. 

In the records of the French Church, of New York City, Pierre 
Lagear first appears in 1754 as sponsor to Wm. Emar. In 1762 
he was " notre soneur des cloches." He md. Madeleine Garcine 
& of his children the following baptisms are found. 

Marie 2 Madeleine, b. Feb. 1, bap. 9th, 1757. 

Madeleine. 2 b. Feb. 21, bap. Mch. 1, 1758. 

Pierre, 3 b. Mch. 26, bap. Ap. 7, 1760. 

Marie, 2 b. & bap. Aug. 16, 1762. "A five months child, bien 
forme." No sponsors. 

Marie, 2 bap. Sept. 18, 1763. 

Jeanne, 2 b. Sept. 20, bap. Oct. 6, 1765, md. Ap. 14, 1785, John 
D. Aymar, dying soon after. 

A son, Jean, 2 probably the oldest child, but of whose birth or 
baptism I find no record, md. Elizabeth 2 Erouard as given 
above, and his name often occurs as sponsor at the family 

Their children were : 

Jane, 3 b. Feb. 24, bap. Mch. 20, 1785 (Trinity Ch.); d. Oct. 
13, 1817. 

Anne, 3 b. 1st, bap. 18th Feb., 1787. 
Mary, 3 d. unmd. 1837-8. 

Elizh., 3 b. May 13, bap. 21, 1780, d. 1866 at Newark, N. J.; 

she md. Baldwin, but died childless, and the "Citation" 

to the probate of her will by Geo. E. Baldwin, N. Y., Jan. 30, 
1866, contains the names of very many collateral heirs. 


Jean was apparently the elder brother of Jacques, with whom 
he was denizened, London, Apl. 15, 1693. 

He is called " cappitaine," and like his brother, commanded a 
ship in the West India trade. May 19, 1701, the " Brigantine 


Lawrell, John Many, Master, from Jamaica" arrived. About 
1700 is found an account of sums paid for John Machet, Jr., since 
the decease of John, his father, by John Manny in the sickness 
and at the death of the said J. M. Jr. deed., in Jamaica, ^13. He 
md. Jeanne, dau. of Jean 1 & Jeanne (Thomas) Machet of New 
Rochelle, to whom admn. on his estate, "late of N. Y., lately 
deed." was granted May 22, 1703. His inventory contained one 
bible, two silver spoons, six silver forks, one negro woman and 

her . In money ^200. Presd. by James Many & Elias 

Boudinot, Feb. 2, 1703/4. She was living in 1706. 
By wife Jeanne he had issue : 

I. Elizabeth, 3 b. Dec. 6, a deux heures apres minuit, 1696, 
bap. 13, pres. par Pierre Machet et Elizh. Fulheux. 

II. Jean, 2 b. Aug. 31, bap. Sept. 28, 1698 ; pres par Mr. Jean 
Pinaud et Made. Marianne Machet. 

Signed Jean Many. 
J. Pinos, 

Marianne Machet. 

III. Jacques, 2 b. Oct. 5, bap. 12, 1700 par Mr. Peiret, pres. 
par Jacques Many et Anne Vincens. 

These brothers were perhaps the James Many and John Many, 
who signed the Act of Opposition to the dismissal of the Rev. Mr. 
Rou, Sept. 24, 1724. 

A Magdalene Many md. John Class, Aug. 12, 1773, their dau. 
Magdalene b. July 19, bap. Aug. 8, 1779. Sponsors John La 
Jeur, Elizh. La Jeur, Rachel Harraway. Magdalene, b. Ap. 19, 
bap. 29, 1781. Sponsors J. & E. Lagear, the mother. Ann, b. 
May 17, bap. Je. 7, 1783. Sponsors Cath Amar. The parents. 

In the directory of 1896 is found " Barnabas Many — stage pro- 
prietor — 3 Courtlandt St., in '97, of 22 John St., and in the Many 
Graveyard near Craigville, Orange Co., is the grave of Barnabas 
Many, who died April 28, 18 15, set. 80." His wife Anne (Everett) 
d. Oct. 10, 1822, set. 76. Barnabas Jr. d. Sept. 21, 1842, set. 76. 
His wife Mary (Vickary) d. Feb. 28, 1836, set. 57. 

Barnabas, Sen., was the ancestor of some of the present Orange 

1 Will of Jean Machet, " charpentier des navires of Framblade, demeurant a Bordeaux 
en France," mentions wife, Jeanne Thomas, children, Pierre, Jean, Jeanne, et Marvianne, 
en la ville nommeS la nouvelle Rochelle. 

"Fait a la N. R. Ap. 17, 1694. Invy. sworn to Feb. 20, 1699-70. 200 ackers of land— 2 
houses, one of stone, both by water side. 3negers— % of a sloop at sea sold to Fr. Vincent, 


Co. family, among whom are John W., John H., & Frances, 
resident in New York. Of his children was a son Daniel. 

In Clute's Staten Island is found mention of an Abraham Many 
(" Manee originally Manez ") Richmond Co., 1739. 

Mch. 4, 17 1 2, "Peter Bibout was presented for beating Mr. 
Mony (Manee) and his wife." 

A Peter there md. Mary Brooks & had a dau. bap. Aug. 8, 1725. r 
Isaac & Win. are also 'mentioned & females of the name. 

Among the marriage licences of the State are found those to : 

Abraham Manee & Ann Johnston, May 7, 1779. 

James Manee & Elizh. Stocker, Feb. 16, 1778. 

Magdalen Maine & John Van Norden, July 20, 1783. 

Margaret Maine & Gabriel Van Norden, Mch. 29, 1780. 

Aug. 27, 1777, an Abraham Maney of the Co. of Richmond 
makes will, which was proved Mch. 11, '80. A dau. Ann & 
son John, et al. Isaac Manee, a witness. 

In the city record of Deaths appears that of : 

" John F. Many Ap. 8, 1839, aged 72, at 105 Reade St. St. 

Dutch Church Record: 

Pietro Caesar Alberti, Venitien, to Judith Jans Menyee, Amster- 
dam, Aug. 24, 1642. 

Descendants of Alberti, by the name of Morgan at present are 
found in New York City. (1882.) 


Jean, of Elie & Blanche (La Fonds), b. May 28, bap. Je. 10, 
1730, pres. par. Jean La Fonds & Mdle. Charlotte Faviens. 

Elizabeth, sponsor to Jane Elizabeth Many, Sept. 25, 1785. 

Mary (Pepoon), sponsor to Thomas Hamilton, Mch. 20, 1785. 

Mary, sponsor to Francis Vincent Pipon Many, Jan. 19, 1783. 

A family I think originally from the Isle of Jerse} r , and owning 
land at Harlem or in its vicinity. 


" Robert Downer near Salisbury, England, married Hannah 
Vincent, a Huguenot. Joseph and Robert Downer, brothers, 
from England, settled near Newbury, Mass., about 1650." 1 

In the course of Rev. Dr. Charles W. Baird's lecture in Boston 

1 Putnam's Historical Magazine, vol. v., p. 140. 


on "The Huguenots," he stated that the immigration of the 
Huguenots to Massachusetts began as early as the year 1662, when 
several hundred Protestant families were expelled from the city of 
La Rochelle, some of whom petitioned Governor Endicott for leave 
to remove to Boston. As early as 1670 a number of French- 
speaking families from the Channel Islands settled in Salem. As 
religious persecutions grew more severe in France, the immigra- 
tion became more considerable, and shiploads of fugitives from 
the tyranny of Louis XIV. arrived from time to time in Boston 

Materials for the Vincent pedigree are found in the Appendix, 
by Mr. John Fiske, to his Life of Edward L. Youmans (N. Y., 
1894). The identity of some of the family surnames therein with 
those of the family dealt with in these ' ' Notes ' ' is apparent. 

But Mr. Fiske offers good evidence that the Vincent ancestor 
of Mr. Youmans emigrated to the State of New York from the 
neighborhood of Cape Cod where, in 1639, John Vincent was one 
of a committee of ten sent from Plymouth to found the town of 
Sandwich, where later dwelt Ludovic and Eduard Hoxie, the 
boundaries of whose lands Vincent assisted in laying out. 

When we find that this Ludovic Hoxie had four sons named 
Joseph, Peleg, Abram, and Ludovic respectively, and that later 
the Zebulon Hoxie of Dutchess County, whose dau. md. Levi 
Vincent, had four sons identically named, it seems very probable 
that the two families migrated from the same neighborhood and 
were intimate before their union by marriage. 


ARNIEL (MATTHIEU)," with wife and two children," figures among list 
of 550 Huguenots to whom some money sent from Batavia was distributed 
on 18th and 19th April, 1690. This list was published bv Mr. Theal in his 
Chronicles of Cape Commanders (Cape Town, 1S82, pp. 286 and 287). The 
very same family is mentioned by ZNIr. Theal in the list of the most notable 
inhabitants of Drakenstein in 1692, - but there is no record of this family in 
the Church Books, nor of any descendants. 

ANTHONARDE (MARIE), mother-in-law either of Jean Mesnard or of 
his wife (Louise Corbonne), sailed with the Mesnards in the " China " from 
Rotterdam on 20th March, 1688, but it does not appear that she ever reached 
the Cape. 

AVICE (SARA) " d'Chateau dun," spinster, arrived here in the "Ooster- 
land " which sailed from Middleburg, Jan. 29th, 1688, and is also mentioned 
in Theal's Distribution List of 1690. Beyond this there is no trace of her, 
but Narie Avis is found in the Muster Roll of 1692 as wife of Claude Marais 
and as sponsor down to 1697. 

BARRE (LOUIS) figures in the Distribution List of 1690 and among the 
inhabitants of Drakenstein 1692. In the Muster Roll of the latter year he 
is described as " Maat " or partner of one of the Jourdans. No further 
trace of him, except as sponsor down to 1701, in Drakenstein Books. 

BARILLE (PIERIE) with wife, figures in the Distribution List of 1690 
and among the inhabitants of Cape District in 1692. No further record 
of him. 

BASSON (ARNOLDUS WILLEMSZ) of YVessel, married at the Cape 
15th Dec, 1669, Angela of Bengal. In the baptismal register, he figures 
simply as " Arnoldus Willemsz." Giellaume Basson mentioned in Theal's 
Distribution List of 1690 was a sou of Arnoldus Willemsz. Large family of 
Bassons still living. 

1 The original, of which the following pages are an edited reprint, is in the library of the 
Huguenot Society of America. It is the work of Christoffel de Coetzee Villiers. a gene- 
alogist of South Africa, whose ancestor appears in the following list, and was purchased 
from the catalogue cf a London bookseller about 1888 by Rev. A. V. Wittmeyer and presented 
by him to the Society. A duplicate is in the library of the Huguenot Society of London. 
Mr. de Villiers was apparently responsible for the translation, some of whose infelicities 
axe here removed. The spelling of proper names has the customary inconsistency. In 
1893, at Cape Town, South Africa, appeared the first volume, A to J, of a posthumous publi- 
cation, a Geslacht-Register der oude Kaapsche Familie, by Mr. de Villiers, edited by G. M. 
Theal. No more have appeared. See pp. 12S, 129 of this volume. 

■ These lists are hereunder described as the Distribution List of 1690, and that of 
Drakenstein Burghers in 1692. 




BACHE (MARGUERITE), unmarried woman, 23 years old, figures in 
passenger list of the u Voorschoten " (which sailed from Delftshaven Dec. 
31, 16S7), as having arrived here, but there is no further record of her. 

BATTE (PIERIE) in the Distribution List of 1690 and among the Draken- 
stein Burghers in 1692. No further trace of him. 

BENEZET (PIERIE) figures as sponsor to a child of Paul Roux in 1696. 

BELIOZE (ABRAHAM) in the Distribution List of 1690 and among 
the Drakenstein Burghers in 1692. Born at Calais about 1665; married 
Elish. Posseaux (widow of Jacob Bisseux whom he survived) and died between 
1735 and 1737. No descendants. 

BRASIER (PAUL), in the Distribution List of 1690 and among the Cape 
District Burghers in 1692. 

BRIET (SUSANNA) wife of Isaac Taillefer— see Taillefer. 

BRUERE (now written BRUWER and BRUWEL). Ettienne Bruere a 
wagon maker, then 23 years of age, arrived here in the " Voorsc joten " 
which sailed from Delftshaven on Dec. 31, 1687. In the Distribution List 
of 1690 his name figures together with his espoused, Esther de Ruelle. 
First entry of him in Church Books is in the Stellenbosch Marriage Regis- 
ter where he figures as " Steven Brouard, of Belois, widower, married 19th 
Feb. 1702, to Anna du Puis, of Amsterdam, spinster." Good many descend- 
ants now living. 

BISSEUX 1 (JACQUES) with wife and two children figures among the ad- 
ditions to Cape population between 1700 and 1710. His wife (Maria le 
Febre) died about Sept., 1700, leaving an only child (Pieter) then 6^ years 
old. Jacob Bisseux remarried Elish. Posseaux, by whom at his death in 1723 
the surviving issues were Elisabeth and Johannes. Pieter Bisseux is de- 
scribed in his marriage entry (1729) as being from Middleburg in Zeeland. 
He appears to have had no issue and the family in the male line became ex- 
tinct. Elisabeth Bisseux married a son of Captain Oloff Bergh, often men- 
tioned in Theal's Chronicles, and the present family of Berghs is for the 
greater part descended from her. There is af present a family of Bisseux, 
viz. from Isaac Bisseux (still alive), now about 77 or 78 years of age, born in 
the Province of Ryklands, Chap, of S'aisne, and sent out by some missionary 
society in Paris when still very young. His father was Jean Bisseux. 

BLIGNAUT 2 (JEAN) is stated to have been sent for from Europe by 
Daniel Hugot to come and teach his children, the two having known each 
other before having come out to the Cape. When Hugot died, Blignaut 
married his widow (Anna Rousseau) in 1725. In his marriage entry Blignaut 
is described as a " Soldier in the Company's Service" and as being " from 
Amsterdam." Goodly number of descendants still living. 

BUISSET 3 (MARIA) second wife of Jean Prieur du Plessis (the refugee)— 

1 1 find ELIZABETH POGEAU, spitiister, of Paris, 18 years old, as having embarked 
from Delft in April 1700, along with soldiers and converts, and arrived here in August, 
1700 per "Reigers Daal." 

■ Jean Blignault's mother lElizh. Desbordes) < wid. of Pieter Blignaut) figures as sponsor 
of his first child in 1726. Blignaut arrived here as midshipman in 1723. 

■ Marie Buisset married Du Plessis in January, 1700, in the Domkerk at Amsterdam 
(Communicated by a member of Du Plessis family at the Cape). 


vide Du Plessis. She remarried, 171 1, Dirk Smith of Nieuburg. She is de- 
scribed as being from Lorraine, and had two children by second husband, 
but no further descendants. 

CARNOY (ANTOINETTE), a widow and mother-in-law of Jacques de 
Savoy e {vide [de] Savoye), figures in the Distribution List of 1690. 

CELLIER 1 (also written Sellier, Seillier, Solliers, Silje, Cilje, etc., but 
now generally written Cilliers and Celliers). The numerous descendants 
still living all come from Jostii Sellier and his wife Elisabeth Convret, both 
of them born in Orleans, and in joint will executed by them 15th March, 
1720, the ages are given, his as 53 and hers as 44 years. This Josue Sellier 
"with wife and two children" is mentioned among the additions to the 
Cape families between 1701 and 1710. Their first child was christened at 
Drakenstein in 1701. Contemporaneous with Josue Sellier, we also find 
Gilles Sollier, who had a brother Durand Sollier. The latter was married, 
but left no male issue. An only daughter of his married Renaud Ber;hault 
de St. Jean (of Son cere, a surgeon) whose daughter again married the first 
Vander Riet in 1754, of whom descendants still living. 

CHAVONNES * (DOMINIQUE PASOUE DE), lieutenant in the service of 
the Dutch East India Company, succeeded Capt. Cruse, on his death in 1687, 
in command of the garrison at the Cape. There is an inventory of De Chavon- 
nes' widow (Maria Lamu), drawn up upon her death and dated 5th July, 
1715. Her surviving children and grandchildren were: Petronella Agnes 
(married to "den Heer " Jacobus Bolwork); Dominique Marius; George; 
and Johanna de Jongh (married to Richard Munniks) representing her de- 
ceased mother, Johanna Pasques de Chavonnes. Family extinct. 

CLOUDON (JEAN) arrived in the " Oosterland," which left Middleburg 
29th Jan., 1688, and is described in passenger list as being a shoemaker, 
of Cond6; figures in the Distribution List of 1690 and among the Draken- 
stein Burghers in 1692. No further traces. 

CORBONNE (LOUIS) arrived in the " China," which sailed from Rotter- 
dam 20th March, 1688, then a bachelor 20 years of age. Figures in the Dis- 
tribution List of 1690 and among the Drakenstein Burghers in 1692. No 
descendants. Also Louise Corbonne, wife of Jean Mesnard, who arrived in 
the same vessel (See Mesnard). 

CORDIER (LOUIS), " with wife and 4 children," figures in the Distribution 
List of 1690, and in the Burgher List of Drakenstein in 1692 with " wife and 
5 children," the wife being Francoise Martinet. Descendants still living, 
and name now mostly written Cortje. 

1 Despatch from the Chamber of Delft, dated 5th April, 1700, and received here per 1 ' Reig- 
ers Daal," 22 Aug. 1, 1700, mentions among a fewmore freemen to whom passage has been 
allowed, " Josue" Selljer & Elish. Couvret, agriculturist and wine-grower, his wife, and also 
carpenter, Gillis Sollier, having served the Dutch East India Company since 1697, applied 
in Jan., 171S, for leave to his fatherland with his wife Anna Koulin and his son David 

a Vide Supplementary notes. Joachim Pasques, Seigneur de Chavonnes, who was lured 
to Court at the time of St. Bartholomew Massacre, managed to effect his escape together 
with his sister, the wife of Admiral de Coligny. Though name extinct here, some de- 
scendants still living, among them the Bangs and Vande Sandes. 


COSTEUX 1 (ESAIAS and SUSANNE), figure in the Distribution List of 
1690 as " two orphans now living with Nicholaas Cleef." In a document at 
the Deeds office their parents are described as Esaias Kosten and Susanna 
Albert, each Refugees from Hak, at or near Calais. Find no further trace 
of this family. Susanna Costeux married Hk. Gildenhuyzen, by whom one 
daughter (Susanna), christened 15/12/1715. The mother must have died 
soon after, for in 1717 Gildenhuyzen has a child christened by a second wife. 

COUTEAU (MARIE), wife of Pierre Lombard— see Lombard. 

COUVAT 3 (DANIEL) figures in the Distribution List of 1690, and in the 
Burgher List of 1692 (Drakenstein). No descendants. 

COUVRET 3 (PAUL), "with wife, Anne Vallete, and two children," 
figures among additional Cape families 1691-1700. In Church Books, I have 
met with only two baptismal entries of children of this couple (both girls), 
in 1701 and 1705. Beyond this, no further trace of the family. There was 
also an Elisabeth Couvret, wife of Josue Sellier. 

CRONJE, 4 also written CROGNET. " Pieter Cronje" and Stephanas 
Cranje figure among additional Cape families 1691-1700. Drakenstein 
Church books contain baptismal entries of children of Pierre Cronje" and 
Susanna Taillefer, from 1710-1718. It is from this couple that all the pres- 
ent Cronjes are descended. 

DE BUYS : arrived in the " Oosterland," w T hich sailed from Middelburg 
29th Jan., 16S8, Jean du Bins (I have also seen the name written "De 
Bewze"), agriculturist of Paris (according to Theal), but in the original he 
is stated to be " from Calais." He married Sara Jacob, and first record of 
the couple is in the Drakenstein Baptismal Book of 1701. The prefix de is 
now generally dropped by the present descendants. 

DE LANOY 5 (NICOLAS), "with mother and brother," figures in the 
Distribution List of 1690, and among Burghers of Drakenstein in 1692. Also I 
find Maria D'Lanooy, native of Anlys, married at Stellenbosch, 1698, Hans 
Hendrik Hattingh, of Spyer, of whom descendants are still living. This 
lady had first been married to Arie Dircksz Lekkeruyn. The De Lanoys 
left no descendants in the male line. The Lekkeruyns also became extinct 
after surviving two or three generations. 

fDU JULIET (JEAN) \ These two embarked from Delft in thes hip 
VdROUIN 6 (PHILIPPE) i "Driebergen" in May, 1698, along with two 

1 1 find also JAN COSTEUX of Calais applying in Jan., 1718, for leave to return to father- 
land. This party figures as sponsor to a child of Hk. Gildenhuysen and Susanna Costu 
baptized 1715. a Returned to Europe about 1708. 

3 Despatch from Chamber of Delft dated 5th Apl., 1700, and received here per " Reisers 
Daal," 22d August, 1700, states having given free passage among others to ''■Paul Couvret 
and Anna Valet, his wife, born at Taeyoze, near Orleans, with a little child named 
Anna Elisth. Couvret. He is an agriculturist and vine-grower, also a shoemaker." 

* Despatch from Chamber of Delft dated 7th May, 169S, and reed here per "Driebergen" 
5th Dec, 1698, announces embarcation of some more French Refugees, among them 
" Pierre Crosnier & Estycnne Crosnier.'' They were brothers. 

■ Nics. de Lanoy married Susn. de Vos, wid. of Pierre Jacob (g. v.). I find also Susanna 
Lanoy figuring as sponsor in 1691, presumably the same Susn. de Vos as mentioned above. 

• Vide Will No. 29, Vol. i., 17/15/1701 ; then ill in bed, having no parents, made Gideon 
Malhorbe his heir. Resided at Draken. 


Cronj£s and Le Riche, but not having met with their names here, I cannot 
tell whether they ever reached the Cape. 

DEEPORT (JACQUES), "with wife and one child," figures among ad- 
ditional Cape families 1691-1700. He was married to Sara Vitout. First 
record of his family is in Paart (or Drakenstein) Church Books Baptismal 
Register of 1702. Mauy descendants still living. 

DU BUISSON (DAVID) figures among additional Cape families 1700- 
1710. He married Glaudine Lombard, daughter of the refugee Pierre 
Lombard, and first mention of this couple in Church Books is in Baptismal 
Register of Stellenbosch, 170S. Only a few descendants still living. 

DU PLESSIS 1 (JEAN PRIEUR). surgeon, of Poitiers, and his wife 
Madeline Menanteau, arrived in the " Oosterland," which left Middelburg 
29th Jan., 16SS. This couple, " with one child," figures in the Distribution 
List of 1690, and with "two children " among the families in Cape Dktrict 
1692. There is a baptismal entry in the Cape Town Church Books of a 
child of theirs — Charl Prieur du Plessis — as having been christened in Salle 
Bay on board of the aforesaid vessel, on 19th April, 1688. Numerous 
descendants still living. In a short list of French refugees at the Cape in. 
1690, who were otherwise provided for. and therefore did not need assistance 
from the funds sent out from Batavia for their relief, I find Abraham du 
Plessis, who also figures among the Drakenstein Burghers in 1692. There 
is no record of him in Church Books, and he appears not to have left any 
descendants. Mr. John Noble, in some old contribution respecting the 
Pilgrim Fathers,- relates a story of Charl in the commencement of the present 
century : One eld Charl du Plessis, the oldest representative of the family, 
was called upon to assume some ducal title, and estates in France, but the 
old gentleman preferred staying here, and living in simplicity. 

DU PRE (HERCULE), " with wife and five children," figures in the Dis- 
tribution List of 1690, and with " wife and four children " in list of Draken- 
stein Burghers, together with Hercule du Pre the younger. The wife of 
H. du Pre the elder is named Cecilia Datys. The numerous descendants 
still living write their name Du Preez." I have seen the signature of the 
younger Hercule, and it was written " Despres " or " Desprez." In the Dis- 
tribution List of 1690 also figures " Elisabeth du Pre\ a young unmarried 

DU PUIS 3 (ANNA). First record of her is in an entry of marriage with 

1 Mr. Theal told me that Jean Prieur du Plessis returned to Europe to enquire after his 
estate left behind. This must have been towards end of 17th century, for, and from infor- 
mation furnished me by a member of the du Plessis family at the Cape, I find that du 
Plessis's second marriage (with Marie Buisset), took place in the Dom Kerke at Amster- 
dam, in January, 1700. He had a daughter named Judith, who in her marriage entry' * s 
described as being a native of England, but in her will she stated she was born in Ireland. 
I am satisfied that she must have been born during this visit to Europe. Du Plessis must 
have returned to the Cape in or before 1704, as in that year there is a baptismal entry of a 
child of his in Stellenbosch Books. 

•Probably in "The Cape Monthly Magazine," Cape Town, S. A., which Mr. Noble 
edited. He was clerk of the House of Assembly, Cape of Good Hope. 

3 Vide Will No. 98 (Vol. 1.) Anna Marty n, remarried to Solomon Journay, had children 
by first husband, Jean Du Puy, two daughters, Anna Magda, married to Etienne Bruere, 
and Susanna, married to David Senechal. 



Etienne Bruere (widower) at Stellenbosch, 1702, in whicli she is described 
as beitig " a spinster of Amsterdam," and her surname is also written "Du 
Puits." I also find in Church Books baptismal entries from 1695 down to 
1721 of children of David Senechal and Madeline (also written Anjie Made- 
line) and Maria Magdalena Du Puit — clearly not a distinct person from 
Etienne Bruere's wife. 

DUMONT (PIERRE), with wife, figures among additional families 1691- 
1700. He married Cecilia Datys, the widow of Hercule du Pre (the elder)' 
but left no descendants. 

DU PIERRON 1 (LOUIS), with wife and three children, figures in list of 
those who did not share in the distribution of the relief funds 1690 ; and 
also with wife and four children under the Drakenstein families in 1692. 
No record of them in Church books. Family therefore extinct. 

DE RUELLE (DANIEL), with wife and one child, figures in Distribution 
List of 1690, and among Drakenstein families in 1692. He figures as a 
widower with one child, this child being, no doubt, Anna de Quelle, who 
married Charles Marais the younger. See Marais. For Esther de Ruelle — 
vide Bruere. 

DURAND (JEAN) figures in the Distribution List of 1690, and among 
the Drakenstein Burghers in 1692, as being in partnership with Pierre 
Meyer. He was born about 1669 at Lamotte, Schellancoen (?) in Dauphine. 
Some descendants still living. 

DU SOIT 2 (FRANCOIS and GUILLAUME) two brothers. Both of them 
figure in the Distribution List of 1690: "Guillaume with wife and one 
child," and Francois simply "with wife." The latter is described in his 
marriage entry (1690) with SusamieSeugnet (of St. Onge) as being of or from 
Ryssel. The numerous families of Du Sort still living are descendants of 
this couple. Guillaume du Soit married, 1788, Sara Cochet, widow of Pieter 
de Klercq, she being a native of Ostrouburgh. Of this couple, there were no 
male issues — only daughters. 

FAURE (ANTOINE), born at Orange, 1685, arrived here 1708, and married, 
1 714, Rachel de Villiers, daughter of Abraham de Villiers the refugee. 
Antoine was a son of Pierre Faure, by his second wife, Justina Pointy, who 
fled, on account of religious persecution, from Orange (where he was a 
merchant), in 1685, to Barkels in Gelderland. After the conclusion of peace, 
he returned again to Orange in 1689, and died there. His first wife was 
Marie Soulier. His father was Philippe Faure (born 160S) who married (1) 
Louise, of the family of Roussel, and (2) a lady of the family of Fontaine. 
Philippe was also persecuted on account of his reformed religion, and for a 
long time imprisoned at Grenoble. Phillippe's father was Antoine, son of 
Philibert (in Latin Faber) Knight (Ridder), Baron of Peroges, first President 
of the Council of Savoy, celebrated for his important position at Court, and 
also for his learning, being the .author, among others, of Conjecturariun 

1 1 find Maria Magdalena Piron, to all appearances a daughter of Louis du rierron, mar- 
ried one Jacobus Mostert in 1712, of whom there are still descendants living here. 

* According to a marriage register of the Du Jorts, there was also a brother named 
Bruno, and Rev. Du Soit is minister in Rep. of Transvaal (1884). 


Juris Civitis; Erroribus Pragmaticommet, and Interpretum Juris, Chili- 
adis; Codex Fabrianus. His ancestors came from Bourge in Bresse, 
bordering on the north of Dauphine\ He was born in 1556, and died in 
1624, having been married to Benoite Faure, " vroouwe van [lady of] 
Vaugelas." For these particulars I am indebted to a family register of the 
Faure family, compiled by the late Rev. D. A. Faure, and the late Advocate 
Faure, father of the Rev. D. P. Faure, who recently acted as Interpreter on 
behalf of the British Government in the interviews between Lord Derby 
and the delegates of the Transvaal Republic. Pretty numerous families 
of Faures still existing, all descendants of Antoine Faure and Rachel de 

FOUCHE (PHILIPPE) arrived in the " Voorschoten," which sailed 
from Delftshaven 31st Dec, 16S7, with his wife, Anne Fouche, a^d three chil- 
dren: Anne, 6 years old; Esther, 5 years, and Jaques, 3 years. In Distribu- 
tion List of 1690 the couple figures " with two children," and again, among 
the Drakenstein (1692) families, "with four children." The first record of 
this family, in Church Books, is baptismal entry of child of Stephen Fausi 
(married to Maria Oliver) in 1723, the child being named Philip. Consider- 
able number of descendants still living. Gaspar Fouche, bachelor, 21 
years old, also figures as having arrived in the above vessel, but there is no 
further record of him. 

FOWRIE (LOUIS) figures in the Distribution List of 1690, and among 
the Drakenstein Burghers in 1692. Married (1) Susanne Cordier, and 
(2) Anna Jourdan. Baptismal entries from 1696 down to 1738 of some 
twenty children out of the two marriages. Louis Fowrie died about 1750. 
Numerous descendants still living. 

FRACASSE 1 (MATTHIEU), a bachelor, 26 years old, arrived per " China," 
which left Rotterdam 20th March, 16S8. Figures in the Distribution List 
of 1690 and among the Drakenstein Burghers in 1692. Married Janne 
Cordier. I find three children christened, the first being Jean, in 1698, 
beyond which there is no further trace of the family — therefore extinct. 

FURET (JEAN), bachelor, 18 years, also embarked on board the " China," 
20th March, 1688, but as his name does not appear in any of the published 
lists, he must have died on the voyage. 

GAUCHER (ANDRE J figures among those who did not need assistance 
from the funds sent from Batavia, 1690, and among Drakenstein families, 
1692, "with wife and one child," his wife's name being written in the 
original "Jannetye du Pleex." I find in Drakenstein Church Books child 
" Janne,'" christened 1695, of " Handris Gauche and Janne le Clair." In 
Cape Town Books, there is a marriage entry (19th Aug., 1691) of Andries 
Gossche, widower, from Languedoc, with Joanna de Klerk, from Zeelant, 
spinster. The name was subsequently written "Gaus," and "Gous," the 
latter being the general spelling at present. I also find Steven Gauche, of 

1 Fracasse must have returned to Europe with his wife, early in the 18th century, as in 
a will of his brother-in-law (Jacques Cordier), drawn .up in July, 1713, Fracasse is stated as 
residing in the fatherland. 


Genieve, married in 1718 to Catharitia Bok, whose descendants also write 
11 Gous " now. 

GARDE (JEAN) figures in the Distribution List of 1690, and among the 
Drakenstein Burghers in 1692. Married Susanna Taillefer, and left two 
children : Jean, born about 1701, and Susanne, about 1703. The son appears 
to have died unmarried, and the daughter married, 1725, Jozua Joubert, 
son of the refugee Pierre Joubert. 

GARDIOL 1 (JEAN) figures among additional Cape families 1691-1700. 
Susanne and Marguerite Gardiol (two sisters) married respectively Abraham 
de Villiers and Jacob de Villiers. — See de Villiers. 

GODEFROY * (PAUL) figures in passenger list of the " Voorchoteu " 
(Dec. 31, 16S7) as bachelor, 22 years old, in the Distribution List of 1690, and 
among Drakenstein Burghers in 1692. No descendants. 

GOIRAUD (PIERRE), 30 years, and Frangoise Rousse (his wife), 28 
years, also, embarked in the " China," 20th March, 16S8, but appear to have 
died on the voyage. 

GOURNAI 3 (SALOMON) figures in the Distribution List of 1690, and 
among the Drakenstein Burghers in 1692. No further record. 

GRILLION (MARIE), wife of Gideon Malherbe (the refugee). See 

GROS (ANTOINE) figures in the Distribution List of 1690, and among 
the Drakenstein Burghers in 1692. No further record. 

HUGOT (DANIEL), also written "Hugod," figures in the Distribution 
List of 1690, and among the Drakenstein Burghers in 1692. According to 
a family register of the Hugots, Daniel was not married till 45 years of 
age, his wife, Anna Rousseau (daughter of Pierre Rousseau the refugee), 
being then only 15. The first child of this couple found christened is in 
Drakenstein Books of 1705. Numerous members of the family are still 
living, the t or d of their name having been dropped. 

JACOB, 4 (PIERRE) " with wife and three children," figures in the Distribu- 
tion List of 1690, and "with wife and two children" among the Drakenstein 
families in 1692. I find no record of this couple in Church Books, but a 
Daniel Jacob (also written Jacobse) had four children christened at Draken- 
stein and one at Stellenbosch, the eldest being called " Pieter" — this was 
in 1703. It is quite probable that "Daniel" as well as Sara Jacob (who 
married Jean du Bois) were children of Pierre Jacob. Descendants still 
living, and the name now generally spelt Jacobs. 

JOUBERT (PIERRE), 23 years old, and habeau Richard (his wife), 20 
years, arrived in the " China," which sailed from Rotterdam on the 20th of 

1 It strikes me that Garde and Gardiol are one and the same. 

* The Mayor of La Rochelle in 1627 was Jean Godeffroy. 

3 Arrived 16S8 ; obtained leave in Jan., 1718, to return to fatherland. Married Anna 
Martyn, widow of Jean du Puis. The eldest brother, Jean de Journay, then still living in 

* Pierre Jacob must have arrived here with wife (Susanna de Vos) and grown up chil- 
dren. Jacob's widow remarried Nics. de Lanoy. She died about 170S, and in the inventory 
of her estate three children are mentioned as her heirs, viz.: (1) Sara, married Jean 
de Beryge; (2) Daniel, then already married ; 13) Susanne, deceased, represented by her 
two children. 


March, 16SS. This couple figures in the Distribution List of 1690 "with 
one child," aud among the Drakeustein families in 1692 "with two chil- 
dren.'' There is a joint will executed between Pierre Joubert and his wife 
on ultimo November, 171S, in which their ages are respectively given as 
55 and 4S, and both of them are described as being from Provence. Pierre 
died about 1732, and his widow about 174s, the latter then owning among 
other properties the following farms: " Bellingkamp," "Sormarins," "La 
Rocke " (Roche), " La Motte," and " La Provence," all situated in Drakeu- 
stein district, and " De Plaisaute," situated in Waveren (now Tulbagh), the 
oldest of these farms being "Bellingkamp," the grant of which is dated 
October S, 1695. Numerous descendants still living, among them the well- 
known Commandant General (Piet Joubert) of the Transvaal Republic in 
the war of independence. 1SS1-S2. In the Distribution List of 1690 I also 
find Jean Joubert, whose name also figures among Drakenstein Burghers 
in 1692. Beyond this there is no further trace of him. 

JOURDAN. The original of the passenger list per "China," which 
sailed from Rotterdam, March 20, 16S8, gives a family of seven persons, 
viz.: (1) Joanne Marthe, Widow Jourdan, 60 years old ; (2) Jean Jourdan (her 
son), 28 years; (3) Pierre Jourdan (Theal adds of Cabriere), then 24 years; 
(4) Marie Jourdan, widow, 40 years ; (5) Jean Rousse, her daughter, 10 
years ; (6) Marie Rousse (according to Theal, Roux), her daughter, 10 years ; 
(7) Margarite R.ousse (according to Theal, Roux), her daughter, 7 years. 
Of these (1), (4), and (5) appear not to have reached the Cape. The same 
original list gives a further family of three persons, viz.: (1) Pierre Jourdan, 
bachelor, 24 years ; (2) Paul Jourdan, bachelor, 22 years, and (3) Andre" 
Pelanchon, 15 years, all three being described as "cousins Germains." 
Paul, however, appears to have died on the voyage. Jean Jourdan and the 
two Pierre Jourdans figure in the Distribution List of 1690 ; and among 
Drakenstein families in 1692, Jean Jourdan, with wife and one child ; Pierre 
Jourdan in partnership with Louis Bare and Pierre Jourdan of Cabriere. 
Jean Jourdan married Elisabeth le Long (also written Isabeau Longue), of 
which couple I find three children christened in Drakenstein Church Books, 
the first date being 1695 and the last date 1699, the father being then already 
dead. In an inventory, evidently of the same couple, dated April 4, 1699, 
signed by the widow ("Isabella Long"), the husband is styled "Peter 
Schordan," aud the farm they owned is called " La Moth." Pierre Jourdan 
de Cabriere married (1) Anna Fouche and (2) Maria Verdeau. In a joint 
will, executed May 6, 1719, between this Pierre Jourdan and his second 
wife, he gives his 'age as between 56 and 57 years, and she hers as 19 years, 
she being born at the Cape, and her parents being Hercules Verdeau and 
Maria Catharina Wibeaux. Numerous descendants of both Jean Jourdan 
and Pierre Jourdan de Cabriere still living, their name being now spelt 

LA BATTE (JEANNE), wife of Guillaume Nel. See Nel. 

LA TATTE (NICOLAS) figures in the Distribution List of 1690, and 
among the Drakenstein Burghers in 1692. There is an inventory of Nicolas 
de Labat Poinctue 3/6/1 717, agriculturist at Drakenstein, and surviving 
widow, Elisabeth Vivie, dated 1718. No children given. 


LE CLERCK (MARIE MADELEINE), of Tournay, wife of Jacques de 
Savoye — see Savoye (de). There are several families of De Clercq or De 
Klerk i^the latter spelling being more general) still living, descendants of 
Abraham de Clercq, of Scrooskerken, bachelor, who married at Stelleu- 
bosch May 12, 1709, Magdalena Bourzou, of Middelburg, spinster. In the 
baptismal entries of the children of this couple, the mother's surname is 
written "Mouton." Abraham de Clercq was to all appearances a son of 
Pieter de Clercq and Sara Cochct (see Cochet). Mr. Theal makes no mention 
whatever of him in his published list of this family. 

LE FEBRE 1 (PIERRE), with wife and two children, figures in the Distri- 
bution List of 1690, and " with wife and three children " among inhabitants 
of Stellenbosch, 1692. I find in Cape Town Books three baptismal entries 
of this couple, 16S4, 16S6, and 16S8, all being girls, the mother's name be- 
ing left blank in the second entry, and in the first and third entries she is 
named "Maria de Grave." Later on (in Drakenstein's Books), I find two 
baptismal entries of children of Paul le Febre, and the wife's name blank 
in one entry and in another merely Elizabeth Sisilla. No further record 
of these two families. I also find in Cape Town Baptismal Book from 
1713 to 1738, entries of sixteen children of Gysbert le Febre and Catharina 
Vau de Zaude (his wife), but whether this Gysbert is any connection either 
of Pierre or Paul le Febre, I cannot tell. They seem to be a distinct family 
to the other two. There are very few, if any, of the Le Febre family still 

LECPERET (JEAN) figures in additional list of Cape families, 1700-1710. 
He is described as being " of Compagnier." He arrived here as free Bur- 
gher in 1693. In March, 1716, he applied for leave to return to fatherland. 

LA GRANGE (PIERRE) bachelor, 23 years, arrived in the "China," 
which sailed from Rotterdam, March 20, 168S ; in the original pas- 
senger list he is clubbed together with Louis Corbon, bachelor, 20 years, 
the latter being described as his "cousin" Pierre la Grange figures 
in the Distribution List of 1690 and among the Drakenstein Burghers in 
1692. There is a joint will of " Pieter Grangie," of Cabriere in Provence, 
and his wife Margaretha Kool, of Amsterdam, executed April 23, 1718, iu 
which their ages are respectively given as " about 54 years " and " 28 years." 
There are several families of Le Grange still living, who can be traced in the 
Church Books to Jan la Granche, 1737, whom I have not been able as yet to 
connect with Pierre (the refugee). There was also one, Gideon le Grand, a 
surgeon, among annals 1700-1710, but no descendants. 

LE LONG (JEAN), " with wife and two children," as also Marie le Long 
(married to Addriaan Van Wyk) figure in the Distribution List of 1690. 
Among Drakenstein families Jean le Long figures " with wife only 1 child." 
In a work issued by Jacobus van der Kyder and Adam Tas early in the iSth 
century respecting charges against Governor Willem Adriaan van der Stell, 
I find among the signatures to an address in favor of the aforesaid Governor 

1 Will No. 28, vol. i., 12/3/1698, mentions Catharina Le foot, wife of Jan Nisman, aged 
about 39 years, born at Calis (Calais?), in France, has no parents, but a brother named 
I^aurens (or Louries). 


also the names of Charles le Long and Jacob le Long. Besides Jean le Long 
there was also an Elizabeth le Long, who married (i) Jean Jourdan and (2) 
Jacques Malan. Charles le Long- and his wife [whose name is rather illegi- 
ble — Nina (or Anna) Francina Van Nil] had a child christened Johannes at 
Drakenstein, in April, 1726, beyond which there is no further record of the 
family, which then became extinct. 

LE RICHE 1 (LOUIS) and wife (Susanna Fouche) figures among additional 
arrivals in 1691 and 1701. First record of them is in Drakenstein Books of 
1709; only a few descendants still living. 

LE ROUX - (JEAN), 21 years old and Gabriel, 17 years old, figure in pas- 
senger list per " Voorschoten," which sailed from Delftshaven, December 31, 
16S7. According to Theal these two were brothers, from Blois. The former 
married Jeanne Mouy ; their first child christened at Drakenstein, 1704. 
Gabriel married Maria Catharina le Febre ; first child christened 1702 at 
Drakenstein. Both these brothers figure in the Distribution List of 1690, 
and also among the Drakenstein Burghers in 1692, being styled in latter list 
"Maats," i. e., being in partnership. There are numerous descendants 
still living of these brothers. In a document furnished to me by an old 
grandfather-in-law, Charl Marais, now in his 91st year, family tables are 
given of the Huguenots from whom he is descended. From these tables 
it would appear that there must also have been one Pieter le Roux, who is 
stated in this document to have come out here with two brothers (both of 
whom died unmarried), and to have left two brothers behind in France. 
This Pieter le Roux, it is further stated, married here Susanna Crong6 be- 
fore she was 12 years of age. She was delivered of her first child (a son) in 
her 16th year and lived to be 99 years and a few days old. Strangely 
enough, I have as yet failed to find any record of either Pieter le Roux or 
Susanna Cronge in any of the published lists, nor in any of the Church 
Books ; yet the statement of there having been a Pieter le Roux seems 
borne out by the fact of there being recorded in the Drakenstein books the 
baptismal entries contemporaneously of two Pieter le Rouxs ; viz., the one 
being styled in his entry of marriage with Francina Sellier (1727) simply Pie- 
ter le Roux, with baptismal entries from 172S down to 1744, the eldest child 
being named "Petrus." Bearing in mind that it was the custom in those 
days, a custom still in vogue at the Cape, to call the eldest son after the 
father's father, and the eldest daughter after the mother's mother, and so 
on, this circumstance would tend still further to confirm the existence of 
the original Pieter le Roux. The other Pieter le Roux is styled in his mar- 
riage entry (1736) as "Jan's son," his wife being Magdalena Sellier, and their 
eldest son is named "Jan." The baptismal entries of this couple date from 
1737 down to 1762. Numerous descendants of Pieter le Roux (presumed to 
be the original Pieter's son) and Francina Sellier also still living. Then I 
also find in the Stellenbosch Book, baptismal entries of six children of Jean 
le Roux and Maria de Haase, 1712-1725, in two of the entries the prefix le 

1 Louis I,e Riche arrived here in December, 1698, with the Cronges. 
* In Stellenbosch Lidmaat Book, 1729. 


being dropped. There is a joint will of this last mentioned couple executed 
April i, 1747, in which the testator is styled "Jan le Roux de Normandie," 
and the testatrix " Maria de Haas, born at Ryssel in Flanders." Of this 
family there are also descendants now living. In Mr. Theal's published list 
of Drakenstein Burghers of 1692 I find "Jean Roux of Normandie," and the 
question naturally arises whether this party is not the same "Jean le 
Roux " last described. 

LOMBARD (PIERRE), a sick man with wife and one child, heads the Dis- 
tribution List of 1690, and figures among Drakenstein families in 1693 
''with wife and three children." The wife's name is ''''Marie Corteau" 
There is a joint will of this couple executed January 8, 1709, in which Pierre 
Lombard's birthplace is given as " Poiutais in Dayshine," and his age 
51 years; his wife's birthplace as " Soudiere, in Dayshine," and her age as 
50 years. Numerous descendants still living, the name being now mostly 
spelt " Lombaard." 

LORET. Among additional families 1700-1710 I find "Guilliaume Lore 
with wife," the latter being Elizabeth Joubert, daughter of Pierre Joubert, 
the refugee. The date of baptismal entry of first child of this couple is 1710 
at Drakenstein. In a will executed December 20, 1713, Guilliaurne Loret's 
birthplace is given as "Nantes" and his age as 42 years. He only left 
daughters, and the family in the male line has therefore become extinct. 

MAD AN (ANTHOINE), 30 years. old, and his wife, Elisabeth Verdettc, 23 
years, together with a daughter 10 months old, figure among the list of pas- 
sengers which left in the "China," from Rotterdam, March 20, 1688, but 
none of the family seems to have reached the Cape; probably all of them 
died on the voyage out. 

MAGNET (JEAN) 1 figures among Drakenstein Burghers in 1693 ; also in 
the Distribution List of 1690. No further trace of him. Jean Maniet figures 
as sponsor to a child, Jacques Therondin, 1700. 

MALAN (JACQUES) figures in the Distribution List of 1690, and among 
Drakenstein Burghers in 1692. He married Elisabeth le Long, widow of 
Jean Jourdan, the first child being born (according to a Malan family regis- 
ter) on July 2, 1700. Numerous descendants still living. 

MALHERBE (GIDEON), " with wife," figures in the Distribution List of 
1690, and among Drakenstein families in 1692 "with wife and one child." 
His wife was Marie Grillion, and first record of them in Church Books is a 
child christened at Stellenbosch in 1691. Gideon Malherbe sailed in the 
M Voorschoten " from Delftshaven, December 31, 1687, being then a bachelor, 
35 years old. Numerous descendants still living. 

MANTIOR (ZACHARIE) figures in the Distribution List of 1690 and 
amoug Drakenstein Burghers in 1692. No record of him in Church Books. 

MARAIS: sailed in the " Voorschoten " from Delftshaven on December 31, 
1687, Charles Marais, of Piessis, and Catherine Taboureux (his wife), with 
4 children; viz., Claude Marais, 24 years old; Charles Marais, 19 years; 
Isaac Marais, 10 years; and Marie (not David, as in Theal's published pas- 

1 Born at Calais about 1649 ; was in partnership with Abraham Beluze, and died about 
1711; vide Will No. 86, vol. i. 



senger list) Marais, 6 years. In the Distribution List of 1690 I find " widow 
of Charles Marais, with 4 children," the father having died on the voyage 
out. This family figures among Drakenstein inhabitants in 1692. The 
farm where they first settled is still known by the name of " Du Plessis 
Marie," called after the place the}' came from, which in the document 
already referred to (of old Mr. Marais) is written: " Le Suer du Plessis 
Marie" near Paris. Claude married Susanue Garde, and Charles married 
Anne de Ruelle, daughter of Daniel de Ruelle. Very numerous descend- 
ants still living. According to the Marais family register, Isaac and Marie 
died unmarried. In the Church Books, however, I find Marie (in one place 
also written Magdalen a) Marais married (1) Ettieue Niel (with baptismal 
entries from 1 703-171 1); (2) Pierre Taillefer (with baptismal entries from 
1714-1721), and (3) in 1734, Pieter Booysen, of Blokziel, widower. In a joint 
will executed May 13, 1716, by Marie Marais and her first husband (Niel), 
she states' her age as 34 years and her birthplace to be Hierpoix, a province 
of France. The farm they then (1716) owned is called " Orange." Claude 
Marais remarried Susanna Cardiol, widow of Abraham de Villiers, the 

MARGRA (JEAN) ''with wife," figures in the Distribution List of 1690, 
and among Drakenstein families in 1692. No trace of them in Church 

MARTIN (ANTOINE) figures in the Distribution List of 1690, and among 
the Drakenstein Burghers in 1692. No trace of him in Church Books. 

MARTINEAU (MICHAEL), figures in Distribution List of 1690, and 
among the Drakenstein Burghers in 1692. No mention in Church Books. 

MARTINET (FRANQOISE), wife of Louis Cordier, See Cordier. 

MARE (IGNACE) figures among additional families 1700-1710. His wife 
was Susanna Jause Van Vooreu (or Vuren). First entry of baptism in 1716 
at Drakenstein. (Goodly number of Marees (as the name is now mostly spelt) 
still living. 

MENANTEAU (MADELEINE), wife of Jan Prieur du Plessis. See 
Du Piesses. 

MESNARD (JEANj, 28 years old, sailed in the "China" from Rotterdam 
on March 20th, 168S, together with Louise Carbonne (his wife), 30 years; 
Marie Anthonarde (his mother-in-law), 64 years, and 6 children : Jeanne, 
10 years; George, 9 years; Jacques, 8 years; Jean, 7 years; Philippe, 6 
years; Andre, 5 months, in all a family of 9 persons. In Distribution List 
of 1690, Jean Mesnard figures as "widower" with 4 children, and among 
Drakenstein Burghers as "widower" with 2 children. Of these children 
only Philippe got married; viz., in 171 2 to Jeanne Mouy, and from this 
couple all the " Minnaars " (as the name is now written) of the present day 
are descended. In a will of Philippe Mesnard, executed February iS, 1722, 
his native province is given as Provence and his age 40 years. 

MEYER (PIERRE) figures in the Distribution List of 1690, and amoug 
the Drakenstein Burghers in 1692, with Jean Durand as partner. In the 
book published by Jacohn van der Kyder and Adam Tas already referred 
to, I find that this Pierre Meyer gave some evidence before a commission on 

28 5 

April 9, 1706, respecting accusations against Governor William Adriaan or 
van der Stell, in which he speaks of having been born in Dauphine and of 
being 3$ years of age. He married Aletta de Savoye, daughter of Jacques 
de Savoye. Some of the Meyers of the present day are descendants of this 

MOUTON (JACQUES) figures among additional arrivals 1691-1700, "with 
wife and two children." In his will, his birthplace is given as " Steenwerk, 
at or near (Dulctby) Ryssel," and according to inventory of his estate (pre. 
pared just after his death) dated 1731, he was first married to Catharina 
L'Heuriette, by whom there were still living three children in the Father- 
land; viz., Jacob, Antoine, and Maria. He remarried Maria de Villiers, by 
whom he had three daughters then still living, who all married here. This 
Maria de Villiers I cannot trace. She could not have been a daughter of 
any of the refugees de Villiers (perhaps she was a sister), for in 1703 I find 
the first baptismal entry recorded of the first Jacques mentioned, in a 
Drakenstein book, of a child by his third wife, Francina de Bevernage. 
The farm where first mentioned (Jacques) settled was called " Steenwerk," 
and is still known by that name. 

MOUY (PIERRE) " with wife" figures among additional families 1691- 
1700. No record of this family in Church Books beyond marriage of, 
presumably, two daughters, viz.: Jeanne with (1) Jean le Roux of Blois, 
and (2) Philippe Mesnard; and Marie with Francois Retif, the refugee. 
Family therefore extinct in the male line. 

MYSAL (JEAN) figures in the Distribution List of 1690 and among the 
Drakenstein Burghers in 1692. No further record of him. 

NAUDE. No mention of this family in Theal's published lists up to 1710. 
I find Jacob Naude in Paarl Church Book, 1723, his wife being Susanna 
Saillefer. Many Naudes still living, being descendants of the aforesaid 
couple and also of Philip Jacob Naude, of Berlin, who came'Jiere about 50 
years later. 

NEI (GUILLAUME), "with wife and two children," figures in the Dis- 
tribution List of 1690, and " with wife and three children" among Stellen- 
bosch families 1692. The wife was Jeanne la Batte. First record of this 
couple is in Stellenbosch Church Book (Baptismal) 1691. There is a joint 
will of the same couple executed Januar} T 26, 1734, in which the husband's 
birthplace is given as " Rouaen " and his age between 71 and 72 years," and 
his wife's birthplace as "Saumur," and her age 71 years. The Nels still 
living are all descendants of Guillaume. 

NIEL (ETIENNE), " wife and one child," figures among additional fami- 
lies 1691-1700. His wife was Marie (also written in one baptismal entry, 
Magdalena) Marais, first record being in Drakenstein Baptismal Book 
1703. This family appears to have survived only one generation. No de- 
scendants in the male line. This Etienne Niel, according to a will executed 
by himself and wife, " Maria Magdelena Marais," on May 13, 1716, describes 
himself as being born in the province of Dauphine\ his age being given 
as 48 years. His wife was born in the province of Hierpoix, and her age is 
given as 34 years. 


NORTIER. Sailed in the " Oosterland " from Middelburg on Jan. 29, 
168S: Jean Nottii (so spelt in the original), agriculturist, Jacob NortU x 
ditto, and Daniel Xortie, a country carpenter (" boeren timmerman "), a**d 
his wife Marie Vytou (also spelt Vitout). These four persons are styled in 
the original as the " domestiques " of Jacques de Savoye, who came out in 
the same vessel. There is a marriage entry in the Drakenstein Church 
Book of Jacob Xoortje, bachelor, of Cales (Calais ?), with Margaretha Mou- 
tore, Sth August, 1717. The name is now mostly written "Nortje," the 
spelling of "Nortier" being, however, retained still, but in very few in- 
stances. The descendants of the present day all come from Daniel and 
Jacob. Jean, Jacob, and Daniel (with wife and one child) all figure in the 
Distribution List of 1690, and among the Drakenstein families in 1692. 

PARISEL (JEAN) figures in the Distribution List of 1690, and among the 
Drakenstein Burghers in 1692. No further record of him. In passenger 
list per "Oosterland," Jan. 29th, 16SS, he is styled "an agriculturist of 

PASTE (JEAN) figures in passenger list per " Voorschoten," Dec. 31, 
1687, as bachelor, 25 years old, but in none of the other lists, or in Church 

PBLANCHON (ANDRE) figures in passenger list per "China," March 
20, 168S, as being 15 years old, and also in the Distribution List of 1690, and 
among the Drakenstein Burghers in 1692. See Jourdan. No record in 
Church Books. 

PERROTIT (MARGUERITE), widow, with two children, figures in the 
Distribution List of 1690. and nowhere else. 

PINARD (JACQUES), 23 years old, a carpenter, and Esther Fouche, 21 
years old, spinster, figure in the original passenger list per "Voorschoten," 
which sailed from Delftshaven, Dec. 31, 1687 — with a marginal note as 
follows: "These two have been married here before their departure." 
Despatch covering this passenger list ; s dated Delft, Dec. 19, 1687. The 
couple also figures in the Distribution List of 1690, and among Drakenstein 
families in 1692 "with two children." Good many descendants still living, 
all now writing their names " Pienaar." 

PREVOT or PREVOST (widow of Charles), "remarried to Hendrik 
Eekhof [or Prevort] with four children by her deceased husband," figures 
in the Distribution List of 1690, and also among Drakenstein families in 
1692. There is in the Cape Town Books an entry of a child {Jacob) of 
" Carel Provo" and 11 31 id e Febers" baptized on board the ship " De 
Schelde," May 29, 1688. This Carel Provo is most likely the husband of 
the lady above mentioned. As regards the children, I find a marriage 
entry in the Stellenbosch Book, May 12, 1709, of Abraham Prevot, of 
Calais, with Anna Van Marseveen, the issues being only two daughters. 
Hence the family, in the male line, became extinct. In Drakenstein Books, 
there are baptismal entries of a whole string of some iS children of Anna 
Privot and her husband Schalk Willem Vander Neuve, son of Willem 
SchalJt, the first arrival commencing 1696. Also I find Elisabeth Prcvost 
married Philippe du Pre, with children from 1699-1721. 


POTHER 1 (JACQUES), "with wife and four children," among additional 
families 1700-1710. No further trace. 

POUSIVEN (MARTHINUS) "with wife and three children," figures 
among families in Cape District 1692. No further trace. I am doubtful 
whether this is really a French refugee. 

RENE (SUSANNE), a young unmarried woman, 20 years old, ngures in 
passenger list per "China," March 20, 1688, as published by Theal, but in 
the original, the surname is written "Resine." This young lady does not 
figure in the Distribution List of 1690, nor anywhere else. 

RENESET 3 (PIERRE ) figures in the Distribution List of 1690, and among 
the Drakensteiu Burghers in 1692. No further record of him. 

RETIF (FRANCOIS) figures in the Distribution List of 1690, and among 
the Drakenstein Burghers in 1692. In the document already referred to un- 
der " Le Roux " as having been furnished by old Mr. Marais, Francois R<£tif 's 
date of birth is given as Feb. 2, 1663 (not stated where born) ; he married 
in 1700, Marie Mouy. The youngest daughter of this couple (born 1720) lived 
to be 97 years of age, and there is a portrait of her at the Paarl. Numerous 
descendants still living, the name now being generally written "Relief." 

RICHARD (ISABEAU), wife of Pierre Joubert— see Joubert. 

ROI (JEAN), of Provence, figures in the Distribution List of 1690, and 
among the Drakenstein Burghers in 1692 ; married, 1712, Maria Catharina 
le Febre, a widow (presumably of Gabriel le Roux). This family became 
extinct, only one of two sons of Jean Roi having got married, and he left 
daughters only. 

ROUSSEAU (PIERRE), "with wife and one child," figures in the Dis- 
tribution List of 1690, and " with wife and two children" among Draken- 
stein families in 1692. In a family register of the Rossouws (which is now 
the general spelling) Pierre is stated to have been born in 1666, but on 
March 26, 1702, in giving evidence before a commission, regarding charges 
against Governor William Adriaan van der Stell, he stated his age to be 40 
years. He married (1) Anne (or Hanne) Retif, and (2) Geertmy du Soil. 
First record of baptism is in Stellenbosch Book, 1691. In an inventory of 
the joint estate, framed upon the death of his first wife in 1710, his farm is 
called " De Boog van Orleans." In a joint will of himself and second wife, 
executed Aug. 25, 171 1, Pierre Rousseau's birthplace is given as " Mair." 

Among the members admitted into the Stellenbosch Church, I find, on 
Jan. 7, 1690, "Maria Rossaux." She married Jan Jausz Van Eden, of 
Oldenburg (of whom there is still a pretty numerous family living). In 
what appears to be the marriage entry of this couple (Cape Town, 1688), she 
is stated to be a native of Dubloys. Her surname is also written " Rus- 
saan," "Russoun," and "Russoued." 3 

ROCHEFORT 4 (PIERRE) figures in the Distribution List of 1690, and 
among the Drakenstein Burghers in 1692. No further record of him. 

1 In his marriage entry, he is described as being from Maucron. 
■ ? ^eneset {q. v.). 

* Vide Will No. 36, vol. i., 20/5/1702, Maria Rossar from Bloys, 43 years old. 

* Vide Will No. 56, vol. i., 20/7/1702, in partnership with Gerard Hanscrez (Angeret), was 
born at Grenoble in DauphinS ; parents, Edward Arnoud and Virginie Chevalier. 


ROUX (PAUL), of Orange, in France, was appointed Nov. 8, 16SS, as 
Schoolmaster of Drakensteiu, and also acted as Church Clerk ("Lecteur") 
under the pastor of the refugees, the Rev. Pierre Simond. Paul Roux 
figures among those who did not need assistance from the fund sent out 
from Batavia and distributed in 1690, and among Drakensteiu Burghers 
1692. He married Glaudine (or Claudine) Seng net, and first oaptismal 
entry is in 1694. Large number of descendents still living. 

Pierre Roux figures in the Distribution List of 1690, and among Draken r 
stein Burghers in 1692. There is no record of him in Church Books. 
There is a will of Pierre Roux, of Cabriere, executed Sept. 17, 1739, from 
which it would seem that he must then have been an old man. In this will, 
he appoints ex. Heemraad Daniel Malau, of " Morgeuster " Hollintit, 
Holland, as his universal heir, in consideration of his (Malau) maintaining 
him for the rest of his life. I find a marriage entry, in 1718, of Pieter Roux, 
bachelor, of Cabo (i. e., Cape Bon), and Susanna de Villiers (daughter of 
Abraham de Villiers, the refugee). Since the eldest son of this couple is 
named " Petrus," it is just possible that the father may have been a son of 
Pierre Roux. Numerous descendants still living of Pieter Roux and 
Susanna de Villiers. 

fean Roux, of Provence, figures in the Distribution List of 1690, and 
among Drakenstein Burghers in 1692. He does not appear to have married. 
In a will of his, executed Feb. 17, 1705, he gives his age as 40 years, and his 
birthplace as "Lormarin, in France." He appointed as his sole heir, his 
father, Philip Roux, then residing at Lormarin, and 68 years old ; and in 
the event of his father dying before him (the testator) his property is to go 
to the " Diaconie " (Board of Deacons) of Drakenstein. 

fean Roux, of Norrnandie, figures in the Distribution List of 1690. and 
among Drakenstein Burghers in 1692. No further record of him. 

Marie and Marguerite Roux, " two little orphans,'" figure in the Distri- 
bution List of 1690. They arrived in the "China," with the Jourdan family 
(see Jourdan). Marguerite married Etiemie Viret — see Viret. 

SABATIER (PIERRE), of Massiere, a bachelor, 22 years old, figures in 
passenger list per " Voorschoten, Dec. 31, 16S7, in Distribution List 1690, 
and among Drakenstein Burghers 1692. No further record. 

SAVOYE (JACQUES DE), of Ath, Marie Madeline le Clerc (his wife), of 
Tournay, and their three children, Margo (or Marguerite), 17 years old ; 
Barbere, 15 years, and Jacques, 9 months, together with Antoinette Carnoy 
(de Savoye's mother-in-law), sailed in the " Oosterland," from Middelburg, 
on Jan. 29, 1688. In a despatch from the Chamber of Rotterdam, dated 
Dec. 24, 1687, special mention is made of Jacques de Savoye in the following 
terms : " From the Zeeland Chamber there goes on this occasion as colonist, 
one Jacques Savoye, with his wife, who was for several years a prominent 
merchant at Ghent in Flanders, having been under the Cross ("onder't 
Kruys"), where he was so persecuted by the Jesuits — even his life being 
threatened — that in order to escape their snares and to pass his days in 
peace or out of their reach, he resolved to go over in this quality and to take 
with him several Flemish farmers of the same religion, who have also lived 


there uuder the Cross, and who quit their fatherland for the same reasons 
as Jacques Savoye. And because said person is now so well known to us 
we have been pleased to recommend him to you by these presents to assist 
him in every respect, and to consider what such a person as above men- 
tioned may be able to accomplish, in expectation that— in executing the 
intention of the Nineteen Lords 1 — he will, owing to \is ability, be a desirable 

Jacques de Savoye, with wife and two children, also figures among those 
who did not need any assistance from the Relief Fund, 1690, and with 
"wife and three children" among the Drakensteiu inhabitants 1692. He 
left no male desceudauts. His daughter Marguerite married before 1690 
(1) Christoffel Suyman (descendants still living), and (2) Henning Villion, 
son of Francois Villion, or Fynou, of Clermont. Barbere married (i) 
Christiaan Elers (no descendants), and (2) Elias Riena (no descendants). 
Aletta de Savoye married Pieter Meyer (presumably Pierre Meyer, the 

SEHET (ANTHOINE) figures in passenger list per "China," March 20, 
1688, as 11 bachelor, 19 years old." He appears to have died on the voyage. 

SENECHAL (DAVID) figures in the Distribution List of 1690, and among 
the Drakensteiu Burghers in 1692. He married Madeline (or Anne Made- 
line) du Puit. First record in Drakenstein Baptismal Book 1695. Some 
descendants still living. The name is now written "Senekal." 

SEUGNET. There is an entry in the Cape Town Church Books of Glade 
Sevinjet, Susanna Sevinjet, and Johannah Sevinjet having joined the con- 
gregation at Stellenbosch, on April 9, 1689, and having brought with them 
certificates of membership (" attestaten "') from Amsterdam. Mr. Theal 
makes no mention of this family in any of his published lists. Glode 
(Glaudnia?) married Paul Roux, of Orange, and Susanne married Francois 
de Toit. Susanne is described, in her marriage entry, to be " of St. Onge." 

SIMOND (Rev. PIERRE), "with wife and two children," figures among 
Drakenstein inhabitants 1692. He was a native of Dauphine ; was minis- 
ter of Reformed Congregation at Zierikzee, came to the Cape, with his wife 
(Anne de Berout), in the "Zend Beveland " (which left Middelburg on April 
22, 1688) as the first minister of the French refugees out here. He returned 
again to Europe about 1701 or 1702. 

TABOUREUX (CATHERINE) wife of Charles Marais, the elder. See 

TAILLEFER. Arrived in the " Oosterland," which left Middelburg, 
Jan. 29, 16S8 : Isaac Taillefer, vine-dresser, of Thierry (in the original it is 
written "de Chateau tierry et brie, a vine-dresser and hatter"); Susanne 
Briet (de Chateau Tierry) his wife, and their six children — Elisabeth, 14 
years; Jean, 12; Isaac, 7; Pierre, 5; Susanne, 2\\ and Marie, 1 year old. 
Of these children, Elisabeth married Pierre de Villiers (refugee). Pierre 

1 The "Nineteen Tvords " were the nineteen Directors of the West India Company who 
managed its affairs. In the Dutch original, here kindly translated by Mr. Theodore M. 
Banta, President of the Holland Society of New York, the figure is given by mistake as 


married Marie Marais (presumably the widow of Etienne Niel). With his 
children, though he had a son, the Taillefer family became extinct in the 
male line. One of his daughters married into the Gildenhuys family and 
another daughter married Edward Christiaan Hauman, of both of whom 
there are still descendants living. 

Susan fie Taillefer married (1) Jean Garde, (2) Pierre Crotije, and (3) 
Jacob Naude. Isaac Taillefer, with wife and four children, figures in the 
Distribution List of 1690, and among Drakenstein families in 1692 "with 
wife and three children." 

TERREBLANCHE (ETIENNE) figuring among additional families 
1691-1700, was a native of Toulon ; married, in 1713, Martha la Febre, 
Widow Pinard. Good many descendants still living, the name being spelt 

TERRIER. I find in TheaPs list of Burghers and the distribution in 1692, 
as well as in the Distribution List of 1690, Daniel Ferrier. Most likely the 
same as figures in Drakenstein Baptismal Books, 1695, and thereafter till 
1699, as David Daniel {?) Terrier. His wife was Sara Jacob, presumably 
the same who married Jean du Buis. I have found trace of three children, 
including a son, but beyond this, no descendants in the male line. 

THEROND (JACQUES) figures in the Distribution List of 1690, and 
among Drakenstein Burghers in 1692. There is a copy of a letter, in the 
Grey Library, from Jacques Therond, dated April 2, 1719, from Nimes 
(Nismes?), the capital of Languedoc, and addressed to his son Jacques 
Theron (the refugee.) The farm owned by the latter, at the Cape, was 
called "Languedoc." Jacques Therond (the refugee) married Marie Janne 
des Preez. First child born 1698. Numerous descendants still living, 
writing their name now simply "Theron " (without the d). 

VERDE AU (JACQUES), bachelor, 20 years old, and Hercule, his brother 
(16 years), figure in passenger list, per " China," March 20, 1688. The latter 
alone figures in the Distribution List of 1690, and among the Drakenstein 
Burghers 6f 1692. He married Catharina Hucibos (also written Maria 
Catharina Huibeaux, and Wibeaux). Three children were born to this 
couple (the birth year of two being 1703 and 1707 respectively) and ,the 
family became extinct. In a joint will of Hercule Verdeau and his wife, 
executed July 30, 1718, the husband's age is given as 46 years, and the 
wife's as 43 years. The two children (girls) I met with in the Church Books, 
and were named " Magdalena " and " Susanna." I also find Maria Verdeau 
(presumably another daughter) who married (1) Pierre Jourdan de Cabriere 
(widower) by whom there was a child christened, 1722, and (2) Daniel Malau, 
son of Jacques Malau (the refugee). It is this Daniel Malau to whom Pierre 
Roux de Cabriere bequeathed all his property. 

VTLLION. No mention in the Distribution List of 1690, but in the list 
of families in Cape District, 1692, I find ''widow of Frangois Villion, with 
two children." There is in the Cape Town Church Books a marriage entry, 
in May, 1676, of Frangois Fignon, bachelor, of Clermont, free burgher, and 
Cornelia Campenaan, spinster, of Middelburg. In the baptismal entries of 
the children of this couple, the surname is mostly spelt "Villion." The 


name is now generally "written " Viljoen," and there is a numerous family 
now, all descendants from the couple above mentioned. In 1725, also found 
in Church Books Pieter Vion (also written Wion) but he turns out to be the 
ancestor of the Wium family, which name is pronounced very much like 
"Viljoen," only without the /. 

VILLIERS (ABRAHAM. PIERRE, and JACOB de), three brothers, vine- 
dressers from the neighborhood of La Rochelle, arrived here, in the 
" Zion," on May 6, 16S9. In a despatch from the Chamber of Delft, dated 
Dec. 16, 16S8, and received per "Zion," special reference is made to these 
three brothers, as possessing good knowledge of tho cultivation of vines, 
and recommending the Governor to give them every assistance. In this 
despatch, the names are mentioned in the following order, — (1) Pierre, 
(2) Abraham, and (3) Jacob, which perhaps may indicate the order of senior- 
ity. In the Distribution List, 1690, figures "Abraham de Villers, with wife 
and two brothers," and among Drakenstein families, 1692, "Abraham de 
Villiers, with wife and two children," "Jacob de Villiers, with wife and two 
children," and "Pierre de Villiers, with wife and one child." Abraham 
married, 16S9, Susanne Gardiol, and left nothing but daughters ; Jacob mar- 
ried Marguerite Gardiol ; first baptismal entry 1695. Pierre married Elisa- 
beth Taillefer, first baptismal entry 1699. I have taken a good deal of 
trouble to find out the ages of these three brothers, but so far have only 
succeeded in ascertaining Jacob's age, from a joint will executed Jan. it, 
1719, in which he gives his age as 5S years, and describes himself to be a 
native of " Borgondien.'' His wife (Marguerite Gardiol) is stated, in the same 
document, to have been born in Provence, and to be 45 years old. The De 
Villiers family, in this part of the globe, at the present day, is the most 
numerous, at all events, of the Huguenot families, being all descendants of 
Pierre and Jacob. A family tradition states that four brothers left their 
paternal home, but the youngest (Paul) after having gone some distance, 
became homesick, turned back, and was never heard of again. 

VTRET (ETIENNE) figures in the Distribution List of 1690, and also in 
list of Drakenstein Burghers, 1692, as Etienne Vivet (so published by Mr. 
Theal, but in Church Books it is Viret). His wife was Marguerite Roux 
(presumably one of the two orphans mentioned under the heading Roux). 
First baptismal entry is in 1697. Etienne Viret, though he had five sons 
born him, appears not to have left any descendants in the male line. There 
is a joint will of the above couple, executed August 14, 1726, in which Viret 
is described as being of Dauphine, aged about 64, and his wife as being of 
Provence, 44 years old. 

VISAGIE (PIETER) is described in his marriage entry (June 21, 1671) to 
be "of Antwerp," his wife being Catharina Kients van ter Veer. In one of 
the baptismal entries, the surname is also written " Vasasie." The spelling 
of "Visagie" is still generally retained, and there are a good number of 
descendants still living. 

VITOUT (SARA) wife of Jacques Delport-see Delport. 

VIVIER (JACOB, ABRAHAM, and PIERRE) figure in the Distribution 
List of 1690, and among the Drakenstein Burghers in 1692. In the original 


Muster Roll of the latter year, the three are described to be " Maats," or 
partners. Of these, I fiud that only Abraham got married, to Jacquemine 
du Pre\ sister of Jacques Therond's wife, first record in Church Books being 
christening of a child in 1698. It is therefore from this couple that the 
Viviers of the present day are descended. 

VOIR BUL. I.— P. 160 

AVICE (EZECHIEL), Miuistre a Boulogne 1637. Philippe consistoire a 
Roney, en Picardie, 1681. (La femme de Francois) de Blois a Geneve 1691. 
(Nicolas) Marchand de Mer en Gratinais, refugie avec cinq personnes a Ber- 
lin en 1700. {France Protestante, Reimpression, 1877.) 

BARRE' (PIERRE) et (JEAN) persecutes en Poitou, pres de Poitiers, 
1681. (Isaac) de Tours refugie a Londres avec sa femme et ses enfants. 
{Fr. Protest., P.eimp.) Barre (Pierre ) de Pontgibaud pres de La Rochelle 
refugie* a Dublin {ibidem). 

BRIET. La famille Briet exist encore, en la personne de M. E. Briet, 
Maire d'Estoines, par Chateau-Thierry-Aisne. Les Taillefer et S. Briet sa 
femme £taient de Chateau-Thierry. Briet (Jean) de Chateau-Thierry, Mai- 
tre Malon, (Jean et Isaac) de Meaux, refugi£s a Berlin 1698-1700. {France 
Protestante, Reimpression.) 

BRUERE (PIERRE) de Blois refugie a Berlin 1709. 

CELLIER (CLAUDE) librarie a Orleans en 1602. Son fils, Antoine a. 
Paris en 1641. Imprimeus Autre Claude Cellier refugie a Londres en 1702. 
France Protestante, Reimpression.) 

CORDIER (LOUIS) de Meaux fut surpris dans une assembled religieuse 
et condamne* a mort sous le regne Louis XIV. Mais Le Roi change a la con- 
demnation et l'envoya aux galeres. (France Protestante, Reimpression.) 

COSTE (PIERRE) d'Anduze. Petrus Costens Anduziensis a Geneve. 
Pierre d'Uzes en 1688, refugie en Suisse et a Layde. 

COUVRET (PAUL) Imprison e au Chateau de Saumur. Couvret, famille 
refugie* au Cap de Bonne Esperance. {France Protestante, Reimpression.) 

DU BUISSON. Plusieurs families en Languedoc. 

DU PLESSIS. Plusieurs families de ce nom sont devenus cel£bres. 

DU PRE. Une famille de ce nom £tait a Montauban et & presant elle est 
& Nerac. 

DU PUY. Plusieurs famille celebres en Languedoc. 

FAURE. Nom de Languedoc. Beaucoup de families de ce nom. 

GODEFROY. Une famille de ce nom a Paris avant 1685. Une autre 
famille du m£nie nom 4 Geneve avant 16S5. Une autre enfin a La Rochelle 
avant 1685. Apres la Revocation on trouve des refugi£s du no de Godefroid 
i Hambcurg. {France Protestante, iere. Edition, 1S56.) 

LABATE. Vivie. Ces noms paroissent etre des noms de Refugi£s sortis 
de Mortauban ou existent des families du meme nom. 

LE CLERCK SAVOIS. Ces noms existai^nt a Montaubans avant 1685. 


LE FEBVRE ou LEFEVRE. On connait des families de ce nom a Ch&- 
teau-Chinon et a Rouen. 

LA RICHE. On connait une fille de Paris nomm£e Marguerite Le Riche 
que fut brulee martyre de la religion. 

LA ROUX (PHILIBERT-JOSEPH) refugie a Amsterdam auteur d'un dic- 
tionnaire de Proverbes Comiques. 

LOMBARD du Dauphine. Jean, refugie' a Geneve et son fils Jean en 
1710, Jacques avec les fils Aime et Jean a Geneve en 1713, et Charles, mar- - 
chaud drapier a Geneve en 1731. Jean Guilaume, refugi£en Prusse devint 
secretaire in time du Roi de Prusse, Frederic Guillaume. N£ a Berlin d'une 
famille de refugies originaires du Dauphine 'en 1767, mort en 1812. 

MALHERBE. On connait une famille de ce nom en Normandie refugie 
a Leipsig. Isaac Malherbe de la Bretonniere et son fils Isaac — Henri ne a 
Leipsig en 1750. 

MARTINEAU. Famille du Fontrenay pr£s Paris, refugies en Angleterre 
£tablis a. Norwich. 

MAREES (GEORGE DE). Pientre estime\ fils d'un refugie' a Stockholm 
n6 1697, mort a Munich 1776. 

MESNARD. Famille du Poitou. Une autre famille donne Jean Mesnard 
ministre a. Charenton, pres Paris avait etudiela Theologie a Geneve en 1666. 
II passa en Hollande en 1687, il se fixa a La Haye et devint Chapelain du 
Prince d'Orange. Nom d'une famille en Alsace. 

NAUDE. Famille de Metz refugie a. Berlin. 

NEEL. Famille de Normandie, dont plesieures sortirent de France. 
NIEL ou NIELLES. Famille de refugies a. Utrecht et Wesel. Famille 
de la Flandres Francaise. 

PREVOST. Famille de Issoudun. 
RICHARD. Famille de La Rochelle. 
ROSSEAU. Famille de Paris, refugies a Geneve. 
ROUX. Plusieures families de ce nom. 

SABATIER, PIERRE et MASSIERE (Mezieres ou Mazeres). Ce nom 
est celui de Languedoc. 
SAVOrYE ou SAVAIS. II y avait une famille de ce nom a Montauban. 


LE FEBVRE ou LEFEVRE. On connait des families de ce nom a Cha- 
teau-Chinou et a Rouen. 

LA RICHE. On connait une fille de Paris nomm£e Marguerite Le Riche 
que fut bruise martyre de la religion. 

LA ROUX (PHILIBERT-JOSEPH) refugie a Amsterdam auteur d'un dic- 
tionnaire de Proverbes Comiques. 

LOMBARD du Dauphine. Jean, refugi£ a Geneve et son fils Jean en 
1710, Jacques avec les fils Aime et Jean a Geneve en 1713, et Charles, mar- f 
chaud drapier a Geneve en 1731. Jean Guilaume, refugi£en Prusse devint 
secretaire in time du Roi de Prusse, Frederic Guillaume. N£ a Berlin d'une 
famille de refugies originaires du Dauphine 'en 1767, mort en 1812. 

MALHERBE. On connait une famille de ce nom en Normandie refugie' 
& Leipsig. Isaac Malherbe de la Bretonniere et son fils Isaac — Henri ne* & 
Leipsig en 1750. 

MARTINEAU. Famille du Fontrenav pr£s Paris, refugies en Angleterre 
£tablis a Norwich. 

MAREES (GEORGE DE). Pientre estime\ fils d'un refugie a Stockholm 
n€ 1697, mort a Munich 1776. 

MESNARD. Famille du Poitou. Une autre famille donne Jean Mesnard 
ministre a. Charenton, pres Paris avait etudiela Theologie a Geneve en 1666. 
II passa en Hollande en 1687, il se fixa a La Haye et devint Chapelain du 
Prince d'Orange. Nom d'une famille en Alsace. 

NAUDE. Famille de Metz refugie a Berlin. 

NEEL. Famille de Normandie, dont plesieures sortirent de France. 
NIEL ou NIELLES. Famille de refugies a Utrecht et Wesel. Famille 
de la Flandres Francaise. 

PREVOST. Famille de Issoudun. 
RICHARD. Famille de La Rochelle. 
ROSSEAU. Famille de Paris, refugies a Geneve. 
ROUX. Plusieures families de ce nom. 

SABATIER, PIERRE et MASSIERF. (Mezieres ou Mazeres). Ce nom 
est celui de Languedoc. 
SAVOIYE ou SAVAIS. II y avait une famille de ce nom a Montauban. 


Aborn, 149 

Academy of France, five out of fifty 

Protestants, 95 
Adams, 30 

Adams (young man), 45 

Addison, 149 

Alden, Anna, 54 

Alden, John, of London, 54 

Alden, John's wife, Barbara, daugh- 
ter of Jacques du Prier, 54 

Alden, John, of the Mayflower, 53, 

Alden, John, of the Middle Temple, 

Alden, Susan and Sarah, 54 

Alden, , of St. John's College, 54 

Allaire, Louis, 68, 145 

Allan, , 149 

Alva, Duke of, 132 

American Anti-Slaver)- Society, 26 

American Commissioners. 30 (two 

out of five Huguenot) 
American Freedman's Art Union, 29 
Amian, 145 
Amory, 14S 
Amsterdam, 59 
Amyrault, Moses, 105 
Anderson, Dr. A., 143 
Andross, Governor, So 

Angell, , 148, 149 

Anne, Queen, 99; presented pulpit 

Bible to French Church, 59 
Appleby, 148 
Arnold, 148, 149 

Artois, Count of, future Charles X., 

48, 50 
Atkens, 148 

Atterbury, Rev. Dr. \V. W., 123 
Austria, 31 

Avil£s, de Pedro Menendez, 132 
Ayrault, Daniel, 147 
Ayrault, Peter, 145 
Ayrault, Pierre, 147 

Baird, Rev. Dr. Charles W., 55, 56 
Baird, Prof. Henry M., 37; number 
of Huguenots beginning seven- 
teenth century, 95 
Ballard, 149 

Balliet, Paul, 112 

Balliet, Col. Stephen, 112 

Ballou, Eliza, mother of Garfield, 124 

Baptiste, 107 

Barberet, 107 

Barbut, W., 145 

Barre, 128 

Bartholomew, St., 54 

Baudoin, Pierre, 69 

Bayard, Eliza, 142 

Bayard, Judith, 113 

Bayard, Lazare, 113 

Bayard, Nicholas, 142 

Bayard, Col. Stephen, 112 

Beacon Street, formerly the "lane 

which leads to the Alms House," 


Beauchamps, 145 

Beaumont, delegate of Transvaal 

Republic, 94 
Bedford, N. Y., Jay family estate at, 

23. 33 

Beecher, Henry Ward, 30 

Belhair, 145 

Benedict, 149 

Benezet, Anthony, 114 

Benezet, Jean Etienne, 114 

Berdos, no 

Bermudas, 115 

Bernard, Catharine, no 

Bernard, Jean Jacques, Mayor of 

Dampierre, no 
Bernon, Gabriel, 68, 147, 149 
Bertholet, Esther, no 
Bertholet, Jean, no 
Bessonet, in 

Bevier, Louis, one of the Patentees, 

"Big Waters," Rondout, Walkill, 

and Shawangunk, 81 
Blancard, Jean, son-in-law of Anna 

Alden, 54 
Blancard, Mary, 54 
Blanshan, Catharine, wife of Louis 

Du Bois, capture of, by Indians, 


"Blue Anchor," famous inn, men- 
tioned in Sewell's Diary, 67 
Boileau, 10S 



Bouuer's map of Boston, 5S 
Bounet-Maury, 123 
Eounett, Jobann Peter, no 
Bonniot, 145 

Bonrepos, David de, second pastor of 
French Church, Boston, afterwards i 
of New Rochelle, 55, 58 

Bontaux, 107 

Bordeaux, D., 140 

Bordeaux, Protestants of, 47 

Borie family, 115 

Boston, 55, 56; Old, 52 

Boston News Letter (old newspaper), 

Boudinot, 123 
Boudinot, Elias, 115 
Boughton, George H., 53 
Bouquet, Gen. Henry, 139 
Bours, 149 

Boutineau, James, Huguenot, broth- 
er-in-law of Peter Faneuil, 67 

Bowdoin, James, 69 

Bowdoin, James, Governor of Massa- 
chusetts, 69 

Bowdoin, James, grandson of Pierre, 
patron of Bowdoin College, 69 

Bowdoin Square, Boston, 69 

Bo wen, 148 

Brenton, 149 

Bretin, dit Laronde, 145 
. Britton, 149 

Broomfield, Edward, gives name to 
street, 68 

Brown, 148 

Brown, James, 146 
- Browning, A. Giraud, 73, 75, 76 

Brunots, 113 

Bureau, Anne, wife of Benjamin Fan- 
euil, and daughter of Francois 
Bureau, goes to New Rochelle, 

Byles, Rev. Mather, first pastor Hol- 
lis Street Congregational Church, 

Cabot, 126 

Caen, number of Huguenots leaving 

that town, 93 
Galas, Jean, 38, 39 
Calas, Louis, 38, 39 
Calas, Marc Antoine, 38 
Calvin, 126 
Cambacer£s, 31 

Canterbury Cathedral Crypt given 
to Huguenots by Edward VI., 

Canterbury, visit to, 78; silk weavers 
in, 94 

Canton, Pierre, 68 
Carew, 148 
Carpenter, 149 

Carpenter, Miss Esther, referred to, 

Carre, Rev. Ezekiel, 144 
Cartier, 127 
Case, 149 

Castries, Monsieur de, 45 

Catholics, non-, 49 

Cessna, John, great-grandson Jean 

Cessna, 112 
Chaille, 123 
Champlin, 149 

Chanon, village near Cape Town, 
South Africa, 86; government of, 

Chappell, 148 

Chardon, Pierre, refugee from Paris, 

Charle, 107 

Charles L, king, 117, 144 
Charles II., 118 
Charles IX., 129 
Charleston, 139, 140 
Charlevoix, 136 
Chateau, 107 
Cheever, Ezekiel, 58 
Choate, 34, 35 
Chretien, Florent, 108 
Chretien, Jean Francois, 108 
Cibola, or Copal City, 108, 131 
Cicero, 23 
City Hall, 57 

City Hall, New York, where Wash- 
ington took oath of office, 67 

Civic Committee, 52 

Clarendon, Lord, 31 

Clarke, 148, 149 

Clarke, John, 144 

Clinch, Gen. Duncan Lamont, 142 

Clinch, Eliza Bayard, 142 

Cobb's (Mr.) widow presents Bible 
to the Divinity College of Harvard, 

Coddington, 149 

Coddington, Col. William, 147 

Coffin, Elizabeth, wife of Henry Ra- 

venel, 119 
Colbert, 127 
Cole, 148 

Coligny, 1, 34, 117, 118, 125, 127- 

I 3 l , 137 
Collin, Paul, 145 
Columbia College, 22 
Columbus, 126-128 
Congdon, 148 
Connecticut, 25 

2 9 7 

Constantinople, chapel found of 

French refugees, 93, 94 
Coolidge, 149 
Copal, city, 131 

Copley, artist, miniature of Wash- 
ington, 67 

.Cordier, delegate of Transvaal Re- 
public, 94 

Corliss, 14S 

Cory, 149 

Coteau, delegate of Transvaal Re- 
public, 94 
Coudret, 145 
Cousin, 126 

Cousson, Marie, wife of Jacques 

Perot, 115 
Coutouir, 107 
Coutras, battle of, 107 
Cranston, 149 
Crawford, 149 
Cresson, Susanna, 106 
Crispell, Antoine, Patentee, 84 
Crocker, 149 

Cromwell's Head, tavern, famous 
resort of provincial period, 66, 67 
Crussol d'Uxes, bishop, 122 
Cunyngham, Mary, wife of Isaac 

Roberdeau, 115 
Curtis, George William, 35 
Cuvier, Jean Jacques, 107 
Cuyler, Rev. Theodore L., 110 

Daille\ Rev. Pierre, may have organ- 
ized the French Church, Boston, 
56 ; pastor of it, 58 ; organizer New 
Paltz Church, 5S : buried in Gran- 
ary Burial Ground, Boston, 59 

Damaris, Elizabeth de St. Julien, 119 

Dardier, 47 

d'Avier, 107 

Davis, 138, 148 

Dean, 148 

de Bennevilie, Daniel, 110 

de Bennevilie, George, son of 

George, no 
de Die, 107 
de Forest, Jesse, 104 
de Grange, 107 
de Haas, 109 

de Haas, John Philip, 109 

de Turcks, no 

de Veau, 107 

de la Motte, Captain, 10S 

de la Motte, Fouquet, 108" 

de la Noe (Delano), Charles, 108 

de la Noye, Philip, 54 

de la Plaine, James, 106 

de la Plaine, Nicolas, 106 

de la Plain es, no 

Deblois, Elizabeth, noted for "un- 
usual attractions," 61 

Deblois, Gilbert, family from Ma- 
rennes in Saintouge, 61 
I Deblois Mansion, residence of Gil- 
bert Deblois, 61 

Declaration of Independence, 29 

Delage, Peter, 115 

Delangs, no 

Delaware River, 104 

Delftshaven, 53, 54 

Denmark, French refugees in, 93 

Depew, Chauncey, 35 

Deschamps, 145 

Desert, 44, 46, 49 

Dessaussure, Daniel, 140 

Deyo, Christian, Patentee, 84 

Deyo, Peter, Patentee, 84 

Deyo families, 86 

Diocesan Convention, 27, 28 
I District of Columbia, 25 

Dock Square, earliest landing-place 
in Boston, 56 

Dorr, 149 

Doz, Andrew, 108 

Dravos, 113 

Du Bois, 108 

Du Bois, Abraham, Patentee, 84 
Du Bois, Catherine, sings the 137th 

Psalm, 82, S3 
Du Bois, Isaac, Patentee, 84 
Du Bois, Louis, 82. S3 ; wife and 

I children, 81; Patentee, 84; leads 

! in prayer, S5 

! Du Bois,' William E., in Du Bois re- 
i union, 83 
Du Bo s, became Van den Bosch, 

Du Boises, farms owned by. 86 
Du Corbier, 107 
Duche, Antcine, 106 
Duche. Rev. Jacob, 106 
Duer, 22 

Dumont, delegate of Transvaal Re- 
public, 94 
Duncan, 149 
Dunn, 149 

Duplessis, delegate of Transvaal Re- 
public, 94 

Du Pont, 107 

Dupui, Nicholas, in 

Dupui, Samuel, 11 r 

Dutch language the vernacular in 
Ulster County, N. Y., 88 

Duval, Judge Gabriel, 141 

Duval, John Cope, 141 

Duval, Marin, the immigrant, 141 


Duval, Hon. William P., 141 
Duzine (the) or the twelve Patentees, 

Eddy, 149 

Edwards, Rev. John H., D.D., 125 

Edwards (the younger), 25 

Eight lords proprietors, 118 

Elizabeth, Queen, 130-132 

Eltinge, Hon. Edmund, paper for 
Ulster County Historical Society, 
81 ; history of Academy, S9 ; sug- 
gests a Huguenot monument, 88, 

Elzevier, Louis and Daniel, printers 
of Queen Anne Bible, 59 

English Pilgrims, 52 

Esopus, Dutch settlement of, 84 

Essex Institution, Salem, Mass., por- 
trait of Le Mercier, 60 

Evangelical Alliance, 34 

Everts, 35 

Faber, Reginald S., Honorary Secre- 
tary, London Huguenot Societv, 

Faneuil, Andre (Andrew), settles in 
Boston, 60-62 ; from La Rochelle 
to Holland at time of Revocation 
Edict of Nantes, 61 ; residence, 
Tremont Street, near Beacon, 61 ; 
funeral of, name on tomb Funal, 

Faneuil, Benjamin, fled to Holland, 
settled in Boston, removed to New 
York, 61-62 

Faneuil, Jean, fled to Holland, 
afterwards returned to France, 61 

Faneuil, Peter, eldest son of Ben- 
jamin, 62 ; gives Faneuil Hall to 
Boston, 63 ; portrait of, Massachu- 
setts Historical Society, 63 ; and 
his dwelling, 66 ; interred in family 
tomb in Granary Burial Ground, 

Faneuil Hall, description of, 64 
Faneuils, 68 

Favre, Rev. Robert, delegate of the 
French-American Evangelization 
Committee, 92 ; pleads cause of 
Protestantism in France, shows 
difference between Protestants 
there and here, 92-95 

Fenner, 148 

Ferree, Catherine, wife of Isaac Le- 

fevre, 109 
Ferree, Mme. Mary, 109 

Five Cents Savings Bank, site First 
Church, Boston, 57 

Fleury, Cardinal, 107 

Fleury, Pierre, 107 

Floquet, historian of Normandy, es- 
timates number of Huguenots 
leaving that province, 93 

Fontainebleau, place of signing of 
the Revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes, 74 

Fontenay, Duke of, 117 

Foretier, 145 

Fortiuaux, 107 

Fortune, ship, 54 

Foulquier, 107 
I Fox, 149 

Franklin, Benjamin, 25, 124 ; statue 
of, 57, 68 ; place of birth, 67 

Frederick III., 102 

Frederick the Great, 103 

Freer, Hugo, one of Patentees, 84' 

French Church (first) in New York, 
present site Produce Exchange, 62 

French Protestant Hospital, also 
called "La Providence," in Lon- 
don, 73-75 

French Revolution, 51 

Frentier, 107 
i Frost, 148 
I Fry, 148 

I Funal, spelling of Faneuil on tomb, 
Boston, 62 

Gaffarel, 137 

Galay, 145 

Gallatin, Albert, 113 

Gammell, 148 

Ganges, Church of, 42 

Gardner, 148, 149 
I Garfield, President, 124 
I Garrison, 25 

! Gastigny, Monsieur de, founder of 
I "La Providence, London," 74 
j Geneva, 39 

I George I., King of England, 74 

I George II., King of England, 98, 99 

I Gerard, 139 

! German Army, descendants of Hu- 
I guenots in, 94 

I Germans and Swiss in Pennsylvania, 

I 96 

i Germon, Jean, 145 
Gibbs, 148 
Gilbert, 148 
Gladding, 148 
Goddard, 148 

"Golden Acre," site of first French 
hospital, London, 74 


Good Hope, Cape of, 123 

Gorgoulleau, 121 

Go ugh, 30 

Goulding, 149 

Gourgues de, 136, 137, 142 

Gourier, 107 

Granary Burial Ground, 58 
Grant, "General, 29, 31, 32 
Graut, Governor, 139 
Grazilier, 145 
Greeley, Horace, 28 
Greene, 149 

Grenier, three brothers, 41 
Grignon, 145 
Grosjean, 107 
Grote, Baron, 103 

Guiton, Henry and Jean, 121, 

Halsey, 149 

Hamilton, Alexander, 25, 113 

Hannibal, 29, 32 

Harding, 149 

Hare, 149 

Harlem River, 28 

Harris, Thomas, 147, 149 

Hasbrouck, Abraham, Patentee, 84 

Hasbrouck, Jean, Patentee, 84; de- 
scription of house of, 90; preserved 
as museum, New Paltz, 90 

Hasbrouck Families, 86 

Hawkins, 131 

Heath, Sir Robert, 117 

Heinrich, Otto, the Elector, 102 

Helme, 149 

Henry II., 126 

Henry IV., 43, 108 

Henry, Patrick, 33 

Herkimer, General. 97 

Higgiuson, Mr., minister, 67 

Hillhouse Family, 147 

Holland, 52-54 

Holland, churches in, 94 

Hopkins, 148 

Hottel, 107 

House of Commons, 52, 53 
Houstoun, Sir Patrick, 142 
Howe, 148 
Huger, 139 
Huguelet, 107 

Huguenot Bank of New Paltz, 89 

Huguenot Church, Boston, sold to 
Congregational Church, afterwards 
Roman Catholic, 60 

Huguenot Historical, etc., Associa- 
tion of New Paltz, 89, 90 

Huguenot Lovers, Millais' picture 
of the, 54 

Huguenot Refugees, House of Com- 
mons, bill against naturalizing, 52 

Huguenot Society of America, in- 
vited to become guest of New 
Paltz Historical Association, 91 

Huguenot Street, New Paltz, 89 

Hunter, Governor, 97 

Hutchinson, 145 

Hutchinson, Edward, residence of, 
now " Old Corner Bookstore," 67 

Imbert, Andre\ 106 

Ireland, French refugees went to, 

93; Lord Deputy of, 35 
Ives, 148 

Ivry, battle of, 107 * 

Jackson, 149 

Jacquet, 105 

Jacquet, Jean Paul, 105 

Jacquet, Rev. Joseph, of the Protes- 
tant Episcopal Church, 105; James, 

James II., King of England, issues 
order for Royal Bounty Fund, 74 ; 
deposed, 100 

James VIII., 99 

Jay, Chief-Justice, 23, 25, 30, 124 

Jay, Hon. John, sketch of, 22-36, 123 

Jay, Huguenot refugee, 23 

Jay, Judge William. 24-26 

Jay & Field, firm of, 26 

Jefferson, 124 

Jenckes, 149 

Jerauld, 149 

Jerauld, Dr. Dutee, 148 

Jerauld Family, 148 

Johnston, General, 119 

Johonnot, Daniel, residence of, 
among wealthy residents of Bos- 
ton, 68 

Jones, 149 

Jouet, 145 

Julien, 145 

Julien, Rev. Matthew Cantine, 52 
Jury, 112 

Kane, 149 

Katonah, Jays' country place, 23 
Keith, Governor, 97, 98 
Kemper, first missionary bishop of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church, 97 
i Keueyon, 149 

j Kettleborough, where the Le Fevres 
i settled, 86 
King's Chapel, 57, 67; memorial of 

Peter Faneuil, 65; or Queen's 

Chapel, 65 


Kingston patentees leave for New I 

Paltz, 84 
Knight, Sir John, 52 
Kocherthal's Colony, 109, no 

Lafayette Hill, 109 

Lafayette, Marquis de, 45, 46, 4S; 

Toleration Edict obtained through 

bis influence, 95 
Lafon, 145 
Lageau, 107 

La Guerre des Farines, 44 
Lallemand, 107 
Lamar, Major Marion, in 
La Motte, Jean Henri, 108 
Languedoc, 41 
Lapierre, 107 

Laplace, Philippe Pierre, 107 
Larges, 113 
Larne, 112 

La Rochelle, 55, 121-125; number of 

fugitives leaving that town, 93 
Laroux, 108 

Latin schoolhouse gave name School 

to street, 56, 58 
Latour, 107 
Laudonniere, 128-133 
Laurens, 139 
Laurens, Henry, 30 
Laux, James B., 96 
Laux, Pierre, 109 
Lavigne, 145 

Lawton, Mrs. James M., 73, 121 
Layard, Sir Henry Austen, 123 
Le Bar, Abraham, in 
Le Bar, Col. Abraham, grandson of 

Abraham, in 
Le Bar, Charles, 111 
Le Bar, Peter, 111 
Le Blanc becomes De Witt, 94 
Le Blond, Jacques, residence of, 66 
Le Brenton, Peter, 145 
Le Brun, Moise, 145 
Le Cene, 107 
Lee, 148 
Lefevre, 108 

Le Fevre, Andries, Patentee, 84 
Le Fevre, Andries, son of John, 108 
Lefevre, Isaac, 1^9 
Lefevre, Rev. James, D.D., 80 
Lefevre, James, son of Nathaniel, 84 
Lefevre, Johannes, son of Andries, 84 
Lefevre, John, son of Simon, 84 
Lefevre, Nathaniel, son of Johannes, 

Lefevre, Simon, Patentee, 84 
Lefevre, Simon, son of Simon the 
Patentee, 84 

Legare\ 145 
LeGendre, 145 

Leimburg - Stirum - Wilhelmsdorf, 

Count of, 103 
Lemaitre becomes Masters, 94 
Le Mercier, Andrew, fourth pastor of 
French congregation, Boston, 58, 
59 ; secures Sable Island, N. S., as 
place of refuge for ship-wrecked 
mariners, 60; sermons of, in Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society, 60 ; 
died near Boston, 61 
Le Moine, 145, 146 
Le Moine, Moses, 146 
Le Moine, Peter and Mary, 146 
Leonard, 148 * 
Le Roy, 149 
Le Roy, Abraham, 109 
Le Roy, Esther, 47 
Le Roy, Susan, wife Rev. Philip W. 

Otterbein, 109 
Le Roy becomes King, 94 
Letonnelier becomes Cooper, 94 
Letter, translation of, sent to mem- 
bers calling attention to Tercen- 
tenary Celebration, 76, 77 
Levans, no 

" Le Vieux Ceneval," 45 
Library, French Protestant, in Paris, 

Lincoln, 26, 29, 125 
Longfellow, 53 
Loras, no 

Louis XIV., 37, 44-49, 101 
Louis XV., 37, 39, 43 
Louis XVI., 37, 43. 46, 48, 50 
Louvois, 93 

Loving cup, ceremony of, 76 
Lowell, John, master old Latin 
school, delivers address commem- 
orative of Peter Faneuil, 64, 65 
! Lucas, 147, 149 
Lucas, Augustus, 148 
Ludlow, 149 

Lyons, number of looms left after 
Revocation, 93 

Mcintosh, John Houstoun, 142 
Magni, Jr., 145 

Majanelle, Judith de la, wife of Jean 

Etienne Benezet, 114 
Malesherbes, 41, 43, 45-48 
Manigault, 123, 139 
Mann, 149 

Marchand, David, 109, no 
Marchand, John Bennett, no, 


Marie Antoinette, Queen, 46 


Marigold, the, 34, 73 ; letters in re- 
lation to the, 78 
Maronette, 107 
Marot, Clement, 107. 131 
Marot, Pierre, 107 

Marquand, Henry G., President 

Huguenot Society, 73 
Marquis, 113 
Marti a, 149 

Mascarene, Jean Paul, Lieutenant- 
Governor Nova Scotia, died in 
Boston, 66 

Mason, 149 

Massachusetts, 53 

Massachusetts, General Court of, 
petition for naturalization ad- 
dressed to, by Le Mercier and 
others, 60 

Matanzas Inlet, 134, 136 

Mathiot family, 113 

Mathiot, Jean, no 

Mathiot, Joshua D., no 

Mawuey, 146 

Mayflower, 52-54, 117 

Maynard, 148 

Menardeaux, 145 

Menendez, 132-135, 137 

Mercer, Captain George, aid to 
Washington, delegate to Boston, 

Messenger, Henry, residence of, now 
Massachusetts Historical Society 
and Boston Museum, 66 

Mestrezat family, 113 

Mestrezat, Charles Alexander, 113 

Mestrezat, Jacob, 113 

Mestrezat, John, 113 

Mestrezat, Judge of Uniontown, 113 

Metternich, Monsieur de, 31 

Mickley (Micfaelet), Joseph, 112 

Milard, 145 

Millais, artist, 54 

Minisiuk, in 

Minuit, family of, 104, 105 

Minuit, Peter, Governor of New 
Netherlands, 104 

Mirabeau, 51 

Mitchell, 149 

Molines, 54 

Molines, Guilliaume, and wife, 53 
Molines, Joseph, 53 
Molines, Priscilla, 53, 54 
Molines, Puritan maiden, 53 
Molines-Mullins, 53, 54 
Mouragerh, Rev. de la, paper signed 

Montandon, 107 
Moore, 138, 149 

1 Morick, George, host of the "Blue 

Anchor," 67 
I Morris, 148 
j Morrison, 121 
j Moultrie, 139 

Nantes Edict of, Revocation of, 
which had been signed at Fon- 
tainebleau, 37, 40, 55, 74, 100 
j Nantes, number of Huguenots go- 
ing from that town, 93 
Napoleon, 31 
Napoleon, Louis, 38 
Nason, 149 
! National Assembly, 51 
I Neufville, John, 140 
New Englanders, 53 ; society, 25 ; 

forefathers, 52 ; lovers, 54 
New Paltz, Ulster County, New York., 
80 ; Patentee papers in Huguenot 
Bank of, 85 ; Church or^aruzed, 
87 ; Patent, 87 ; people go to King- 
ston, sixteen miles, for church ser- 
vice, 87; Academy, history of, 88; 
Church, history of, by Domine 
Vennema, 88 ; Academy becomes 
Normal School, 89 ; description of 
village, 89 
I New World, 54 
j New York, 25, 28 
j New York City, 53 
I Ney, Johannes, 108 
j Nichols, 148 
! Nismes, 44, 45, 106 
Noailles, Mar6chale de, 48 
Northumberland, Duke of, 35 
Notables, the, 48 
Numa, 42, 43 

Oglethorpe, 138 
Old South Meeting-house, 67 
Oliver, Elder Thomas, 67 
Olney, 149 

Orange, Prince of, 74 

Otterbein, Rev. Philip W T illiam, 109 

Palatinate, Lower, on the Rhine, 80 

Palfrey, John, C, New England his- 
torian, 59 
I Panton, 139 
j Parat, 107 

Paris, 30, 46, 47 

Paris, Parliament of, 47, 48 

Paris, Treaty of, 30 

Park Street Congregational Church, 
Boston, 58 

Parker, Miss Harriet, 120 

Parker, Dr. J. W., 120 



Parker House, Boston, 57 
Patentee papers in New Paltz, 85 
Patentees, twelve, names of, 84 
Patentees, twelve, purchase from In- 
dians 4000 acres, 83, 84 
Peek, Sir William Heury, President 

London Huguenot Society, 73 
Peiret, Rev. Pierre, first pastor 
French Church, New York City, 

Penn, William. 105 

Pennsylvania, 25 

Pequea Valley, 10S, 109 

P£rot, Elleston and John, 115 

Perot, Jacques, 115 

Petrie, 107 

Philadelphia, 51 

Philip the Second, 132, 137 

Pilgrims, departure of the, to New 

England, 53, 54 
Pinzou, 126 
Pius VII., 135 

Plattekill, township of, adjoining 
Le Fevre district, 86 

Plymouth, 54 

Pomaret, Gal, pastor, 42 

Ponce de Leon, 127 

Pons, Jacques, 113 

Potter, 148, 149 

Potter, Bishop, 35 

Potter, Judge, referred to, 146 

Prier, Barbara, wife of John Alden, 54 

Prier, Jacques du, father-in-law of 
John Alden, 54 

Prioleau, Samuel, 140 

Protestantism, 33, 37, 44 

Protestants, marriages of, 47 

Provence, Count, of future Louis 
XyilL, 48, 50 

Province House, official residence 
of the Royal Governors, 68 

Prussian army, descendants of 
Huguenots in, 94 

Public Instruction Paris, both Direc- 
tors Protestants, 95 

Puritans, 53 

Pythagoras, 42 

Rabaut, Paul, ,40, 41, 45, 46 
Rabaut Saint Etienne, 45, 47, 51 
Rambert, 145 
Rappe, Gabriel, 106 
Ratier, 145 

Ravenel, Daniel, of Summerton, 119 
Ravenel, " Daniel of Wantout," 119 
Ravenel, Henri, son of above, 119 
Ravenel, Rene, refugee, father of 
Daniel, 118 

J Renaud, 145 

; Revere, Paul, the Huguenot, 67 
j Ribaut, Jean, 12S, 129, 132, 133 
j Ribouleau, Nicholas, 106 
1 Richard, 123 
i Richards, 149 

J Richemond, Mons. Mechinet de, 
123; translation of letter from, 78 
Ridouet, Antoine de, 117 
Rights of Man, Declaration of, 51 ' 
Robbins, 149 
Roberdeau, Daniel, 115 
Roberdeau, Isaac, 115 
Roberval, 127 
Robineau, 145 

Robinson, 149 - 
Rochette, minister, 41 
Rogers, 149 

Roignon same as Runyon, 104 
Roman Catholic and Apostolic 

Church, 37, 38, 40, 44, 49 
Rome, 29, 50 

Rotterdam, churches in, 94 
Rouchon, 107 

Rousseau, Jean Jacques, 40-42 

Royal Letters Patent, 54 

Rulhiere, " Eclaircissements histor- 

iques," 47 
Runyon, Chancellor, 104 
Russia, French refugees in, 93 
Rutan, Abraham, 113 

Sabatier, delegate Transvaal Repub- 
lic, 94 
Saffin, 145 

St. Bartholomew massacre, 33, 54, 

St. Christopher Island, West Indies, 

St. John's Bluff, 130 
St. Philip Church, 27, 28 
St. Simon, testimony in regard to 
loss to France from emigration, 93 
Sallade, 112 
Sance\ Baron de, 117 
Sanguinet, 107 

Schickler, le Baron de. President 

French Protestant Society, 77 
Schuyler, General, 124 
Scott, 149 

Scull, Nicholas, 111 
Seabury, 149 

Sewell, Judge Samuel, diary, 66 
Shakespeare, 31 
Shaw, 149 

Shawangunk Mountains, western 
boundary of tract purchased iby 
Patentees, 84 


Shirley, General, of Boston, 66 

Sidney, Sir Philip, 35 

Sigourney, Andre, uncle of Daniel 

Johounot, 63, 60 
Sigourney, Mrs., the poetess, 69 
Simeon, 46 
Sirven family, 40 
Skinner, 148 
Slater, 148 

Smith, Franklin W., 142 

Stnibert, John, painted portrait of 

Peter Faueuil, 63; was architect 

of Faneuil Hall, 64 
Socrates, 42, 43 
Sophia, Princess. 94 
Southampton, 53, 54 
South Carolina, 30, 56 
Speedwell, ship, 53, 54 
State Church, 49 

Stewart, Captain of the Virginia 
Light Horse, delegate to Boston, 

Stiles, 149 

Stitt, Rev. Dr., paper on Huguenots 
of New Paltz, 86 

Stuyvesant, Peter (wife Judith Bay- 
ard), 113 ; Governor of the Dutch 
territory on the Delaware, 105 

Swan, 148 

Sweden, French refugees went to, 

Tanawa, Indian chief, 109 
Targe, 149 
Targe" familv, 148 
Targe\ Jr., 145 
Targe, Sr., 145 
Taylor, 148 

Thomas, Governor, 97 
Tillinghast, 148, 149 
Tokickton, 11 1 

Toleration, Edict of, 49; how ob- 
tained, 95 

Toleration, letters on, 43 

Toulouse, 38, 39; Parliament of, 39 

Touraine, number of Huguenots 
leaving that Department, 93 

Tourgere, 145 " 

Tours, number of Huguenots leaving 
that town, 93; number of looms 
left after Revocation, 93 

Tourtellot, 145 

Tourtellot, Abraham, 148 

Transvaal Republic, names of dele- 
gates mostly French, 94 

Traverrier, 145 

Tri-cors, first encampment, 84, 85 
Trinity Church, New York, 28 

Troyes, number of Huguenots leav- 
ing that town, 93 
Turgot, 43, 44 

Ulster County declines offer to make 

New Paltz county seat, 85 
Underground Railroad, 27 
Union Bible Society, 33 
Union League Club, 28, 35 

Valentine, 148 

Van den Bosch, first pastor of 
French congregation, 58 

Vauban memoir gives figures of loss 
in trade to France, 93 

Vedder, Rev. Charles S., 143 ^ 

Vennema, Rev. Ame, description, 
capture Du Bois family, 81 ; trans- 
lates papers now in Huguenot 
Bank, 85 

Vergennes, Monsieur de, 45 

Vermilye, Rev. A., D.D., 22 

Victoria, Queen, descendant of the 
Huguenot Marquis d'Olbreuse 
through Sophia Dorothea of Han- 
over, 94 

Vienna Exposition of 1871, 32 

Vierisard, 107 

Vigneron, 149 

Villegagnon, 126 

Vincent, Philip, 121 

Vinton, 148 

Virginia and Maryland governors in 

Boston, 66 
Voltaire, 38-43 

Wales, Prince of, 86 
Walkill River, 85 
Wanton, 149 
Ward, 149 

Washington, George, 45, 52 ; when 
lieutenant-colonel in Boston as 
one of a delegation, 67 ; when as 
president occupies pew in King's 
Chapel, 65, 66; interested in Hu- 
guenots, 95 

Weeks, 148 

Weekstein, Johannes , pastor of Dutch 

Church, Kingston, N. Y., 58 
Weiss, "Charles," 138 
Weiss, Monsieur N., 124 
Weld, 149 

Wemar, or Warembier, Madame, or 
Madame Mary Ferree, 109 

Wendell, Jacob, great-grandfather of 
Oliver Wendell Holmes, 66 

Wharton , 145 


Wheeler, 148 
Whipple, 148, 149 
White, 149 
Whitehead, 35 
Whitiiev, Eli, 25 
Wilbor,'i4$, 149 
William the Silent, 125 
Williams, 149 
Williams, Roger, 144 

Williard, 112 

Wiltwyck, now Kingston, N. Y., 
80; or Wildwyk, meaning " wild 
country," 81 

Winthrop, Governor, residence, 67 

Zinzendorf, Count, no, in 
Zoroaster, 42 
Zwingli, 43 


*** This index is limited to the names occurring in the papers contributed 
by Charles M. Dupuy (pp. 83-102', Charles A. Briggs (pp. 103-116), Miss 
Anna M. Cummings (pp. 117-131), A. T. Clearwater (pp. 132-136), and 
Richard L. Maury (pp. 149-166). The bracketed words supply new or cor- 
rect information. 

Abaddie [Abhadiel, Jacques, ico 
Agnew, Protestant Exiles from \ 

France, quoted, 104. 106, 107 
Anderson, Colonial Church, quoted 


Ayzant, Daniel, 115 

Baird, Charles W., D.D., quoted, 98, 
104, 105 

Baird, Prof. Henry M., D.D., quoted, 
98, 166 

Bartholomew's Day, St., Massacre 
of, causes and results of, allusion 
to, 83-102, 134, 150 

Batavia, 123 

Baudouin, Jehan, 156, 163 
Baxter, Richard, 108 
Bayard, 166 

Benedictines of St. Manr, 151 

Berg River, 124 

Bern, 108 

Bernon, G., 109 

Berth elot, Gilles, 155, 161 

Bisseux, M., 129 

Bondet, Daniel, 105, 115 

Borssenburg, ship, 121 

Boston, 115 

Bouchebee, Jacques, 163 
Boudinot, 166 
Bowdoin, 166 

Bower, Herbert M., paper on the 

Fourteen of Meaux, 166 
Bray, Thomas, 112 
Brest, 106 

Briconnet, Bishop of Meaux, 151 
Brie, 150 

Bright, Mr. H. E., 129 
Brisebarre, Jehan, 163 
British Museum, London, 134 
Broca, Jean, 150 

Bulletin Soc. de/ } Hist. Pud. Fran., 
quoted, 104, 106, 109 

Cabo Tormentos[o], 117 
Caillou, Michel, 163 
Cape Colony, 127, 128 
Cape of Good Hope, 117, 118, 125, 

Cape Promontory, 118 
Cape Times, quoted, 129 
Cape Town, 119, 129 
Catherine de' Medici, 83, 86-91, 136, 

Charentou, 96 

Charles V., The Emperor, 87 
Charles IX., King of France, 83, 90, 

China, ship, 121 

Clement VIII., The Pope, 135 

Cochers, family, 126 

Colbert, finance minister of Louis 

XIV., 104 
Colignv, Admiral, 83, 88, 90-92, 164, 

165 ' 
Conde\ Prince, 136 
Constance, Tower de, 159 
Corn bury, Governor Edward Hyde, 

Lord, ioS, 114 
Correro, Venetian envoy, 136 
Cosset, Louis, 155 
Couberon, village, 162 
Coutances, Normandy, 97 
Crespin, Jean, 154, 157, 161, 166 

Da Gam a, explorer, 117 
Dauphine, 122 
de Beront, Anne, 122 
de Chavonnes, Dominiques, 120 
de Denonville. letter of Marquis, 
quoted, 105 



Delftshaven, 121 , 131 
de Villiers, brothers, 124 
de Villiers, Christoffel Coetzee, 128 
de Villiers, Sir Henry, 129 
Diaz [Dias, Bartholomew], explorer, 

Documents Relating to Colonial 
History of New York, quoted, 105 

Dragonnades, suffering from, by the 
Huguenots, 94, 95 

Drake, Sir Francis, 117 

Drakensberg Mountains, 12S 

Drakenstein, 123-126 

Dumont, Huguenot, 156 

Du Pay, John, M.D., 83 

Durand, Marie, 159 

Dutch East India Company, 1 17-123, 

Dutoits, family, 126 
Dwaars, river, 124 

East Greenwich, Rhode Island, 105, 

Edict of 1551, 87; July, 1561, S8; 
January, 1562, 89; April, 159S 
(Nantes), 92, 95; 1685 (revoking 
that of 159S), 95, 96, 104, 134, 135; 
17S7, 101 

Eliot, John, 105 

Faber, Hon. Reginald, 134 

Faron, St., Abbey of, 157 

Faulkner, Rev., 115 

Flesche, Jehan, 163 

Fleury, Huguenot, 156 

Fouace, Huguenot, 156 

Fournier, Huguenot, 156 

Fox. George, 112 

France, 119, 126 

Francis I., King of France, 87 

Francis II., King of France, 91 

Franciscan, 151 

Fransche Hoek, 123, 124, 126 

French Corner, 126